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Can Gestational Diabetes Turn Into Type 1 Diabetes

Adult-onset Type 1 Diabetes And Pregnancy: Three Case Reports

Adult-onset Type 1 Diabetes And Pregnancy: Three Case Reports

Copyright © 2013 Barbara Bonsembiante et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. Abstract From 5% to 10% of diabetic patients have type 1 diabetes. Here we describe three cases of adult-onset type 1 diabetes in pregnancy treated at our clinic between 2009 and 2012. Two patients came for specialist examination during pregnancy, the third after pregnancy. These women had no prior overt diabetes and shared certain characteristics, that is, no family diabetes history, age over 35, normal prepregnancy BMI, need for insulin therapy as of the early weeks of pregnancy, and high-titer anti-GAD antibody positivity. The patients had persistent diabetes after delivery, suggesting that they developed adult-onset type 1 diabetes during pregnancy. About 10% of GDM patients become pancreatic autoantibody positive and the risk of developing overt diabetes is higher when two or more autoantibodies are present (particularly GAD and ICA). GAD-Ab shows the highest sensitivity for type 1 diabetes prediction. We need to bear in mind that older patients might conceivably develop an adult-onset type 1 diabetes during or after pregnancy. So we suggest that women with GDM showing the described clinical features shall be preferably tested for autoimmunity. Pregnant patients at risk of type 1 diabetes should be identified to avoid the maternal and fetal complications and the acute onset of diabetes afterwards. From 5% to 10% of diabetic patients have type 1 diabetes, which results from an autoimmune destruction of pancreatic cells. Autoantibodies directed against insulin, islet cells, glutamic acid decarboxylase 65 (GAD), Continue reading >>

Mody - It's Not Type 1 And Not Type 2, But Something Else

Mody - It's Not Type 1 And Not Type 2, But Something Else

Up to 20% of people diagnosed with Type 2 diabetes are not overweight. If you are one of them, it's worth doing some research to make sure that you don't, in fact, have one of the forms of what are often called "Type 1.5" diabetes, forms of diabetes that many doctors do not know about. There are two major kinds of "Type 1.5." The most common is LADA (Latent Autoimmune Diabetes of Adults) which is a slow-developing form of autoimmune diabetes. Though LADA is usualy considered a form of Type 1 diabetes, research suggests that it may have some genetic overlap with both Type 1 and Type 2 diabetes. You can read more about LADA HERE. Another, far less common, cause for diabetes in thin people is one of a number of monogenic forms of diabetes which are lumped together under the name MODY. This stands for "Maturity Onset Diabetes of the Young." MODY forms of diabetes are all caused by errors in specific genes. Currently there are twelve forms of MODY that have been identified. Several of these forms of MODY are so rare they have only been diagnosed in one or two families. The most common forms of this rare form of diabetes are MODY-1 and MODY-3, which share several features in common and affect the ability of the beta cell to secrete insulin in response to rising mealtime blood sugars and MODY-2 which affects the "thermostat" used to regulate fasting blood sugar, causing them to remain higher than normal at all times, though mealtime insulin secretion remains normal. MODY Forms of Diabetes are All Monogenic and Have Little Else in Common Because each of the identified forms of MODY is caused by a specific defect in one gene most forms of MODY have completely different symptoms from each other. The only thing they all have in common is that they are "monogenic." This means you o Continue reading >>

Type 2 Diabetes Faqs

Type 2 Diabetes Faqs

Common questions about type 2 diabetes: How do you treat type 2 diabetes? When you have type 2 diabetes, you first need to eat a healthy diet, stay physically active and lose any extra weight. If these lifestyle changes cannot control your blood sugar, you also may need to take pills and other injected medication, including insulin. Eating a healthy diet, being physically active, and losing any extra weight is the first line of therapy. “Diet and exercise“ is the foundation of all diabetes management because it makes your body’s cells respond better to insulin (in other words, it decreases insulin resistance) and lowers blood sugar levels. If you cannot normalize or control the blood sugars with diet, weight loss and exercise, the next treatment phase is taking medicine either orally or by injection. Diabetes pills work in different ways – some lower insulin resistance, others slow the digestion of food or increase insulin levels in the blood stream. The non-insulin injected medications for type 2 diabetes have a complicated action but basically lower blood glucose after eating. Insulin therapy simply increases insulin in the circulation. Don’t be surprised if you have to use multiple medications to control the blood sugar. Multiple medications, also known as combination therapy is common in the treatment of diabetes! If one medication is not enough, you medical provider may give you two or three or more different types of pills. Insulin or other injected medications also may be prescribed. Or, depending on your medical condition, you may be treated only with insulin or injected medication therapy. Many people with type 2 diabetes have elevated blood fats (high triglycerides and cholesterol) and blood pressure, so you may be given medications for these problem Continue reading >>

Type 1 Diabetes Causes

Type 1 Diabetes Causes

It isn’t entirely clear what triggers the development of type 1 diabetes. Researchers do know that genes play a role; there is an inherited susceptibility. However, something must set off the immune system, causing it to turn against itself and leading to the development of type 1 diabetes. Genes Play a Role in Type 1 Diabetes Some people cannot develop type 1 diabetes; that’s because they don’t have the genetic coding that researchers have linked to type 1 diabetes. Scientists have figured out that type 1 diabetes can develop in people who have a particular HLA complex. HLA stands for human leukocyte antigen, and antigens function is to trigger an immune response in the body. There are several HLA complexes that are associated with type 1 diabetes, and all of them are on chromosome 6. Different HLA complexes can lead to the development of other autoimmune disorders, such as rheumatoid arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, or juvenile rheumatoid arthritis. Like those conditions, type 1 diabetes has to be triggered by something—usually a viral infection. What Can Trigger Type 1 Diabetes Here’s the whole process of what happens with a viral infection: When a virus invades the body, the immune system starts to produce antibodies that fight the infection. T cells are in charge of making the antibodies, and then they also help in fighting the virus. However, if the virus has some of the same antigens as the beta cells—the cells that make insulin in the pancreas—then the T cells can actually turn against the beta cells. The T cell products (antibodies) can destroy the beta cells, and once all the beta cells in your body have been destroyed, you can’t produce enough insulin. It takes a long time (usually several years) for the T cells to destroy the majority of th Continue reading >>

Up To Half Of Gestational Diabetes Patients Will Develop Type 2 Diabetes, Study Finds

Up To Half Of Gestational Diabetes Patients Will Develop Type 2 Diabetes, Study Finds

Follow all of ScienceDaily's latest research news and top science headlines ! Up to half of gestational diabetes patients will develop type 2 diabetes, study finds Women who were diagnosed with gestational diabetes during pregnancy face a significantly higher risk of developing Type 2 diabetes in the future, according to a recent study. Women who were diagnosed with gestational diabetes during pregnancy face a significantly higher risk of developing Type 2 diabetes in the future, according to a recent study accepted for publication in The Endocrine Society's Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism (JCEM). The prospective cohort study tracked 843 women who were diagnosed with gestational diabetes between 1996 and 2003 at Cheil General Hospital in Seoul, South Korea. About 12.5 percent of the women developed Type 2 diabetes within two months of delivering their babies. During the next decade, the number of women diagnosed with Type 2 diabetes continued to grow at a rate of 6.8 percent a year. "The findings indicate as many as half of Asian women who had gestational diabetes will develop Type 2 diabetes within eight years of giving birth," said the study's lead author, Soo Heon Kwak, MD, of Seoul National University Hospital. The study is among the largest of its kind to study Asian women who had gestational diabetes. Researchers followed 370 participants for more than a year after the birth of their children. Of the remaining women studied, 105 were diagnosed with type 2 diabetes within two months of giving birth and the remainder did not participate in long-term follow-up visits. Researchers identified two distinct groups of women who were at risk -- those who developed Type 2 diabetes within two months of giving birth and those who took a year or more to progres Continue reading >>

Is It Possible For Type 2 Diabetes To Turn Into Type 1?

Is It Possible For Type 2 Diabetes To Turn Into Type 1?

Type 2 diabetes can’t turn into type 1 diabetes, since the two conditions have different causes. Type 1 diabetes is an autoimmune disease. It occurs when the insulin-producing islet cells in the pancreas are completely destroyed, so the body can’t produce any insulin. In Type 2 diabetes, the islet cells are still working. However, the body is resistant to insulin. In other words, the body no longer uses insulin efficiently. Type 1 diabetes is far less common than type 2. It used to be called juvenile diabetes because the condition is typically diagnosed in early childhood. Type 2 diabetes is more commonly diagnosed in adults, though we’re now seeing more and more children being diagnosed with this disease. It’s more commonly seen in those who are overweight or obese. It’s possible for someone with type 2 diabetes to be misdiagnosed. They may have many of the symptoms of type 2 diabetes, but actually have another condition that may be more closely related to type 1 diabetes. This condition is called latent autoimmune diabetes in adults (LADA). Researchers estimate that between 4 and 14 percent of people diagnosed with type 2 diabetes might actually have LADA. Many physicians are still unfamiliar with the condition and will assume a person has type 2 diabetes because of their age and symptoms. In general, a misdiagnosis is possible because: both LADA and type 2 diabetes typically develop in adults the initial symptoms of LADA — such as excessive thirst, blurred vision, and high blood sugar — mimic those of type 2 diabetes doctors don’t typically run tests for LADA when diagnosing diabetes initially, the pancreas in people with LADA still produces some insulin diet, exercise, and oral drugs usually used to treat type 2 diabetes work well in people with LADA Continue reading >>

Does Gestational Diabetes Lead To Full-blown Diabetes?

Does Gestational Diabetes Lead To Full-blown Diabetes?

Does gestational diabetes lead to full-blown diabetes? Gestational diabetes is usually temporary and disappears after pregnancy. It does, however, place you and your baby at a higher risk of developing Type 2 diabetes later in life. You can greatly reduce your risk by maintaining a healthy weight, exercising regularly, and following a sensible diet. Vandana R. Sheth on behalf of Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics Usually, your blood sugar levels will return to normal after delivery. However, sometimes, your blood sugar levels might continue to be higher than normal and you might be categorized as prediabetic or diabetic. A glucose test done six weeks after your delivery willidentify this. Also, even if your blood sugar returns to normal after delivery, the fact that you had gestational diabetes puts you at greater risk fordeveloping Type 2 Diabetes later on life. Gestational diabetes is very poorly named. We should call it preview diabetes. Consider this: Diabetes strikes about one in ten people right now. But it strikes one in four women who had gestational diabetes. One theory about why this happens deals with how diabetes happens in the first place. If you are genetically predisposed: a person with a beautiful skin color; or someone with a family history of diabetes; the risk of getting it goes up the heavier you get and the older you get. In the past, Type-2 Diabetes often showed up around age 40. You know, when your pants start getting shrunk in the laundry. But now things are changing. Ive got one patient who has full blow Type-2 and shes only 13-years-old. My point here is that we are seeing a very strong trend of Type-2 diagnosis happening at younger and younger ages as our population gets heavier. Now consider what happens when you are pregnant. You put on wei Continue reading >>

Specialist Thinks I May Be Type 1 Now?

Specialist Thinks I May Be Type 1 Now?

Diabetes Forum The Global Diabetes Community Find support, ask questions and share your experiences. Join the community This is my very first post so I hope I am in the right place? I am 42 and have had type 2 for about 3 years. I started with metformin and then because this wasnt enough to keep my levels down my doctor added gliclazide. This isnt working either, so I went to see the diabetic specialist and he thinks I may be type 1 and has given me blood tests and urine tests to do. I really dont want to go onto injections (which is what he said I would probably need) I had gestational diabetes and injected them and suffered with hypos all the time. Im basically wanting to know if any other type 2s went to type 1 and how they handled the transition. Im basically wanting to know if any other type 2s went to type 1 Type 2 doesn't turn into type 1. They are separate conditions. What your specialist is saying is you may have been misdiagnosed as type 2 when you have been type 1 all along. The tests to find out whether this is correct would be: A cpeptide test. This may be the urine tests you've been given. A cpeptide test looks at what your endogenous insulin production is looking like. A honeymooning type 1 will have residual insulin production. Type 2s may have excess insulin production, or low insulin production if beta cells are getting worn out. Antibody testing, most commonly a GAD test. Type 1 is an autoimmune disease. There are antibodies associated with autoimmune type 1 diabetes. So if you test positive for these antibodies you are definitely type 1. But if you are negative that doesn't necessarily mean not type 1. About 25% of type 1s are negative. What do your blood sugar levels look like on metformin and Gliclazide? Let remember that just because someone has Continue reading >>

Gestational Diabetes Identifies Women At Risk For Permanent Type 1 And Type 2 Diabetes In Fertile Age: Predictive Role Of Autoantibodies.

Gestational Diabetes Identifies Women At Risk For Permanent Type 1 And Type 2 Diabetes In Fertile Age: Predictive Role Of Autoantibodies.

Gestational diabetes identifies women at risk for permanent type 1 and type 2 diabetes in fertile age: predictive role of autoantibodies. Department of Obstetrics & Gynecology, Oulu University Hospital, P.O. Box 5000, Oulu 90014, Finland. [email protected] Our aim was to evaluate the predictive value of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), diabetes-associated autoantibodies, and other factors for development of clinical diabetes later in life. In this case-control study the presence of autoantibodies was studied in 435 women with GDM and in healthy matched control subjects. The need for exogenous insulin during GDM was recorded. In the GDM group, the mean follow-up period was 5.7 years and in the control group 6.1 years. Among the subjects with GDM, 20 (4.6%) developed type 1 diabetes and 23 (5.3%) developed type 2 diabetes, whereas none of the control subjects became diabetic. Two-thirds of those who developed type 1 diabetes tested positive initially for islet cell antibodies (ICAs), whereas 56% of them had autoantibodies to GAD (GADAs) and 38% to the protein tyrosine phosphatase-related IA-2 molecule. Only 2 of the 23 women who presented later with type 2 diabetes tested positive for autoantibodies. According to multivariate analysis, initial age < or =30 years, the need for insulin treatment for GDM, and antibody positivity for ICAs and GADAs were associated with increased risk for clinical type 1 diabetes. Pregnancy seems to identify women who are at risk of developing diabetes later in life. About 10% of Finnish women with GDM will develop diabetes over the next 6 years; nearly half of them develop type 1 diabetes and the other half type 2 diabetes. Age < or =30 years, the need for insulin treatment during pregnancy, and positivity for ICAs and GADAs confer Continue reading >>

Type 1 Diabetes In Adults

Type 1 Diabetes In Adults

For years, distinguishing between the various types of diabetes was pretty straightforward: “Juvenile diabetes,” an autoimmune disease, was diagnosed primarily in children and teenagers when their own body’s immune system destroyed the insulin-producing (beta) cells in their pancreas. “Adult-onset diabetes” occurred in adults and was generally associated with insulin resistance and often with overweight. And “gestational diabetes” occurred in pregnant women and disappeared once the pregnancy was over. In the past 25 years, however, determining what type of diabetes a person has has become more of a challenge. In large part, that’s because more and more children and teenagers are now being diagnosed with Type 2 diabetes — the type that occurred predominantly in adults in generations past. Most of these children and teens are overweight. At the same time, it’s becoming clearer that Type 1 diabetes can occur at any age and sometimes occurs in people who are overweight. In addition, another type of diabetes, called latent autoimmune diabetes in adults, or LADA, that shares some characteristics with both Type 1 and Type 2 diabetes, has been recognized. Muddying the water further is the realization that diabetic ketoacidosis, an acute, life-threatening complication of diabetes that is caused by a lack of insulin, can occur in people with Type 2 diabetes — not just in people with Type 1, as was previously thought. And while gestational diabetes is still diagnosed only in pregnant women, it is sometimes discovered that what is thought to be gestational diabetes is really Type 1 or Type 2 diabetes that happens to start during pregnancy. The incidence of diabetes has increased so greatly around the world in the past 25 years that health organizations and med Continue reading >>

Can Type 2 Diabetes Turn Into Type 1 Diabetes?

Can Type 2 Diabetes Turn Into Type 1 Diabetes?

Although certain studies indicate that type 2 diabetes can turn into type 1 diabetes with time, there are, however, other types of research which suggest that the same is not possible. In this article, we shall try to understand both aspects of the research and also throw some light on the Latent Autoimmune Diabetes in Adults or the LADA which is also called type 1.5 diabetes. So, come and join in for the article “Can Type 2 Diabetes Turn into Type 1 Diabetes?” Is it Possible for Type 2 Diabetes to Get Converted into Type 1 Diabetes? Well, some of the recent research conducted by the researchers in different parts of the world has left a few experts to wonder whether type 2 diabetes patients can slowly progress into type 1 diabetes patients. In order to understand the same, we should first consider the following: Type 1 diabetes is known to be an autoimmune disorder in which the beta cells of the insulin-producing pancreas suffer damage. Hence, your body is unable to produce the much-needed hormone, insulin. In type 2 diabetes, however, the pancreatic beta cells continue to work and insulin is produced by the organ. However, due to various factors, the body fails to effectively utilize this insulin so produced. Besides, type 1 diabetes is also known as juvenile diabetes because it is found in children, while type 2 is majorly contracted by the adults When you consider the above two factors, you will know that type 2 diabetes cannot turn into type 1 condition. However, if you research on the topic further, you will realize that experts have slowly started to term even type 2 diabetes as an autoimmune condition. Besides, according to a recent study conducted by the diabetes experts in Japan, the conversion of type 2 into type 1 is indeed a possibility. As per this stu Continue reading >>

Understanding Adult-onset Type 1 Diabetes

Understanding Adult-onset Type 1 Diabetes

When then 34-year-old Rebecca Gill was pregnant with her second child in 2004, high blood sugar levels led to a diagnosis of gestational diabetes, an often-temporary form of diabetes that can occur in pregnant women. After Gill’s son was born, her blood sugar levels returned to normal, and her doctors assumed that the diabetes was gone. But another blood test given several weeks after she gave birth showed that her diabetes problems had returned. She was referred to an endocrinologist who ran tests and eventually diagnosed her with latent autoimmune diabetes in adults, or LADA. “Thankfully, I was one of the lucky ones whose endocrinologist had experience with LADA,” says Gill, an internet marketing consultant in Commerce, Mich. LADA, also known as type 1.5 diabetes or double diabetes, is a form of diabetes in which an adult’s immune system destroys beta cells in the pancreas, cells that produce insulin. Insulin is a hormone that converts the body’s blood sugar to energy. Without enough insulin, blood sugar levels can become too high, resulting in nerve damage, blindness, and other problems if untreated. LADA is similar to type 1 diabetes in that both forms are caused by the immune system mistakenly attacking beta cells. However, most diabetics with LADA are diagnosed after age 30, while the most common form of type 1 diabetes usually develops in children or adolescents. LADA: A Different Diabetes Because LADA appears in adulthood, it may be initially mistaken for type 2 diabetes, but it is different. People who have LADA are often initially misdiagnosed with type 2 diabetes, says Priscilla Hollander, MD, PhD, an endocrinologist at Baylor University Medical Center in Dallas. “Many people with LADA present symptoms a little like type 2s,” Dr. Hollander expla Continue reading >>

I Have Gestational Diabetes. Is This The Same As Type 1 Or Type 2 Diabetes?

I Have Gestational Diabetes. Is This The Same As Type 1 Or Type 2 Diabetes?

No. Gestational diabetes (GD) is a type of diabetes that only happens when you’re pregnant. However, all types of diabetes mean that sugar levels build up in your blood. Your blood sugar levels are usually controlled by a hormone called insulin. If you don’t have enough insulin, or if it’s not working properly, you can develop diabetes. There are three main types of diabetes: Gestational diabetes happens during pregnancy because your body needs to make extra insulin. If your body can’t produce enough insulin, you will have too much sugar in your blood. It’s then that you can develop GD. GD is diagnosed by a glucose tolerance test (GTT), usually in mid-pregnancy. Many women find they can control their GD through eating a healthy, balanced diet, and exercising regularly. But, despite all your efforts to have a healthy lifestyle, you may still need help to control your GD. In that case, your midwife will prescribe medication (metformin), or less often, insulin. GD goes away once you've had your baby. Type 1 diabetes happens when the body's immune system attacks and destroys the cells that make insulin. It usually starts early in life, and is treated with insulin. Type 2 diabetes mostly affects adults over 40 and is much more common than type 1 diabetes. Blood sugar levels can be controlled through diet and exercise, but long term, may need controlling with medication. It's possible to have type 2 diabetes without realising it. So some mums diagnosed with GD already had type 2 diabetes before they conceived. This can be picked up with a routine test a week or so after you have the GTT. If you didn’t have type 2 diabetes already, having GD does mean you have a higher chance of developing type 2 diabetes later in life. That's why you'll be offered a test for diabe Continue reading >>

Type 1 @ 40 After Gestational Diabetes?

Type 1 @ 40 After Gestational Diabetes?

Diabetes Forum The Global Diabetes Community Find support, ask questions and share your experiences. Join the community Fairly new to this site. I was hoping to get some info and hopefully reassurance. I had my son 4 months ago and had gestational diabetes during pregnancy and during my 1st pregnancy with my daughter 3.5 years ago. I was given the all clear 6 weeks after delivery the diabetes had gone, then last weekend I felt dreadful so thought I would check my bloods and they were 31.5! Straight to the hospital and they are convinced it's type 1. I'm now on insulin, nova rapid which I was on during pregnancy and also a slow release overnight. Just seems very odd to me that I get type 1 at the age of 40 and so quickly after pregnancy? We have pancreatic cancer in the family so I'm slightly concerned and they are doing a ct scan to check for this also. Has anyone else got type 1 after pregnancy? And so late in life? Would love any support or information as I really am quite nervous there is something else more untoward going on in my body I was diagnosed with gestational diabetes during pregnancy, was told it had gone away - then felt ill one evening and tested my blood sugar only to find out it was 20. If I hadn't done that test, I'd probably have struggled on for a few more weeks, especially what with being a new mum and very tired. I saw my consultant, who then told me I must have had the beginnings of Type 1 in pregnancy not gestational diabetes at all. That made more sense to me and all fitted. So perhaps your diagnosis could have been wrong too? Fairly new to this site. I was hoping to get some info and hopefully reassurance. I had my son 4 months ago and had gestational diabetes during pregnancy and during my 1st pregnancy with my daughter 3.5 years ago. I was Continue reading >>

Will Gestational Diabetes Affect Us After Birth?

Will Gestational Diabetes Affect Us After Birth?

Will Gestational Diabetes Affect My Baby? Your baby will probably be healthy, if you and your doctor manage your blood sugar while you have gestational diabetes. Right after you give birth, doctors will check your newborn's blood sugar level. If its low, she may need to get glucose through an IV until it comes back up to normal. Gestational diabetes raises the chance that you will have a baby who is larger than normal. It's also linked to jaundice , in which the skin looks yellowish. Jaundice generally fades quickly with treatment. Although your child will be more likely than other kids to develop type 2 diabetes later on, a healthy lifestyle (including a good diet and lots of physical activity ) can cut that risk. Because you had gestational diabetes , you have a greater chance of developing type 2 diabetes . But it wont definitely happen, and you can take action to prevent that. Your blood sugar levels will likely return to normal about 6 weeks after childbirth . (Your doctor will check on that.) If it does, you should get follow-up tests every 3 years. Try to keep your weight in a healthy range. Not sure what that is? Ask your doctor. Eat a good diet that includes lots of vegetables, whole grains , fruits, and lean protein . If you plan to have another baby , keep in mind that you are more likely to get gestational diabetes again. Ask your doctor if there are any lifestyle changes that would help you avoid that. WebMD Medical Reference Reviewed by Traci C. Johnson, MD on April 19, 2017 American Diabetes Association: "Gestational Diabetes and What is Gestational Diabetes? Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality: "Gestational Diabetes: A Guide for Pregnant Women." American College of Nurse Midwives: "Gestational Diabetes." National Diabetes Education Program: Did Y Continue reading >>

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