Type 1 Diabetes And Puberty: Does One Affect The Other?
Puberty can be bumpy for kids. They deal with changing bodies, shifting social lives, and surging hormones. For kids with type 1 diabetes , those changes have an extra impact: Theyll have to manage their condition a little differently. It works the other way around, too: Diabetes can affect how puberty happens. It will take some extra effort, but you can help your child stay healthy during this phase. Puberty starts with the release of sex hormones -- estrogen in girls and testosterone in boys. These hormones raise your childs blood sugar. So do stress hormones like cortisol, which can also surge during this time in a teens life. These chemicals can change the cells in your childs body so they dont use insulin as well as they did before. Thats called insulin resistance. In fact, insulin can be 30% to 50% less effective while your child is going through puberty. All of these hormones are strongest at night, which means that your child could have high blood sugar in the morning. Meanwhile, your child is growing, filling out, and building muscle, which means hell need to eat more. Altogether, those changes mean hell need more insulin during puberty. The exception is when a girl has her period. Then she might have to take more or less insulin than she does during the rest of the month. Her blood sugar might go up for a few days before she gets her period, and then drop during the first days of bleeding. Its important for her to check her sugar levels regularly and see how her period affects them. Over time, she can look for patterns and tweak her treatment to keep blood sugar from going too high or low during that time of the month. Diabetes can make puberty start later for some kids. This can happen if their diabetes isnt under control and they dont get enough insulin. Bo Continue reading >>
How Does Type 1 Diabetes Affect A Child's Growth And Development?
Question: How does Type 1 diabetes affect a child's growth and development? Answer: Growth and development are important indicators of a child's overall health and so it is with diabetes. If a child with diabetes has very good blood glucose control, growth and development should be normal. But if the child has a lot of high blood sugars and has a lot of episodes of ketoacidosis, it can have a serious effect on growth and development. Growth can be slowed and the child eventually could cross those percentile lines and end up short. And in terms of development, puberty can be delayed. So in order to prevent problems with growth and development, it's really important to have the diabetes in very, very good control -- as much as possible. Next: How Do I Ensure My Child Receives Proper Diabetes Treatment At School? Previous: Can I Safely Drive If I Have Diabetes? Continue reading >>
Delayed Puberty - Children's Health Issues - Merck Manuals Consumer Version
Delayed puberty is defined as absence of the start of sexual maturation at the expected time. Most often, children simply develop later than their peers but ultimately develop normally. Sometimes, delayed puberty is caused by chronic medical problems, hormonal disorders, radiation therapy or chemotherapy, disordered eating or excessive exercise, genetic disorders, tumors, and certain infections. Typical symptoms include a lack of testicular enlargement in boys and a lack of breasts and menstrual periods in girls. The diagnosis is based on the results of a physical examination, various laboratory tests, a bone age x-ray, and, if needed, a chromosomal analysis and magnetic resonance imaging. Treatment depends on the cause and may include hormone replacement therapy. The start of sexual maturation (puberty) takes place when the hypothalamus gland begins to secrete a chemical signal called gonadotropin-releasing hormone. The pituitary gland responds to this signal by releasing hormones called gonadotropins, which stimulate the growth of the sex glands (the testes in boys and the ovaries in girls). The growing sex glands secrete the sex hormones testosterone in boys and estrogen in girls. These hormones cause the development of secondary sex characteristics, including facial hair and muscle mass in boys, breasts in girls, and pubic and underarm hair and sexual desire (libido) in both sexes. Some adolescents do not start their sexual development at the usual age. In boys, delayed puberty is more common and is defined as No enlargement of the testicles by age 14 A time lapse of more than 5 years from the start to the completion of growth of the genitals A time lapse of more than 5 years from the beginning of breast growth to the first menstrual period In the majority of cases Continue reading >>
Growth Abnormalities In Children With Type 1 Diabetes, Juvenile Chronic Arthritis, And Asthma
Copyright © 2014 Cosimo Giannini et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. Abstract Children and adolescents with chronic diseases are commonly affected by a variable degree of growth failure, leading to an impaired final height. Of note, the peculiar onset during childhood and adolescence of some chronic diseases, such as type 1 diabetes, juvenile idiopathic arthritis, and asthma, underlines the relevant role of healthcare planners and providers in detecting and preventing growth abnormalities in these high risk populations. In this review article, the most relevant common and disease-specific mechanisms by which these major chronic diseases affect growth in youth are analyzed. In addition, the available and potential targeting strategies to restore the physiological, hormonal, and inflammatory pattern are described. 1. Introduction During childhood and adolescence, the longitudinal growth of bones represents one of the most relevant changes of the body composition . Bone growth occurs at different rates and results from complex mechanisms involving a multitude of regulatory hormones. These events are directly influenced by the interaction between genetic and environmental factors [1–4]. Nutritional status represents one of the most relevant factors affecting these interactions. However, several other factors, and especially chronic diseases, might also strongly modulates these complex mechanisms. In fact, chronic diseases, by directly or indirectly modulating bone and hormonal status, may affect growth and final height of subjects with a disease onset during childhood or adolescence. S Continue reading >>
Does Having Diabetes Change Puberty?
Im 13-years-old and I have type one diabetes. I heard that having diabetes can slow my puberty and that makes me really upset. I have the flattest chest in the world and I just want to go through puberty like my friends are. I dont think its fair. What should I do? Im sorry youre concerned about this! As I am a person who does not have diabetes and who also is not a doctor, Ive decided to reach out to my friend who IS a doctor for a better answer for you! Welcome Dr. Sherry Ross from the site HelloFlo (a monthly period care package you need to check out) she is my go-to for every medical question and luckily has answers for you! Dr. Ross says, The truth is that if youre having complications with diabetes, it can delay or affect puberty and growth. The good news is that this isnt guaranteed to happen! There are also certain drugs used to treat diabetes that may have an affect on puberty. Lastly, its possible that puberty itself is affecting your diabetes. She explains: Puberty and growth causing hormonal changes from ages eight to 18-years-old can put extra demands on the body of someone with Type 1 Insulin Dependent Diabetes.Puberty creates hormonal havoc in adolescents and causes emotional mood swings, erratic sleep patterns, and poor eating habits, all of which affect blood sugar levels and insulin resistance. This means blood sugar levels are more unpredictable and harder to control. Often the amount of insulin needed is higher than if your body was not going through this challenging hormonal time also known as puberty. Plus, Type I diabetes increases with age during childhood and peaks at puberty, further adding to hormonal and sugar upheaval. So what does this mean? Dr. Ross says, In these cases, there tends to be an increase in the amount of insulin needed during Continue reading >>
Ask The Experts - Growth And Maturation In Children With Type 1 Diabetes
Growth and Maturation in Children With Type 1 Diabetes I encountered a 19-year-old man with type 1 diabetes of 10-11 years' duration. In recent years, he exhibited diabetic nephropathy with impaired renal function and high blood pressure (serum creatinine = 3.4 mg/dL with no obstructive uropathy or congenital genitourinary tract abnormality). The interesting point about this patient was the evidence of delayed puberty: small testes (about 2-3 mL for both), scanty pubic hair (Tanner Stage II-III), short stature (145 cm and 47 kg), and bone age 14-15 years. Hormone analysis revealed normal growth hormone levels, normal thyroid function, and normal basal levels of luteinizing hormone, follicle-stimulating hormone, and testosterone. Because this patient had type 1 diabetes for more than 10 years, resultant end-stage renal disease (ESRD) and hemodialysis is indicated in the future. How do I treat this patient's short stature and delayed puberty (delayed bone age 4-5 years)? Are there many cases of type 1 diabetes associated with delayed puberty and delayed bone age? Response from Jos F. Cara, MD Growth and maturation of children with diabetes depends on the adequacy of insulin administration and degree of metabolic control.[ 1 , 2 ] Children who are on appropriate doses of insulin and, as a result, have well-controlled diabetes typically have patterns of growth and development that are identical to those of otherwise healthy children. Underinsulinization and poor diabetes control can result in growth delay and growth attenuation. When severe, chronic insulin deficiency results in Mauriac syndrome, also known as "diabetic dwarfism." Children with Mauriac syndrome have decreased growth velocity, short stature, and delayed puberty.[ 1 , 2 , 3 , 4 ] They are often pale, have th Continue reading >>
Delayed Puberty | You And Your Hormones From The Society For Endocrinology
Glossary All Endocrine Conditions Resources for Endocrine Conditions The most common cause of delayed puberty is constitutional delay of growth and puberty, which is sometimes referred to as CDGP. The first sign of puberty in girls is breast development; this occurs as a result of the ovaries becoming active and producing oestrogens .In boys, one of the earliest signs of puberty is growth of the testes , caused by increasing production of follicle stimulating hormone from the pituitary gland . Delayed puberty is diagnosed when there is no breast development in girls by the age of 13 or growth of testes in boys by the age of 14. In over 90% of cases, delayed puberty is due to what is known as a constitutional delay in growth and puberty.This means it occurs in children who are healthy but simply have a slower rate of physical development than average. Typically these children will have a short stature comparedwith other children of the same age and they are often thin and have a family history of delayed puberty. Sometimes delayed puberty and growth can be secondary to a chronic illness, malnutrition , excessive physical exercise and even stress.For example, diabetes , cystic fibrosis and coeliac disease can delay pubertal development while excessive exercise and anorexia, where the proportion of body fat is very low, can also delay puberty. Rare causes of delayed or absent puberty can be caused by loss of hormone secretions from the hypothalamus and pituitary gland or by disorders of the testes or ovaries. Puberty is initiated by increasing the production of luteinising hormone and follicle stimulating hormone (gonadotrophins) from the pituitary gland, which is driven by increasing release of gonadotrophin-releasing hormone from the hypothalamus.When something goes wro Continue reading >>
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How Does Puberty Affect Diabetes?
One of the hardest things about being an adolescent is going through puberty and facing the challenges that it brings. The emotional roller coasters and the physical changes seem endless and impossible. But how does a teen go through puberty with diabetes? How are things different for them? The following article explores the relationship between puberty and diabetes. How does puberty affect Type 1 diabetes? During puberty, many physical changes occur that can affect one’s diabetes. Most importantly, the growth hormone causes lean body mass to double over in the 2 to 5 years during puberty. This increase in the growth hormone makes it harder for insulin to work in the body. That struggle is called insulin resistance. A normal child would just make more insulin, but a child with diabetes that does not make insulin or that has limited insulin must increase the amount of insulin that they give themselves to keep their blood sugar under control. This increase can be up to 30-50% more insulin than normal. Also, an earlier onset of puberty can lead to a diagnosis of Type 1 diabetes in some girls because of the increase in estrogen that occurs during puberty. I recommend reading the following articles: Signs and symptoms of diabetes as an adolescent Due to hormones, puberty is the most common time for the onset of Type 1 diabetes. Adolescents have the same signs and symptoms as other ages for diabetes: Weight loss Excessive thirst Increased appetite Elevated levels of ketones in the blood or urine Elevated levels of glucose in the blood or urine To be diagnosed with diabetes, these symptoms will need to have been experienced for several weeks. If the individual is underweight or of a normal weight, then Type 1 diabetes is suspected. If they are overweight, it could then be ei Continue reading >>
Puberty And Diabetes
Puberty is a challenging time so it's essential for your child to be focused on controlling their diabetes Puberty can be a very challenging time for a child with diabetes, as well as their families. It is therefore useful to have an idea of what to expect during this time. Girls tend to experience puberty slightly earlier than boys, between the ages of 10 and 14, while boys generally develop between the ages of 12 and 16. During puberty, a number of physical, psychological and behavioural changes occur which can cause your child to act differently. These changes can make managing their diabetes more difficult and potentially more stressful for everyone involved. Type 1 diabetes is the most common form of diabetes in children , and learning how to manage your childs diabetes can be hard. Keeping good control of their blood glucose levels is essential, but this requires practice, patience and commitment. Type 2 diabetes in children is often caused by a poor diet from a very early age, combined with a sedentary lifestyle. Treatment often involves lifestyle changes involving diet and exercise. Puberty can make treating both types of diabetes more difficult as your child will have enough to think about growing up. Changing schools, homework and making new friends will take up most of their thoughts, but it is essential to keep your child focused on controlling their diabetes. Sign up to the free Hypo Training Program for more information on diabetes management if your child is susceptible to hypoglycemia. An 1986 study from Amiel et al reported that the body becomes more resistant to insulin during puberty.  This can make blood glucose levels higher, and often necessitates increased insulin doses. You should find your childs insulin intake gradually increases through Continue reading >>
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In The Spotlight: How Teen Hormones Affect Blood Sugar
Shortly after her son Alex turned 13, north Texas mom Tracie noticed a change in his blood sugar control. His numbers were running slightly high … almost all the time. “Because he was diagnosed at age 5, knowing when to test and how to cover carbs [with insulin] were both pretty old-hat by the time Alex became a teen. When he started coming up with these high readings all the time, I just couldn’t figure it out,” she remembers. To get to the bottom of this trend, Tracie questioned her son about things like “sneaking” extra food when out with friends and being careless with entering information into his pump. It only made things worse. “First came the highs, and then — on my part — came the nagging. Was he eating too much with his friends without bolusing for it or being careless and not testing after eating? Was he depressed? Something was definitely up, but the more I got on him about it, the more he withdrew.” At her son’s next endocrinologist appointment, Tracie finally got an explanation. Turns out, it wasn’t too much soda or lack of testing that was the main contributor to her son’s high numbers. It was his hormones. Not Just Those Hormones Beyond the behavioral issues that often crop up at this age, it can be a surprise to parents and caregivers to find out just how much fluctuating hormone levels during puberty affect blood sugar control. The biggest culprit? According to Melinda Penn, M.D., assistant professor of pediatric endocrinology at Virginia Commonwealth University in Richmond, Va., “Growth hormone seems to be the hormone that has the greatest impact on blood sugar control and insulin sensitivity during puberty.” Human growth hormone, which surges during adolescent growth spurts, can decrease how efficiently the body uses ins Continue reading >>
Puberty is the period of time during which a childs body changes from that of a child to that of an adult. The time at which these changes start is different for boys and girls and varies from child to child. It usually takes about 4-5 years for a child to go through the pubertal process. During this time, people gain the ability for sexual reproduction. The time of puberty is influenced by nutrition (weight gain) and health. Children often follow the same pattern as their parents. Hormones are the chemicals made by the body to cause the changes of puberty. The primary hormone in girls is estrogen made by the ovaries, and in boys is testosterone made by the testicles. There are hormones in the brain (gonadotropins named LH and FSH) which stimulate the ovaries or testicles to start making estrogen or testosterone. In girls, puberty occurs between the ages of 8 years and 13 years. The first sign of puberty is usually breast growth followed by pubic hair growth. Sometimes pubic hair growth starts first. Body odor or acne can also be among the first things observed. Girls also begin a time of very rapid growth in height. Menstruation, or periods, usually comes after breast growth and pubic hair growth, and toward the end of puberty. At the end of puberty, a child is done growing. Once menstruation starts, a girl has about 2 inches of growth remaining. In boys, puberty occurs between the ages of 9 years and 14 years. The first sign of puberty in boys, is enlargement of the testicles. This is often not noticed by the boy or parent right away, but is a very helpful indicator to the doctor regarding whether puberty has started. Pubic hair growth follows shortly after the testicles start to grow, and sometimes occurs first. Acne and body odor appear early in the pubertal time p Continue reading >>
Delayed Growth And Puberty?
Puberty In Young Diabetics
Puberty is the period of sexual development marking the transition from childhood to adulthood. It usually occurs around age 11 for girls and 12 for boys. Puberty’s physical, psychological and social changes have an impact on diabetes management. Impact of hormones on diabetes management The hormonal changes at puberty affect blood glucose control, often making it more difficult. Insulin’s effectiveness declines by about 30% to 50% because growth hormones and sexual hormones create insulin resistance. In non-diabetic children, the pancreas compensates for this resistance by secreting more insulin. For the majority of adolescents with diabetes, their doses of injected insulin must constantly be adjusted to maintain proper blood glucose (sugar) control. When puberty is over, their insulin needs normally revert to what they were before. The effect of these hormones is often strongest toward the end of the night. Thus, first thing in the morning, blood sugar can be abnormally high. Menstruation In some women with diabetes, blood glucose (sugar) levels fluctuate during the menstrual cycle, an effect also caused by hormones. Many women notice a rise in their blood glucose (sugar) levels a few days before they menstruate and a drop during the first days of their period, which can make them susceptible to hypoglycemia. Social and behavioural changes Adolescence is also synonymous with behavioural and social changes. These include a desire for independence, peer pressure on their food habits and physical activity, heightened concern about body image, and even about their diabetes. This can have an impact on how carefully they stick to their treatment protocol, and on their glycemic control. From a diet perspective, adolescents usually have larger appetites because they are g Continue reading >>
Jeff hates gym class. It's not that he minds playing soccer or basketball or any of the other activities. But he does dread going into the locker room at the end of class and showering in front of his friends. Although the other guys' bodies are growing and changing, his body seems to be stuck at a younger age. He's shorter than most of the other guys in his grade, and his voice hasn't deepened at all. It's embarrassing to still look like a little kid. Abby knows what it's like to feel different, too. The bikini tops that her friends fill out lie flat on her. Most of them have their periods, too, and she hasn't had even a sign of one. Both Jeff and Abby wonder if there's anything wrong. Puberty is the time when your body grows from a child's to an adult's. You'll know that you are going through puberty by the way that your body changes. If you're a girl, you'll notice that your breasts develop and your pubic hair grows, that you have a growth spurt, and that you get your period (menstruation). The overall shape of your body will probably change, too your hips will widen and your body will become curvier. If you're a guy, you'll start growing pubic and facial hair, have a growth spurt, and your testicles and penis will get larger. Your body shape will also begin to change your shoulders will widen and your body will become more muscular. These changes are caused by the sex hormones (testosterone in guys and estrogen in girls) that your body begins producing in much larger amounts than before. Puberty takes place over a number of years, and the age at which it starts and ends varies widely. It generally begins somewhere between the ages of 7 and 13 for girls, and somewhere between the ages of 9 and 15 for guys, although it can be earlier or later for some people. This wi Continue reading >>
Will T1 Stunt My Son's Growth?
Your gracious responses really makes my day. My son is 9 yo and 3 weeks into diagnosis. We are having great days and not so great days, but he seems to be well, taking it all in stride and trying to just be as normal as life lets him be. He just came home with the news I have to go on the field trip tomorrow. The nurse can not go, so I have to attend or he can not. Third field trip in three weeks! Is this because his condition is new or will I have to miss work over and over so my son can attend school functions during school hours? ARGH! So many frustrations with this disease... But every day is a new day. We will persevere. D.D. Family T1 for 54 years - on Pump since 03/2008 3 wks and you sound as though you are very at ease now with your son having this, as I remember your first frantic post. Well, he will be able to cope himself with all this soon, so no, you shouldn't have to do this sort of thing much longer. I'm sure he doesn;'t want you to either. D.D. Family T1 Carb-loader, Extraordinaire @ 5.5 I was diagnosed with Type 1 in 1945 when I was 6. I am now 6' 2" so my diabetes did not stunt my growth at all. After 63 years of diabetes I have no complications. If your son has good control he has a good chance of growing up to be a healthy old geezer likke me!. LOL! I would not be so sure. You might have been 6' 3" if you were not a T1 (kidding). You need special shoes for hiking - and a bit of a special soul as well. diabetes will for SURE not make him shorter. i am proof. i am 6'6 tall and about 190 lbs. i have had it for 17 yeras. feel free to read more about me and my life with diabetes at www.lifeofadiabetic.com (my blog) thanks. In scientific terms, the answer is yes, type 1 diabetes will probably make your son shorter than he would have been if he had not dev Continue reading >>