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Can Diabetes Affect The Menstrual Cycle?

The Effect Of The Menstrual Cycle On Glucose Control In Women With Type 1 Diabetes Evaluated Using A Continuous Glucose Monitoring System

The Effect Of The Menstrual Cycle On Glucose Control In Women With Type 1 Diabetes Evaluated Using A Continuous Glucose Monitoring System

Published online 2013 Apr 13. doi: 10.2337/dc12-2248 The Effect of the Menstrual Cycle on Glucose Control in Women With Type 1 Diabetes Evaluated Using a Continuous Glucose Monitoring System Denise S. Barata , MD,1 Lus F. Adan , PHD ,2 Eduardo M. Netto , PHD ,3 and Ana Claudia Ramalho , PHD From the 1Department of Gynecology, Obstetrics and Human Reproduction, Federal University of Bahia School of Medicine, Salvador, Bahia, Brazil; the 2Department of Pediatrics, Federal University of Bahia School of Medicine, Salvador, Bahia, Brazil; the 3Infectious Diseases Unit, Professor Edgard Santos Teaching Hospital, Federal University of Bahia, Salvador, Bahia, Brazil; and the 4Department of Internal Medicine and Diagnostic Support, Federal University of Bahia School of Medicine, Salvador, Bahia, Brazil. Author information Copyright and License information Copyright 2013 by the American Diabetes Association. Readers may use this article as long as the work is properly cited, the use is educational and not for profit, and the work is not altered. See for details. This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Information on the factors that affect glycemia is pivotal in the treatment of diabetes, including insulin sensitivity in different physiological processes ( 1 4 ). The current study evaluated the effect of the menstrual cycle on glucose control in six patients with type 1 diabetes, with a median age 23 years and regular menstrual cycles, not in use of hormonal contraception, not pregnant or breastfeeding, with normal thyroid function, and recent glycated hemoglobin <8% (median 7.4%); four patients were normal weight and two overweight. They were evaluated using a continuous glucose monitoring system over 72 h in the follicular (4th8th days) and in the luteal phase (1 Continue reading >>

Missed Or Irregular Periods - Topic Overview

Missed Or Irregular Periods - Topic Overview

Missed or Irregular Periods - Topic Overview Most women have between 11 and 13 menstrual periods each year. You may be different: You may have more or fewer. Missed or irregular periods must be looked at in terms of what is normal for you. Menstrual periods are often irregular during the first few years after menstruation starts . It may take several years for the hormones that control menstruation to reach a balance. Menstrual periods also may be very irregular at the other end of the menstrual years. Many women realize that they are approaching perimenopause and menopause when their otherwise regular periods become irregular. Menopause occurs when it has been 12 months since you had a menstrual period. Pregnancy is the most common cause of a missed period. If you might be pregnant , treat yourself as if you are pregnant until you know for sure. Use a home pregnancy test as the first step to finding out whether you are pregnant. If you are not pregnant, other causes of missed or irregular periods include: Excessive weight loss or gain. Although low body weight is a common cause of missed or irregular periods, obesity also can cause menstrual problems. Eating disorders , such as anorexia or bulimia . For more information, see the topic Anorexia Nervosa or Bulimia Nervosa . Increased exercise . Missed periods are common in endurance athletes. Medicines such as birth control methods , which may cause lighter, less frequent, more frequent, or skipped periods or no periods at all. Hormone problems. This may cause a change in the levels of the hormones that the body needs to support menstruation . , such as imperforate hymen , polycystic ovary syndrome , or Asherman's syndrome . Breastfeeding . Many women do not resume regular periods until they have completed breastfeeding Continue reading >>

Menstrual Cycle & Diabetes: Can Diabetes Affect Your Period?

Menstrual Cycle & Diabetes: Can Diabetes Affect Your Period?

As we know, diabetes is a disease of the hormones. As such, when a person is suffering from diabetes, the different hormones of the body tend to deviate from the normal functioning causing different types of complications in the patient’s body. One such complication specific to that of women is the menstrual cycle. Women get largely affected by even a small deviation caused in hormones and the monthly periods is no different. Diabetes can largely affect the women’s menstrual cycle while any deviation in the regular menstrual cycle in a healthy woman can help doctors predict diabetes. In this article, we shall study how type 1 and type 2 diabetes tends to affect the periods or the monthly menstrual cycle in a woman. So, join in for the article “Can Diabetes Affect Your Period?” Relationship Between Blood Glucose and the Hormones Causing Menstruation It is known that the hormones estrogen and progesterone are responsible for the menstrual cycle in women. What many people do not know is the fact that both these hormones interact with the main hormone insulin as well. Sometimes, these hormones make the body more resistant to insulin and results in the increase of the blood glucose levels during or just before and after the monthly cycle. Besides, progesterone is known to give rise to your hunger. Hence, during periods, if you have diabetes, diabetes management becomes all the more difficult as you tend to eat more. Why is There an Increase in the Blood Glucose During Periods? As seen above, just a few days before and after getting the periods, the hormones, estrogen, and progesterone lead to resistance of the body towards insulin. This effect is however temporary in nature and is known to stay for only a few days. Having said that, it is imperative to know that the Continue reading >>

Long Menstrual Cycle Is Associated With Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus In Korean Women

Long Menstrual Cycle Is Associated With Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus In Korean Women

Long Menstrual Cycle Is Associated with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in Korean Women Division of Endocrinology, Department of Internal Medicine, Ewha Womans University School of Medicine, Seoul, Korea. Corresponding author: Jee-Young Oh. Department of Internal Medicine, Ewha Womans University Mokdong Hospital, Ewha Womans University School of Medicine, 911-1 Mok-dong, Yangcheon-gu, Seoul 158-710, Korea. [email protected] Received 2010 Oct 4; Accepted 2011 Jan 19. Copyright 2011 Korean Diabetes Association This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License ( ) which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. Long menstrual cycle is a risk factor for developing type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease in women. We aimed to evaluate the association between existing type 2 diabetes and oligomenorrhea before diagnosis of diabetes, and to observe the differences in this association among obese and non-obese Korean women. Patients with type 2 diabetes (n=118) and without any clinical evidence of abnormal glucose regulation (n=258) who attended the outpatient clinic of a university hospital and were over age 30. Patients self-reporting a menstrual cycle over 40 days during their 20s were defined as oligomenorrhea before diagnosis of diabetes. Obesity was defined as having a body mass index (BMI) over 25 kg/m2. The frequency of oligomenorrhea before diagnosis of diabetes was almost two-fold higher in women with type 2 diabetes than in the control group (16.1% vs. 8.5%, P=0.03). Oligomenorrhea was associated with type 2 diabetes after adjusting for age, BMI, systolic blood pressure, triglycerides, and high density lipoprotein ch Continue reading >>

Your Menstrual Cycle And Blood Sugar Levels

Your Menstrual Cycle And Blood Sugar Levels

Diabetes can affect a woman's reproductive health because the hormones that control menstruation can cause changes in blood glucose levels. Learn to monitor patterns in your blood glucose changes that correlate to your menstrual cycles. Hormones and blood glucose levels The hormones that regulate your menstrual cycle, estrogen and progesterone, interact with the insulin hormone and may make your body more resistant to its own insulin or injected insulin. Because of this, either before, after, or during menstruation you may experience a rise in blood glucose levels for three to five days. These effects might be consistent from month to month, or they might vary, making them more difficult to monitor. An increase in your levels of progesterone can also trigger food cravings that can make diabetes management more difficult. Diabetes and your menstrual cycle Just as your menstrual cycle affects your diabetes, your diabetes, in turn, affects your menstrual cycle. Women with type 1 diabetes, on average, start menstruation a year later than women without diabetes, and they are more likely to have menstrual problems before age 30. Diabetes also increases a woman's chances of having longer menstrual cycles and periods, heavier periods, and earlier onset of menopause. Managing diabetes and your cycle The key to knowing how your menstrual cycle affects your diabetes and vice versa is careful monitoring. Track menstrual cycle changes that relate to your diabetes as closely as you would your blood sugar levels. Using a period tracker app can help you keep track of your cycle and clue you into when you might start experiencing high blood sugars. Compare your cycle with your blood glucose levels and note any trends that you see so you can be prepared for diabetes management changes in Continue reading >>

Insulin Requirements Throughout The Menstrual Cycle

Insulin Requirements Throughout The Menstrual Cycle

Insulin Requirements Throughout the Menstrual Cycle A multitude of variables can affect our blood glucose levels, basal, and bolus insulin requirementsour weight, food choices, activity levels, stress, and illness, to name a few. In addition to all these factors, many women also deal with the effects of fluctuating hormone levels on blood glucose management. 3 A Note about Hormone-Based Contraceptives The Effects of Hormone Fluctuations on Insulin Sensitivity Throughout the menstrual cycle, the levels of different hormones can significantly affect insulin sensitivity, so much so that many women adjust their insulin dosing throughout the course of the month. The menstrual cycle can be divided into two main phases, the follicular phase and the luteal phase, with menses occurring at the beginning of the follicular phase and ovulation occurring in between the two phases. The average length of the menstrual cycle is 28 days, although this varies from woman to woman, with between 21-35 days considered normal. The levels of the hormone, namely estrogen, progesterone, follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), and luteinizing hormone (LH) fluctuate with the different stages and can affect insulin sensitivity, leading to marked changes in blood glucose levels. Studies have shown that insulin sensitivity decreases during the early luteal phase, leading to a higher likelihood of hyperglycemia during this phase of the cycle. This likely occurs due to the marked increase in progesterone, which is associated with insulin resistance . In contrast, the follicular phase is characterized by increased insulin sensitivity. Insulin sensitivity was associated with the increased FSH levels observed during the follicular phase. Image adapted from: Nevada Center for Reproductive Medicine How to Adjus Continue reading >>

Menstruation Can Affect Insulin Needs

Menstruation Can Affect Insulin Needs

In some women who have type 1 diabetes, the hormonal changes that come with menstruation can cause changes in blood glucose levels. Monitoring levels and adjusting insulin accordingly is key to managing this monthly shift. Diabetes: How Hormones Affect Blood Glucose The same hormones that control your menstrual cycle can also affect your blood glucose levels. "Two or three days before menstruation, as estrogen and progesterone levels are changing, a number of women — but not all — will notice that their insulin needs increase substantially because their blood glucose levels are rising,” explains Jay Cohen, MD, medical director of the Endocrine Clinic in Memphis and clinical assistant professor in the department of family medicine at the University of Tennessee. If this happens, levels usually decrease after their period begins. Also, Cohen points out, some women don't experience menstrual cycle-related changes in their blood glucose levels, and others may only see decreases in their blood glucose levels around the time of their period. Diabetes: How Your Menstrual Cycle Can Be Affected In addition to your menstrual cycle affecting your ability to control your diabetes, having type 1 diabetes can affect your menstrual cycle. On average, girls who have type 1 diabetes tend to start their periods about a year later than girls who don't have the disease. And women who have type 1 diabetes are twice as likely as those who don't to have menstrual problems before age 30. Specifically, having type 1 diabetes can increase your chances of: Longer menstrual cycles Longer periods Heavier menstruation Earlier onset of menopause "In women whose diabetes is out of control, high blood sugars can put a woman at increased risk of vaginal and yeast infections, and can also affect re Continue reading >>

How Do Hormonal Fluctuations During My Menstrual Cycle Affect My Blood Sugar Levels?

How Do Hormonal Fluctuations During My Menstrual Cycle Affect My Blood Sugar Levels?

Question: How do hormonal fluctuations during my menstrual cycle affect my blood sugar levels? Answer: The menstrual cycle can be challenging for most women, but particularly to women with diabetes, and this is because the hormonal fluctuations that occur during the menstrual cycle do affect blood sugar levels. What we typically see in clinical practice is that the week before a woman starts to menstruate, these hormonal changes increase what we call 'insulin resistance,' and so, the insulin that either the woman makes or that she takes by injection doesn't work quite as well. Then, when menstruation begins, the blood sugar levels tend to drop a little bit. So, there are a variety of strategies that women can use to improve blood glucose control during the pre-menstrual period. If a woman is not taking insulin, she could try a greater emphasis on diet to control blood glucose levels or even more exercise, which also can relieve some other pre-menstrual symptoms. If a woman is on insulin, what I've tried with some of my patients before is, she can take a little bit more of the basal, or background insulin during that pre-menstrual week, to help control blood glucose levels. And, of course, if a woman wants to change her therapy, she should consult her primary care provider or her diabetes care provider and present the pattern of symptoms and of blood sugar levels that she's experiencing that are related to her menstrual cycle. Next: Can I Use Oral Contraceptives If I'm A Woman With Diabetes? Previous: What Causes Vaginal Infections (With Diabetes) And What Are The Best Treatments? Continue reading >>

Irregular Menstrual Cycles May Predict Diabetes

Irregular Menstrual Cycles May Predict Diabetes

Irregular Menstrual Cycles May Predict Diabetes Not all women have a regular four-week menstruation cycle; cycles can range from between 20 to 40 or more days, and in some women the cycle length changes regularly. Diabetes, a condition in which a person has higher than normal blood sugar, can cause damage to the heart, eyes, kidneys, nerves, and other organs. Unusually long, extremely irregular, or infrequent menstrual cycles may be linked to insulin resistance and the development of type 2 (or adult-onset) diabetes. To assess the risk for type 2 diabetes in women with a history of irregular menstrual cycles, the authors of a recent study in the Journal of the American Medical Association followed over 100,000 women who had reported their menstrual cycle patterns from 18-22 years of age. A "usual" cycle was considered to be 26 to 31 days; weight, race, family history, cigarette use, and other factors were also examined. Women with long (40+ days) or irregular menstrual cycles were more than twice as likely to develop type 2 diabetes over the 10-year study period than women with usual cycles. Women with very short cycles (21 days or less) were 1.5 times more likely to develop the condition than those with normal cycles. Overweight women had a significantly increased risk for type 2 diabetes as well, but obesity could not account for the increased risk in women with irregular cycles. Unusual menstrual cycles may indicate metabolic changes that increase a woman's risk for insulin resistance. Insulin resistance hinders a woman's ability to process sugars and can cause type 2 diabetes over time. If you typically have very long or short menstrual cycles, especially if your menstrual cycle is highly irregular, take extra precautions to prevent the onset of type 2 diabetes. Ta Continue reading >>

Diabetes And Your Period

Diabetes And Your Period

My blood sugar had been running high all week. One morning it spiked to 300, and it took all day (and extra injections) before I could get it back down to “normal” levels. I was also crampy, bloated, and irritable and knew exactly why I was feeling this way. A few days later I got my period and my blood sugars returned to “normal.” I wrote about fluctuations during the menstrual cycle for a chapter in my book, The Smart Woman’s Guide to Diabetes, and yet every month I’m newly frustrated as if it’s happening for the first time. No woman enjoys having her period, but I’ve always felt that mine was particularly problematic. Not only do I get crampy and bloated, I also feel drained because of high blood sugars. In a 2003 study, women with Type 1 diabetes were shown to have more menstrual problems (long cycles, long menstruation, and heavy menstruation) before age 30 years than their peers without diabetes. These problems may indicate increased risk for osteoporosis and cardiovascular disease. It was also shown that women with Type 1 diabetes got their periods nearly a year later than control subjects. I got my period the same year I was diagnosed with diabetes and never had regular cycles. I didn’t mind having irregular periods until I was trying to get pregnant and had to take Clomid to kick-start my ovulation. I bought countless pregnancy tests in hopes that the reason I wasn’t getting my period each month was because I was finally pregnant, but each test was negative. I’d heard so many discouraging stories and myths about fertility challenges for women with Type 1 (such as big babies and birth defects) that I was overwhelmed with worry. I made threats in the dark to the Diabetes Gods that if I couldn’t get pregnant, I would give up. I was tired of Continue reading >>

Women And Diabetes | Diabetesnet.com

Women And Diabetes | Diabetesnet.com

Mon, 11/15/2010 - 11:33 -- Richard Morris Fluctuations in hormone levels occur through the menstrual cycle and these fluctuations can affect blood sugar control. When estrogen levels are naturally high, your body may be resistant to its own insulin or injected insulin. Many women find their blood sugar tends to be high 3-5 days before, during or after their periods. Since everyone is different, the only way to manage blood sugars in a setting where sensitivity to insulin changes is to test and record blood sugars four or more times a day the week before, during and after your period for at least 2 or 3 months to find your own pattern. This allows you to adjust your insulin doses and carb intake both before and during this time to better control your blood sugar. Premenstrual symptoms (PMS) can be worsened by poor blood sugar control. It helps to chart your feelings such as tenderness, bloating, grouchiness for a week before, during and after your period. Charting will help you know when your PMS reach their peak during your period so that before your PMS is most severe, you can check your blood sugar more often and take extra insulin or exercise to bring high blood sugars down. Food cravings during PMS are triggered by an increase in progesterone and can make it more difficult to control your blood sugar. Usually the craving is for chocolate or sweet foods. Give in to your cravings by trying sugar-free and fat-free versions, such as chocolate pudding. Take extra insulin or increase your exercise to compensate. You may feel less like exercising during your period. If so, extra insulin may be a good choice for keeping your blood sugar from rising. The extra insulin needed to overcome insulin resistance during this time will not cause weight gain. Treat yourself well duri Continue reading >>

Diabetes And The Menstrual Cycle

Diabetes And The Menstrual Cycle

Diabetes is a lifelong disease that involves a disruption of the hormone insulin, which the body (through the pancreas) produces to allow your body to store and use the sugar and fat you eat. Diabetes occurs when either the pancreas is unable to produce insulin, produces very little insulin, or when the body poses a resistance to insulin. What is diabetes? There are two types of diabetes: type 1 and type 2. Type 1 diabetes, known as juvenile diabetes, often develops in younger people. In type 1 diabetes, the body can no longer produce enough insulin. Type 2 diabetes is known as adult-onset diabetes, which can develop in people at any age, but most often in middle-aged and older people. Type 2 diabetes typically begins with insulin resistance. Over time, the body will be unable to produce enough insulin to keep up with the added demand. How does it affect the menstrual cycle? Diabetes is a serious condition that affects many women, and can have an effect on a woman’s reproductive health as well. The hormones that regulate the menstrual cycle can cause fluctuations in the blood glucose levels of the body. These menstrual hormones have an effect on insulin sensitivity. These hormones, estrogen and progesterone, can disrupt the insulin hormone and cause the body to become more resistant to insulin during this time. Therefore, if you have diabetes, during or around the time of your menstrual cycle, your blood glucose levels might rise for three to five days. Increasing progesterone levels can also cause more food cravings, which can make managing your diabetes and food intake more difficult. These changes usually vary from person to person and month to month, so it may be difficult to monitor the effects. For women with diabetes, rising blood glucose levels during the time Continue reading >>

Menstruation

Menstruation

Menstrual cycles can affect your blood glucose levels Menstuation can affect your blood glucose levels because when two hormones – oestrogen and progesterone – are at their highest level just before your period, they affect insulin, which may cause blood glucose levels to rise. Some women find their blood glucose rises considerably, while others do not notice a difference. In others, blood-glucose levels are lower before and during their periods. You need to discover your own pattern so you can adjust your insulin accordingly. Often it is the fasting blood glucose before breakfast that tends to fluctuate the most. Being physically active in the week before your period, can help control fluctuations in your blood glucose levels. Continue reading >>

Periods (menstruation) And Diabetes

Periods (menstruation) And Diabetes

Tweet Different stages of the menstrual cycle may have different effects on your blood glucose levels and the effect can also vary from person to person and from month to month. Recording your blood glucose results can be helpful in finding patterns in your levels and helping you to better control your diabetes. How will my period affect my sugar levels? There is not a definite answer to this as periods affect each one of us differently. However, many women report having higher blood sugar levels a few days prior to their period starting. During your period, you may experience high blood sugar levels but some women notice a sharp drop in sugar levels so it’s best to be prepared for unexpected changes to happen. Why does blood sugar rise before or during periods? Before and during your period, changes in the level of the hormones oestrogen and progesterone can induce temporary resistance to insulin which can last for up to a few days and then drop off. Some girls and women have consistent effects as to how their period affects blood sugar whereas other women may find that the effect on blood sugar varies from one month to another. Coping with periods The effect on blood sugar as a result of periods can change from one month to another so keeping a diary of your blood glucose numbers can help you to see if there are any patterns in your results across different months. If you are finding your blood glucose levels go very high before or during your period, you may need to either inject more insulin (if insulin dependent) or reduce your carbohydrate intake. If you increase your insulin, be careful to avoid hypoglycemia as your insulin sensitivity can sometimes return quickly. Speak to your health team if you need advice on how to manage your insulin doses or carbohydrate Continue reading >>

Why Are My Blood Sugars Affected By My Period?

Why Are My Blood Sugars Affected By My Period?

Question: Dear CDE, Every month when I have my period I experience fluctuations in my blood sugar levels. Why does this occur? I've asked my other "DiabetesSisters" if this happens to them as well. For some, it doesn't but for others, it does. Some of my friends have high blood sugars a few days before their period starts (like me) while my other female friends' blood sugars go low!! What gives?? Answer: Dear Reader, Unfortunately, there have been very few studies in the area of menstruation and blood sugar control. The common finding is that menstruation’s affect on blood sugar control is varied depending on the individual. As a result, blood sugar testing during this time is the only way to know how it affects that particular woman’s blood sugar. One study by Villanova University College of Nursing revealed decreased insulin sensitivity during menstruation being the most common issue. This decreased insulin sensitivity means that the insulin that patients were taking or the pancreas was producing were not sufficient to lower blood sugar, resulting in hyperglycemia or high blood sugar. According to studies and reports, this decreased insulin sensitivity could be related to hormone fluctuations during different phases of the menstrual cycle or from symptoms of Premenstrual Syndrome (PMS) such as bloating, cramps, and mood swings. During menstruation estrogen and progesterone are at their lower levels. These are hormones that are produced by the ovaries in reaction to stimulation of Follicle-Stimulating Hormone (FSH) and Luteinizing Hormone (LH) all needed in normal menstruation. Estrogen and Progesterone are at their peak in the premenstrual phase. This is where they stimulate the endometrium to prepare a thick layer of blood vessels that will support a fertilized e Continue reading >>

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