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# Calculating Insulin To Carb Ratio And Correction Factor

## Correction Factor

The 1800 Rule For Determining Your Correction Factor When your blood sugar goes unexpectedly high, a correction bolus can be used to bring it down. To use the right correction bolus, you first determine your correction factor. The 1500 Rule for Regular was originally developed by Paul Davidson, M.D. in Atlanta, Georgia. Because the blood sugar tends to drop faster and farther on Humalog and Novolog insulins, we modified the 1500 Rule to an 1800 Rule for these insulins. (Some use a 2000 rule for these insulins.) The 1800 Rule shows how far your blood sugar is likely to drop per unit of Humalog and Novolog insulin. The 1500 Rule shows how far it will drop per unit of Regular. Numbers between 1600 and 2200 can be used to determine the correction factor. The number 1800 should work when the TDD is set correctly and the basal insulin makes up 50% of the TDD in someone with Type 1 diabetes. A number smaller than 1800 will work better when basal insulin doses make up less than 50% of the TDD, while a number higher than 1800 works better for those whose basal doses make up more than 50% of their TDD. Also recheck your TDD and basal percentage to make sure they are correctly set. Setting up your correction boluses can be done only after your basal doses have been tested for accuracy. If your basal doses are set too high, using a correction bolus may lead to lows, while basal doses that are too low will make it appear that correction boluses are not the right amount to bring high readings down as expected. The 1800 Rule: Works for Type 1 diabetes and most Type 2s Estimates the point drop in mg/dl per unit of Humalog or Novolog 1800/TDD = point drop per unit of Humalog (see Table) Example: Someone's Total Daily Dose of insulin = 30 units 1800/30 u/day = a 60 point drop per unit of Continue reading >>

## Calculating Bolus Injections

How do I calculate my bolus insulin doses? You will need to figure out (calculate) your bolus insulin dose based on carbohydrate eaten, blood glucose level or both added together. Calculating a bolus dose for carbohydrate (meal bolus) Use the Insulin to Carbohydrate Ratio (ICR) to calculate your insulin dose. ICR is the amount of rapid-acting insulin (I) you need for a specific amount of carbohydrate (C) in food. This is the number of grams of carbohydrates that 1 unit of rapid-acting insulin will cover. Example: 1 unit of rapid-acting insulin will cover 10 grams carbohydrates. This may also be written 1:10. The ratio may be different at different meals. Using the ICR will control blood glucose best if insulin is given before meals. Calculate your ICR based on what you WILL be eating. We strongly suggest that rapid-acting insulin be given before meals. The Diabetes Sick Day Calculator and Sick Day Journal are available in our free myChildren's mobile application. NOTE: You may give insulin right after a meal if do not know the amount of carbohydrates that will be eaten, like with a very young child or sickness. Do not give rapid-acting insulin when you eat carbohydrate to treat a low blood glucose or to prevent a low blood glucose. Example: A meal has 60 grams of carbohydrates. Your carbohydrate ratio is 1:10. 60 (grams of carbohydrates) divided by (÷) 10 (carbohydrate ratio) = 6 (carbohydrate bolus), so You would give 6 units rapid-acting insulin for carbohydrate bolus Calculating a bolus dose for high blood glucose (correction bolus) Use the high blood glucose (hyperglycemia) correction factor, also called correction factor (CF) or sensitivity. Use this to calculate the correction bolus. Correction factor is how much 1 unit of rapid-acting insulin will reduce the blo Continue reading >>

## Patient Education: Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus And Diet (beyond The Basics)

TYPE 1 DIABETES OVERVIEW Diet and physical activity are critically important in the management of the ABCs (A1C, Blood pressure, and Cholesterol) of type 1 diabetes. To effectively manage glycated hemoglobin (A1C) and achieve stable blood sugar control, it is important to understand how to balance food intake, physical activity, and insulin. Making healthy food choices every day has both immediate and long-term effects. With education, practice, and assistance from a dietitian and/or a diabetes educator, it is possible to eat well and control diabetes. This topic discusses how to manage diet in people with type 1 diabetes. The role of diet and activity in managing blood pressure and cholesterol is reviewed separately. (See "Patient education: High blood pressure, diet, and weight (Beyond the Basics)" and "Patient education: High cholesterol and lipids (hyperlipidemia) (Beyond the Basics)".) WHY IS DIET IMPORTANT? Many factors affect how well diabetes is controlled. Many of these factors are controlled by the person with diabetes, including how much and what is eaten, how frequently the blood sugar is monitored, physical activity levels, and accuracy and consistency of medication dosing. Even small changes can affect blood sugar control. Eating a consistent amount of food every day and taking medications as directed can greatly improve blood sugar control and decrease the risk of diabetes-related complications, such as coronary artery disease, kidney disease, and nerve damage. In addition, these measures impact weight control. A dietitian can help to create a food plan that is tailored to your medical needs, lifestyle, and personal preferences. TYPE 1 DIABETES AND MEAL TIMING Consistently eating at the same times every day is important for some people, especially those w Continue reading >>

## Guidelines For Insulin Dosing In Continuous Subcutaneous Insulin Infusion Using New Formulas From A Retrospective Study Of Individuals With Optimal Glucose Levels

Go to: Abstract Successful insulin pump therapy depends on correct insulin doses based on an optimal total daily dose (TDD) and optimal pump settings for basal infusion, carbohydrate factor (CarbF), and glucose correction factor (CorrF) based on the TDD. There are limited data in the literature to guide providers and patients regarding methods to optimize these critical parameters for glucose control. Anonymous data downloads from 1020 insulin pumps used throughout the United States and overseen by a variety of clinicians were analyzed retrospectively to find insulin doses that provided the best glucose control. A subset of 396 pumps was chosen for glucose data reliability, with over 85% of their glucose data directly entered from a meter. This subset was divided into tertiles based on glucose levels, and the low glucose tertile was analyzed to derive formulas for optimal insulin pump settings. An inconsistent clustering of pump settings was found for the CarbF and the CorrF. This was less pronounced when CarbFs and CorrFs were determined from the actual bolus doses delivered once adjustments were made to the initial dose calculations by users and, to a larger extent, internally by the bolus calculator itself. Common beliefs that hyperglycemia is related to less carb counting, fewer carb boluses, or delivery of less insulin per day were not substantiated in this data. New or verified insulin dosing formulas presented include basal U/day = TDD × 0.48; CarbF = [2.6 × Wt(lb)]/TDD; and CorrF = 1960/TDD. Insulin pump users cannot reap full benefit from their pump bolus calculator if the settings on which bolus doses are based are less than optimal. Our data show that CarbFs and CorrFs tend to be unevenly distributed, suggesting that these factors are not selected in a syst Continue reading >>

## Calculation Sheet For Rapid-acting Insulin With Ketone Bolus Correction

Food Grams of Carbs Total Food Grams of Carbs Total Date _____________ Time ______________ am / pm 1. Calculate Carbohydrate Bolus: ____________ Ã· _______________ = ________________ Carbohydrates CARBOHYDRATE Carbohydrate Bolus to Eat RATIO (Round to nearest tenth) 2. Calculate Correction Bolus: __________ - ___________ = _________ Ã·_____________= __________ Blood CORRECTION Amount to CORRECTION Correction Glucose TARGET Correct FACTOR Bolus (Round to nearest tenth) 3. Calculate Total Insulin Bolus: ___________ + __________ +___________ = _________ ____________ Carbohydrate Correction Ketone Bolus Total *Rounded Total Bolus Bolus (Use Ketone Insulin Bolus Bolus Chart) Date _____________ Time _______________ am / pm 1. Calculate Carbohydrate Bolus: ____________ Ã· _______________ = ________________ Carbohydrates CARBOHYDRATE Carbohydrate Bolus to Eat RATIO (Round to nearest tenth) 2. Calculate Correction Bolus: __________ - ___________ = _________ Ã·_____________= __________ Blood CORRECTION Amount to CORRECTION Correction Glucose TARGET Correct FACTOR Bolus (Round to nearest tenth) 3. Calculate Total Insulin Bolus: ___________ + __________ +___________ = _________ ____________ Carbohydrate Correction Ketone Bolus Total *Rounded Total Bolus Bolus (Use Ketone Insulin Bolus Bolus Chart) â€œNO CORRECTION RULESâ€ DO NOT CALCULATE CORRECTION BOLUS: ï‚· If your blood glucose is less than your CORRECTION TARGET. ï‚· If it has been less than three hours since your last carbohydrate bolus or correction bolus. ï‚· If you have treated a low blood glucose in the past three hours. ï‚· If it has been less than one hour since vigorous exercise. * Use this chart for â€œRounded Total Insulin Bolusâ€ CARBOHYDRATE RATIO How many grams of carbohydrate Continue reading >>

## Calculating Insulin Dose

You'll need to calculate some of your insulin doses. You'll also need to know some basic things about insulin. For example, 40-50% of the total daily insulin dose is to replace insulin overnight. Your provider will prescribe an insulin dose regimen for you; however, you still need to calculate some of your insulin doses. Your insulin dose regimen provides formulas that allow you to calculate how much bolus insulin to take at meals and snacks, or to correct high blood sugars. In this section, you will find: First, some basic things to know about insulin: Approximately 40-50% of the total daily insulin dose is to replace insulin overnight, when you are fasting and between meals. This is called background or basal insulin replacement. The basal or background insulin dose usually is constant from day to day. The other 50-60% of the total daily insulin dose is for carbohydrate coverage (food) and high blood sugar correction. This is called the bolus insulin replacement. Bolus – Carbohydrate coverage The bolus dose for food coverage is prescribed as an insulin to carbohydrate ratio.The insulin to carbohydrate ratio represents how many grams of carbohydrate are covered or disposed of by 1 unit of insulin. Generally, one unit of rapid-acting insulin will dispose of 12-15 grams of carbohydrate. This range can vary from 4-30 grams or more of carbohydrate depending on an individual’s sensitivity to insulin. Insulin sensitivity can vary according to the time of day, from person to person, and is affected by physical activity and stress. Bolus – High blood sugar correction (also known as insulin sensitivity factor) The bolus dose for high blood sugar correction is defined as how much one unit of rapid-acting insulin will drop the blood sugar. Generally, to correct a high blood Continue reading >>

## Insulin Basics

1-800-DIABETES www.diabetes.org DIABETES CARE TASKS AT SCHOOL: What Key Personnel Need to Know 1-800-DIABETES www.diabetes.org * Goal: Optimal Student Health and Learning Accurate and timely insulin dosing is a vital piece of a comprehensive plan. * This training component is one of thirteen components created specifically for school nurses and non-medical school personnel who perform diabetes care tasks at school. These components are: â€¢ Diabetes Basics â€¢ Diabetes Medical Management Plan â€¢ Hypoglycemia â€¢ Hyperglycemia â€¢ Blood Glucose Monitoring â€¢ Glucagon Administration â€¢ Insulin Basics â€¢ Insulin by Syringe and Vial â€¢ Insulin by Pen â€¢ Insulin by Pump â€¢ Ketones â€¢ Nutrition and Physical Activity â€¢ Legal Considerations This unit is Insulin Basics. 1-800-DIABETES www.diabetes.org Participants will be able to understand: What insulin does Types of insulin Insulin delivery methods Storing insulin Factors that influence insulin dosing Learning Objectives * Participants will be able to understand: What insulin does Types of insulin Insulin delivery methods Storing insulin Factors that influence insulin dosing School personnel responsible for performing diabetes care tasks or assisting with the studentâ€™s diabetes care tasks should know about and be trained in using and operating each studentâ€™s insulin delivery system. In the event a school nurse is not available to administer insulin, a nurse or another qualified health care professional should teach, monitor, and supervise trained diabetes personnel to administer insulin. School staff who will perform or assist students with insulin administration should understand how insulin works. 1-800-DIABETES www.diabetes.org Vocabulary Target Ran Continue reading >>

## New Tricks For Tweaking Dosing Formulas For Your Insulin Pump

Kelly Close is the brillant mind behind Close Concerns, a consultancy dedicated to "the business of diabetes." In addition to having type 1 diabetes for more than 20 years, she is also one of the thought leaders in the diabetes community. One of Close Concern's main objectives is to go every — and I mean every — diabetes conference and report back on the latest findings. Today, Kelly shares some new nuggets she discovered at this year's AADE conference. A Guest Post by Kelly Close, diabetes industry consultant During our time at the AADE (American Association of Diabetes Educators) conference this year in Atlanta, we were impressed (and unsurprised — it's like this every year) to see educators traversing the convention center hallways with equal enthusiasm and energy on the last day of the meeting as on the first day of the conference. It always blows us away that some of the final sessions are as packed as the ones on the earlier days. Needless to say, as a field, we are lucky to have such dedicated individuals working to advance and improve patient care. We attended a number of thought-provoking and moving talks throughout the meeting, but especially a session on revising pump settings for type 1 patients! I thought my pump settings were relatively right (I always put off those "skip a meal" exercises that my — and Amy's! — fabulous endo, Dr. Nancy Bohannon. In fact, this new set of recommendations for pump users was, if technical, really, really useful for me. Here is the summary below — we discovered that this will be published in an article in a fancy scientific journal next year, but if you want to get a head start, talk to your educator or doctor about refining your settings. I changed mine actually quite significantly upon advice of an amazing educat Continue reading >>

## Bolus Calculations (part I)

Think Like a Pancreas: Chapter 7, Your Cheat Guide! (Part I) I don't know about you, but calculating is not my forte. Before having Type 1, I was a free bird and whimsically ate whatever the heck I wanted. I still ate pretty clean back then, but I would eat an entire watermelon or grab a few crispy crunchy chocolate chip cookies whenever I wanted. *Sigh* Sure, I can still eat those things, but this disease has taught me mindfulness on what foods do what to my body and excess sugar intake is the root of many illnesses and disease. So cheers to healthier living thanks to Type 1. ;) Okay, let's dive into Chapter 7. Bolus Calculations Boluses are bunches of rapid acting insulin used to cover carbs or lower high blood sugar levels. Four Factors that are used to determine bolus dose: the amount of carbohydrate in a meal or snack the blood sugar level at the time of a meal or snack the amount of insulin still remaining from previous boluses the amount of planned (or completed) physical activity. Part I. Insulin to Cover Carbs To determine how many grams of carbohydrates each unit of rapid acting insulin covers we use the “insulin to carb ratio (I:C).” Example: A “1:10 ratio” means that one unit of insulin covers 10 grams of carbs, and a "1:20" ratio means that each unit injected covers 20 grams. To figure out your I:C ratio, simply add up the grams of carb in your usual meals and divide the units of rapid acting insulin. Example: If you enjoy 30 grams of carb for breakfast, divide this by (your normal dose) 3, which = 10, so it appears that each unit of insulin covers 10 grams of carb. The I:C ratio gives you flexibility to accurately account for as much or as little carb as you choose, but you still must be mindful of spacing meals and snacks a few hours apart. The mo Continue reading >>

## Time To Bolus: |_| Before The Meal |_| After The Meal |_| Â½ Bolus Before Meal And Â½ After Meal |_| Other: Â€‚â€‚â€‚â€‚â€‚

Â· Count the grams of carbohydrates in the food eaten or to be eaten |_| Student |_| Supervision |_| Performed by Delegated Staff Â· Enter the grams of carbohydrates into the pump |_| Student |_| Supervision |_| Performed by Delegated Staff Â· The pump will calculate the prescribed amount of insulin Â· Deliver the bolus dose by pressing the designated button(s) on the pump |_| Student |_| Supervision |_| Performed by Delegated Staff Â· If bolus given prior to meal, do not administer more than 10 minutes before eating Â· If blood glucose is less than â€‚â€‚â€‚ mg/dl, wait to give meal bolus until after meal Â· If blood glucose is greater than â€‚â€‚â€‚ mg/dl, deliver a correction bolus prior to eating The settings on the pump are established by the studentâ€™s healthcare provider & are not to be changed by school personnel If Pump or Set Malfunctions: Notify School Nurse and Parent immediately |_| School Nurse to give Injection |_|Student self-administers |_| Parent will give injection |_| Other: â€‚â€‚â€‚â€‚â€‚ Insulin by injection: |_| Insulin Pen provided |_| Insulin & Syringe/Needle |_| Use Insulin Pump Cartridge Calculating Insulin Dose when pump malfunctions: Use Pump Calculator or School Nurse and/or Parent will do calculation (School nurse may contact provider for One-Time Order) If pump is operational then the insulin dosing can be calculated as noted above using pump calculator. If pump is not operational: Give Insulin according to Insulin to Carbohydrate Ratio and Correction Factor (For School nurse use only) Insulin Dose = [(Actual Blood Glucose â€“ Target Range BG â€‚â€‚â€‚â€‚â€‚ (top of range) divided by Insulin Sensitivit]* + [# carbohydrates consumed Ã Continue reading >>

## Mysugr Bolus Calculator – Get Help With Your Insulin Dose (currently Available In Eu)

back to Overview It's time for lunch. Your blood sugar is 165 mg/dl (9.2 mmol/L). You have a big slice of pizza, a bag of chips, and a cold Diet Coke waiting for you. How much insulin do you take? I can think of a few ways this goes: There’s not much to think about. You always eat the same thing and always take the same amount of insulin. You define the phrase “creature of habit.” You hate thinking about all of this stuff, so you just guess. You love doing a bunch of math before every meal, so calculating your insulin dose is fun and easy. I can relate to the first two. There’s a lot of value in routine, and I’ve also done my share of guesstimating. That last one? Enjoying all of the diabetes math? I’m sorry. That’s just weird. (I’m teasing. Kind of…) But there’s another option, and it makes thinking about your insulin doses easier and more precise. I’m talking about a bolus calculator. If you wear an insulin pump, you’re probably already using one (they’re often built in). You’re welcome to stay and read, but there’s not much new information for you here. However, if you’re using injections (syringes or pens), like most people with diabetes, then stick around. This article should be helpful. So you don’t have (or want) an insulin pump, but I bet you have a smartphone. What does that mean? It means that you should meet mySugr’s Bolus Calculator. It’s a module integrated into the mySugr app that helps with your insulin doses (note: mySugr Bolus Calculator is currently approved for use in Europe). What the heck is a “bolus,” you ask? Great question. A bolus, in our case, is a single dose of insulin given all at once. In other words, it’s your mealtime shot or a shot to fix a high blood sugar. mySugr’s Bolus Calculator examines Continue reading >>

## Diabetics: How To Calculate High Blood Glucose Correction Using The Rule Of 1800

The mantra of a diabetic is control. Having blood sugars out of control leads to all sorts of bad things. Like (for the guys) impotence. You want normal blood glucose levels. As a diabetic, this is one of the health choices you want to make. Trust me on this one. Some Diabetes 101: You need insulin for cells to use sugars. Type 1 Diabetics do not produce insulin, and need to take insulin shots or injections. Food makes blood sugar go up. Insulin makes it go down. Too much sugar for too long damages the body. Too little blood sugar makes you pass out. The job of a Type 1 diabetic is to walk a tightrope and keep the blood sugar in a certain range. Diabetics use a glucometer to test their blood sugar. (NOTE: This is a dramatic oversimplification. Stress raises blood sugar levels. Exercise will help drop it. But you get the picture). Step 1: Time to Play With Math! Blood glucose is the amount of sugar in your blood. The normal range for blood glucose on a fast is 80 to 110 milligrams per deciliter. As a diabetic, I fudge a little on that range...I might fall below 80 or run up a little higher. But the goal is to keep the blood glucose in a fairly tight range. One important lesson for the diabetic is how to calculate an insulin correction factor. The insulin correction factor (or insulin sensitivity factor) is a bolus of insulin to bring down a higher than range blood sugar level. In order to know this factor, you need to know how much one unit of rapid-acting insulin will drop the blood sugar! Time to play with math! Step 2: The Rule of 1800 There are several simple formulas for figuring this out. In general, one unit of rapid-acting insulin will take care of about 12-15 grams of carbohydrate, but this can range depending on a lot of factors. Besides, it is useful to do the Continue reading >>

## Insulin Dosing

OTHER HELPFUL PAGES ACRONYMS AND DEFINITIONS ADA - American Diabetes Association Basal Insulin - Long- and Intermediate-acting insulins used to supply constant blood levels of insulin activity Carb- carbohydrate DM1 - Type 1 diabetes DM2 - Type 2 diabetes FDA - U.S. Food and Drug Administration Hypoglycemia - low blood sugar Multidose insulin regimen - Insulin regimens that involve a basal insulin and a premeal insulin given at meals Premeal Insulin - also called “prandial” insulin. Rapid and short-acting insulins given at mealtime for short burst of insulin. Total daily dose of insulin - Sum of premeal and basal insulin given in a day Units/kg/day - units of insulin per kilogram of body weight per day USDA - United States Department of Agriculture 1 kilogram = 2.2 pounds IMPORTANT POINTS ABOUT DOSING INSULIN Overview There are a number of different ways to dose insulin No detailed guidelines for dosing insulin have been issued by professional associations The appropriate method for individual patients will depend on a number of factors including patient education, patient motivation, diabetes control, and resources Low blood sugar (Hypoglycemia) The main concern in most patients when initiating an insulin regimen is the occurrence of low blood sugars Patients need to understand that when they are starting and adjusting insulin, there is an increased risk for low blood sugars A number of things can affect this risk including variations in eating patterns, sensitivity to insulin, and variations in activity level Measures to help prevent low blood sugars Start low and go slow - patients naïve to insulin should start at the lower end of dosing ranges When using a multidose regimen, adjust only one of the regimens every 3 days and alternate between the two (see below f Continue reading >>

## Understanding Advanced Carbohydrate Counting — A Useful Tool For Some Patients To Improve Blood Glucose Control

Today’s Dietitian Vol. 15 No. 12 P. 40 Suggested CDR Learning Codes: 2070, 3020, 5190, 5460; Level 3 Take this course and earn 2 CEUs on our Continuing Education Learning Library Click here for patient handout Carbohydrate, whether from sugars or starches, has the greatest impact on postprandial blood sugar levels compared with protein and fat. For this reason, carbohydrate counting has become a mainstay in diabetes management and education. Patients with type 1 or 2 diabetes benefit from carbohydrate counting in terms of improvements in average glucose levels,1,2 quality of life,2,3 and treatment satisfaction.3 Basic carbohydrate counting is used to keep blood glucose levels consistent, while advanced carbohydrate counting helps with calculating insulin dose. Both basic and advanced carbohydrate counting give people with diabetes the freedom to choose the foods they enjoy while keeping their postprandial blood glucose under control. This continuing education course introduces advanced carbohydrate counting as a tool for improving blood glucose management, evaluates basic and advanced carbohydrate counting, describes good candidates for advanced carbohydrate counting, and discusses strategies for counseling patients as well as precautions when using advanced carbohydrate counting. Basic Carb Counting Basic carbohydrate counting is a structured approach that emphasizes consistency in the timing and amount of carbohydrate consumed. Dietitians teach patients about the relationship among food, diabetes medications, physical activity, and blood glucose levels.4 Basic carbohydrate counting assigns a fixed amount of carbohydrate to be consumed at each meal and, if desired, snacks. Among the skills RDs teach patients are how to identify carbohydrate foods, recognize serving s Continue reading >>

## Back To Shots

There are a number of reasons why switching from your insulin pump back to shots (MDI), using insulin pens or syringes, is sometimes necessary. Reasons can include Pump malfunction Losing or misplacing pump Forgetting pump or supplies at home Hospital visit or surgery Spending a day at the beach or in water Taking a break from the pump all together Short term pump breaks If you will only be disconnected from your pump for a short period of time, your doctor may provide a guideline for you to use only rapid-acting insulin (i.e.: Novalog or Humalog) incrementally, every 3 to 4 hours until you can get back on your pump. Example (off the pump for less than 24 hours) Short-acting insulin doses while off the pump are necessary every 3-4 hours. To calculate, combine a food bolus and the insulin you would normally receive as a basal rate via pump. Here’s an example for a calculating a breakfast injection while off the pump for less than 24 hours: Step 1: Calculate breakfast bolus. Morning blood sugar value = 170 mg/dL Insulin to carbohydrate ratio (ICR) = 1 unit per 15 grams of carbs Insulin sensitivity factor (ICR) / Correction factor (CF) = 50 Breakfast is 60 grams of total carbohydrates Breakfast bolus = bolus for carbs + correction bolus. Cover carbs: 60/15 = 4 units Correction: (170-120)/50 = 1 unit 4 + 1 = 5 unit breakfast bolus Step 2: Calculate amount needed to cover basal rate. Basal rate (s) MN = 0.60 10:00 a.m. = 0.85 5:00 p.m. = 0.70 Combine sum of basal rates from 8 a.m. – 11:00 a.m. = 0.6 (8:00 a.m.) + 0.6 (9:00 a.m.) + 0.85 (10 a.m.) = 2.05 units Step 3: Combine breakfast bolus and amount needed to cover basal rate – this will be your breakfast dosage! 5 units (breakfast bolus) + 2.05 units (basal coverage) = 7.05 units Dose 7 units. *Reminder – repeat th Continue reading >>