Chemistry Of Insulin

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What is MEDICINAL CHEMISTRY? What does MEDICINAL CHEMISTRY mean? MEDICINAL CHEMISTRY meaning. Source: Wikipedia.org article, adapted under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/... license. Medicinal chemistry and pharmaceutical chemistry are disciplines at the intersection of chemistry, especially synthetic organic chemistry, and pharmacology and various other biological specialties, where they are involved with design, chemical synthesis and development for market of pharmaceutical agents, or bio-active molecules (drugs). Compounds used as medicines are most often organic compounds, which are often divided into the broad classes of small organic molecules (e.g., atorvastatin, fluticasone, clopidogrel) and "biologics" (infliximab, erythropoietin, insulin glargine), the latter of which are most often medicinal preparations of proteins (natural and recombinant antibodies, hormones, etc.). Inorganic and organometallic compounds are also useful as drugs (e.g., lithium and platinum-based agents such as lithium carbonate and cis-platin as well as gallium). In particular, medicinal chemistry in its most common practice focusing on small organic moleculesencompasses synthetic organic chemistry and aspects of natural products and computational chemistry in close combination with chemical biology, enzymology and structural biology, together aiming at the discovery and development of new therapeutic agents. Practically speaking, it involves chemical aspects of identification, and then systematic, thorough synthetic alteration of new chemical entities to make them suitable for therapeutic use. It includes synthetic and computational aspects of the study of existing drugs and agents in development in relation to their bioactivities (biological activities and properties), i.e., understanding their structure-activity relationships (SAR). Pharmaceutical chemistry is focused on quality aspects of medicines and aims to assure fitness for purpose of medicinal products. At the biological interface, medicinal chemistry combines to form a set of highly interdisciplinary sciences, setting its organic, physical, and computational emphases alongside biological areas such as biochemistry, molecular biology, pharmacognosy and pharmacology, toxicology and veterinary and human medicine; these, with project management, statistics, and pharmaceutical business practices, systematically oversee altering identified chemical agents such that after pharmaceutical formulation, they are safe and efficacious, and therefore suitable for use in treatment of disease.

Insulin Chemistry And Functions

Insulin Biosynthesis, Secretion, and Action Biosynthesis Insulin is produced in the beta cells of the pancreatic islets. It is initially synthesized as a single-chain 86-amino-acid precursor polypeptide, preproinsulin. Subsequent Proteolytic processing removes the amino terminal signal peptide, giving rise to proinsulin. Proinsulin is structurally related to insulin-like growth factors I and II, which bind weakly to the insulin receptor. Cleavage of an internal 31-residue fragment from proinsulin generates the C peptide and the A (21 amino acids) and B (30 amino acids) chains of insulin, which are connected by disulfide bonds (Figure-1)The mature insulin molecule and C peptide are stored together and co secreted from secretory granules in the beta cells. Because the C peptide is cleared more slowly than insulin, it is a useful marker of insulin secretion and allows discrimination of endogenous and exogenous sources of insulin in the evaluation of hypoglycemia. Secretion Glucose is the key regulator of insulin secretion by the pancreatic beta cell, although amino acids, ketones, various nutrients, gastrointestinal peptides, and neurotransmitters also influence insulin secretion. Glu Continue reading >>

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  1. 19Dianne48

    What should I do if I take too much Novolog?

    I also take Levimire 70 units. If I pick up the wrong one and take 70 of the Novolog, what may happen and what should I do?

  2. KA kaismama

    How much novolog do you take? An overdose can drop your blood sugar fast, putting you into insulin shock. This is a reason to call 911. You can try to avert this by eating lots and lots of sugar and protein. I'm just curious, how would you mix them up? Could you explain better? I will try to help you prevent this.

  3. LO Lonah

    My husband has ALZ. And took it when I went to bathroom

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How to draw structural isomers using bond-line structures. Watch the next lesson: https://www.khanacademy.org/science/o... Missed the previous lesson? https://www.khanacademy.org/science/o... Organic Chemistry on Khan Academy: Carbon can form covalent bonds with itself and other elements to create a mind-boggling array of structures. In organic chemistry, we will learn about the reactions chemists use to synthesize crazy carbon based structures, as well as the analytical methods to characterize them. We will also think about how those reactions are occurring on a molecular level with reaction mechanisms. Simply put, organic chemistry is like building with molecular Legos. Let's make some beautiful organic molecules! About Khan Academy: Khan Academy offers practice exercises, instructional videos, and a personalized learning dashboard that empower learners to study at their own pace in and outside of the classroom. We tackle math, science, computer programming, history, art history, economics, and more. Our math missions guide learners from kindergarten to calculus using state-of-the-art, adaptive technology that identifies strengths and learning gaps. We've also partnered with institutions like NASA, The Museum of Modern Art, The California Academy of Sciences, and MIT to offer specialized content. For free. For everyone. Forever. #YouCanLearnAnything Subscribe to Khan Academys Organic Chemistry channel: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCNKP... Subscribe to Khan Academy: https://www.youtube.com/subscription_...

Coordination Chemistry And Insulin-enhancing Behavior Of Vanadium Complexes With Maltol C6h6o3 Structural Isomers

Medicinal Inorganic Chemistry Group, Department of Chemistry, and Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of British Columbia, 2036 Main Mall, Vancouver, British Columbia V6T 1Z1, Canada Synopsis Vanadium(III, IV, V) ions are complexed to the structural isomers of maltol, allomaltol, and isomaltol; the potentially tetradentate aminopyrone H2(en(ama)2) is chelated to vanadium(IV). All complexes were completely characterized including X-ray crystal structure analyses for VO(ima)2 and V(ima)3. Stability constants of the V(IV)−isomaltol system are reported herein for the first time and compared to those of the other two C6H6O3 isomers. The insulin-enhancing ability of these vanadium compounds is also reported. Abstract Syntheses of vanadium complexes using the naturally occurring ligands isomaltol (Hima) and allomaltol (Hama), as well as a newly synthesized, potentially tetradentate diaminodipyrone [H2(en(ama)2], are reported. Complete characterization of the resulting compounds [trans-VO(ima)2(H2O), VO(ama)2, V(ima)3, V(ama)3 and VO(en(ama)2)], including X-ray crystallography analyses for trans-VO(ima)2(H2O) and V(ima)3, are presented herein. Potentiometric titrations (25°C, Continue reading >>

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  1. Puglover2

    Hi Everyone,
    My pug was diagnosed in March with diabetes. He's been pretty in control for the most part getting 7 to 7 1/2 U of Humulin 2x a day.
    Recently we have had to increase his insulin based on his BS being higher.
    Last night we gave him 81/2U because he was reading over 300 and this morning I gave him 8U.
    Tonight his BS was 48 so I fed him and only gave him 7U. (Not knowing that I shouldn't have given him any??)
    I checked him 3 hours later and his sugar was still only 49 so I gave him a snack and an hour later he is still only showing 51. I then gave him a little more food. He seems to be acting fine...
    Should I give him some glucose sugar on his gums?
    Any suggestions would be so appreciated.

  2. k9diabetes

    I would give some syrup or honey, yes. You want to get the blood sugar back on the rise so you know it won't drop even further.
    Food takes a while to digest and without syrup, the blood sugar can still drop faster than the food can be digested and used. Syrup is absorbed directly so no digestion time.
    If you find yourself in this spot again, start with the syrup and then follow with food to take over once the syrup is gone.
    It's good that he's holding steady so far.

  3. Puglover2

    Thank you Natalie...
    This is definitely a learning process as I go. Should I just rub the glucose syrup on his gums since I did feed him a lot? Or just squirt some in?
    At this point should I worry about it spiking... or just get it under control?
    Also, how soon should I check him again after the sugar?
    Thanks again!
    Well... I just squirted some in on the side and I'm going to check his BS again in 1/2 hour. Thank you again! *fingers crossed*

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Visit our website for text version of this Definition and app download. http://www.medicaldictionaryapps.com Subjects: medical terminology, medical dictionary, medical dictionary free download, medical terminology made easy, medical terminology song


Insulin is a small peptide (protein) consisting of fifty-one amino acids synthesized and stored within the pancreas, an organ situated behind the stomach. The protein itself consists of two chains, denoted A and B, linked by disulfide (sulfur-sulfur) bridges between cysteine residues (see Figure 1). Insulin is a hormone, a chemical transported in the blood that controls and regulates the activity of certain cells or organs in the body. When blood sugar levels rise following a meal, the pancreas is stimulated to release insulin into the bloodstream. In order for tissues to absorb glucose from the blood, they must first bind insulin. Glucose metabolism is necessary for cell growth and energy needs associated with cell function. When insulin binds to receptors on cell membranes, glucose transporter proteins are released from within the cell to the surface of the cell membrane. Once on the exterior surface of cells, glucose transporters can carry sugar from the blood into the tissue where it is metabolized. Without insulin, cells cannot absorb glucose and effectively starve. A deficiency in insulin production results in a condition called diabetes mellitus. Approximately 6.2 percent of Continue reading >>

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  1. indianamomoftwo

    Insulin Shot in thigh

    Well I usually do my shots in my belly, but decided i need to switch around spots. Well have tried a couple times in my thigh, but seems like it doesn't go in well. Its always coming back out. Do you think its just not fatty enough, or does anyone else have this issue?? thanks

  2. bsc

    Originally Posted by indianamomoftwo
    Well I usually do my shots in my belly, but decided i need to switch around spots. Well have tried a couple times in my thigh, but seems like it doesn't go in well. Its always coming back out. Do you think its just not fatty enough, or does anyone else have this issue?? thanks If you don't have enough body fat on your thighs, it may be very difficult to perform a subcutaneous injection. On my thigh, I can pinch about a 1/8-1/4 inch and so I have to really pinch and pull the skin and then make a shallow angled injection (I inject byetta) in order to get it subcutaneous. It does not work well. Some people have enough body fat on their arms or glutes. Sadly, my body fat only seems to park on my love handles, which I will continue to punish with multiple daily injections.
    If you are injecting insulin intramuscularly, remember that it may take effect faster, somewhat stronger and not last as long. If the insulin is leaking out, you might try injecting slower and leaving the needle in for 5-10 seconds to give the insulin a chance to be absorbed rather than leaking out under pressure from the injection site.

  3. Stump86

    I agree with leaving the needle in for about 10 seconds post injection. I found this to help me not experience any leaks. Also try not to inject too quickly as it just might be pressure building up forcing the insulin back out. Inject slowly, wait a few seconds, and withdraw the needle slowly always worked for me.

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