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Type 2 Oral Diabetes Medications Side Effects, Differences, And Effectiveness

Type 2 Oral Diabetes Medications Side Effects, Differences, And Effectiveness

What are the types of oral diabetes medications? Currently, there are nine drug classes of oral diabetes medications approved for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. α-glucosidase inhibitors Biguanides Sulfonylureas Meglitinides Thiazolidinediones DPP-4 inhibitors Sodium-glucose cotransporter (SGLT)-2 inhibitors These medications differ in the way they function in the body to reduce blood glucose. Metformin (Glucophage) is the only biguanide available in the United States and is generally the first choice for oral treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Metformin improves Sulfonylureas are the oldest classes of oral diabetes medications. Sulfonylureas work primarily by stimulating the release of insulin. Insulin is the hormone responsible for regulating blood glucose by increasing the uptake of blood glucose by tissues and increasing storage of glucose in the liver. Meglitinides and sulfonylureas have a similar mechanism of action. Meglitinides are short acting glucose lowering medications. They stimulate the secretion of insulin from the pancreas. Thiazolidinediones enhance insulin sensitivity meaning that the effect of a given amount of insulin is greater. Thiazolidinediones also are referred to as peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? or PPAR-? agonists. α-glucosidase inhibitors delay the digestion and absorption of starch or carbohydrates by inhibiting enzymes in the small intestine which help breakdown these molecules. The starches and carbohydrates are broken down into glucose, which then is absorbed from the intestine and increases the level in the blood. DPP-4 inhibitors help lower blood glucose by increasing the production of insulin from the pancreas and reducing the release of glucose from the liver. SGLT2 inhibitors or sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 in Continue reading >>

Type 2 Diabetes

Type 2 Diabetes

Print Diagnosis To diagnose type 2 diabetes, you'll be given a: Glycated hemoglobin (A1C) test. This blood test indicates your average blood sugar level for the past two to three months. It measures the percentage of blood sugar attached to hemoglobin, the oxygen-carrying protein in red blood cells. The higher your blood sugar levels, the more hemoglobin you'll have with sugar attached. An A1C level of 6.5 percent or higher on two separate tests indicates you have diabetes. A result between 5.7 and 6.4 percent is considered prediabetes, which indicates a high risk of developing diabetes. Normal levels are below 5.7 percent. If the A1C test isn't available, or if you have certain conditions — such as if you're pregnant or have an uncommon form of hemoglobin (known as a hemoglobin variant) — that can make the A1C test inaccurate, your doctor may use the following tests to diagnose diabetes: Random blood sugar test. A blood sample will be taken at a random time. Blood sugar values are expressed in milligrams per deciliter (mg/dL) or millimoles per liter (mmol/L). Regardless of when you last ate, a random blood sugar level of 200 mg/dL (11.1 mmol/L) or higher suggests diabetes, especially when coupled with any of the signs and symptoms of diabetes, such as frequent urination and extreme thirst. Fasting blood sugar test. A blood sample will be taken after an overnight fast. A fasting blood sugar level less than 100 mg/dL (5.6 mmol/L) is normal. A fasting blood sugar level from 100 to 125 mg/dL (5.6 to 6.9 mmol/L) is considered prediabetes. If it's 126 mg/dL (7 mmol/L) or higher on two separate tests, you have diabetes. Oral glucose tolerance test. For this test, you fast overnight, and the fasting blood sugar level is measured. Then you drink a sugary liquid, and blood s Continue reading >>

Top 6 Breakthrough Diabetes Treatments You May Have Missed

Top 6 Breakthrough Diabetes Treatments You May Have Missed

Are you concerned you might be diagnosed with diabetes one day? You are not alone. Diabetes and prediabetes are two of the top pressing health issues in the nation. The number of Americans who are at risk for diabetes is astounding: it is reported that close to 86 million people in the U.S. have prediabetes, meaning their blood sugar levels are higher than normal but not yet high enough to be classified as type 2 diabetes. The American Diabetes Association (ADA) estimates a person diagnosed at age 50 dies six years earlier than a person without diabetes. One in three American adults will have diabetes in the year 2050 if current trends continue. Close to 29 million Americans, or 9% of the population, currently have diabetes. The vast majority of people, about 90 to 95 percent of those diagnosed with diabetes, have type 2 diabetes, according to the ADA. Insulin is a hormone the body needs to utilize the glucose (sugar) from food to provide energy for the body. In type 2 diabetes, the pancreas either doesn't make enough insulin, there is resistance to the effects of insulin, or both. Treatment typically begins with oral metformin, a veteran drug that is the backbone of many diabetes treatment regimens. From there, different drug classes may be added to metformin, and for some patients, the use of insulin may become necessary. However, the latest diabetes news is encouraging. New drugs, improved monitoring devices and an understanding of how diet and exercise can impact diabetes is adding up to positive outcomes for patients. As reported in August 2014 from research in The Lancet Diabetes & Endocrinology, the vast majority of people with type 2 diabetes are living longer lives due to better medications and treatments for both the disease and the numerous complications that Continue reading >>

Oral Diabetes Medications Summary Chart

Oral Diabetes Medications Summary Chart

What Oral Medications Are Available for Type 2 Diabetes? Type 2 diabetes results when the body is unable to produce the amount of insulin it needs to convert food into energy or when it is unable to use insulin appropriately. Sometimes the body is actually producing more insulin than is needed by a person to keep blood glucose in a normal range. Yet blood glucose remains high, because the body's cells are resistant to the effects of insulin. Physicians and scientists believe that type 2 diabetes is caused by many factors, including insufficient insulin and insulin resistance. They increasingly believe that the relative contribution each factor makes toward causing diabetes varies from person to person. It is important to know the name of your diabetes medicine (or medicines), how it is taken, the reasons for taking it and possible side-effects. Diabetes Pills How to Take How They Work Side Effects Of Note Biguanides Metformin (Glucophage) Metformin liquid ( Riomet) Metformin extended release (Glucophage XR, Fortamet, Glumetza) Metformin: usually taken twice a day with breakfast and evening meal. Metformin extended release: usually taken once a day in the morning. Decreases amount of glucose released from liver. Bloating, gas, diarrhea, upset stomach, loss of appetite (usually within the first few weeks of starting). Take with food to minimize symptoms. Metformin is not likely to cause low blood glucose. In rare cases, lactic acidosis may occur in people with abnormal kidney or liver function. Always tell healthcare providers that it may need to be stopped when you are having a dye study or surgical procedure. Sulfonylureas Glimepiride (Amaryl) Glyburide (Diabeta, Micronase) Glipizide (Glucotrol, Glucotrol XL) Micronized glyburide (Glynase) Take with a meal once or twice Continue reading >>

Type 2 Diabetes Treatment

Type 2 Diabetes Treatment

Treatment of type 2 diabetes includes both self-care by the patient and medical care provided by physicians and other healthcare providers. Diabetes treatment generally includes: Medications Nutrition therapy Physical activity Lifestyle measures to manage stress and other issues Specialist care to prevent and treat complications Bariatric surgery Type 2 Diabetes Medications Many people with type 2 diabetes start with the oral drug metformin to help control blood sugar levels, and then add other drugs to the regimen, either soon after diagnosis or months or years later. There are currently more than 10 classes of diabetes drugs, each of which lowers blood sugar in a different way. If your current drug regimen isn't lowering blood sugar enough, your doctor may elect to add a drug from a different class. Most people with type 2 diabetes will also eventually need to use insulin. Some will need to take one or two doses of long-acting insulin per day, such as Lantus (insulin glargine) or Levemir (insulin detemir), and others will need to take long-acting insulin with rapid-acting insulin, such as Humalog (insulin lispro) or Novolog (insulin aspart) before meals. Sulfonylureas and Meglitinides Sulfonylurea medications have also been used for many years to help people with type 2 diabetes control their blood sugar. These drugs "cause the insulin-producing [cells of the pancreas] to produce insulin almost constantly, which means they [increase the] risk for low blood sugar and for weight gain," says Daniel Einhorn, MD, vice president of the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists. "But, they are inexpensive and they are effective, and have been used for a long time," he adds. Examples of sulfonylureas include: Another group of medications that stimulate insulin-produci Continue reading >>

Hopes Of New Diabetes Drug With No Side Effects

Hopes Of New Diabetes Drug With No Side Effects

The drug, which costs as little as 2p a day, is the gold standard treatment for obesity-triggered Type 2 diabetes and has been safely used for more than 50 years to control blood sugar levels. Yet one in 10 patients suffers side effects – nausea, loss of appetite and vomiting – and it can also become ineffective over time. One in 10 diabetics suffers side effects – nausea, loss of appetite and vomiting – and it can also become ineffective over time Now experts at the University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine have found that metformin works in a different way than previously thought. A team led by Dr Morris Birnbaum found in experiments on laboratory mice that the drug suppresses the ability of the hormone glucagon to generate a signalling molecule that stimulates glucose production. He said this new understanding means scientists can work on developing a new drug that works by mimicking the way the molecule is blocked by metformin. Type 2 diabetes patients suffer from an impaired production or effectiveness of insulin, the hormone made in the pancreas that helps control blood sugar levels. Metformin works by helping stop the liver from producing excess glucose and overcoming insulin resistance by making insulin carry glucose into muscle cells more effectively. Dr Birnbaum, whose findings are published in the journal Nature, said: “Overall metformin lowers blood glucose by decreasing liver production of glucose. But we didn’t really know how the drug accomplished that.” A revolutionary new treatment could transform lives of patients susceptible to metformin’s side effects. Type 2 sufferers are at higher risk of a host of debilitating conditions from heart disease, strokes and kidney failure to amputations and blindness. There are 2.9 million sufferers Continue reading >>

Which Diabetes Medication Is The Best?

Which Diabetes Medication Is The Best?

With so many products on the market, it can be difficult to choose the most effective diabetes medication for your needs. Type 2 diabetes is often referred to as the silent killer, and many people dont even know they have the disease until it is too late. According to the World Health Organisation (WHO), in 2012 1.5 million deaths were directly caused by this serious metabolic disorder. Type 2 diabetes is preceded by insulin resistance and progressive insulin secretory defects, whereas type 1 is usually diagnosed in children, occurring when the body does not produce any insulin. Fortunately there are many treatment options for type 2 diabetes, and we compared the most common diabetes medications. How it works: This is the most common medication for type 2 diabetes. It works by decreasing the amount of glucose that your liver releases and helps to restore a natural response to insulin. Effectiveness: Most experts agree it might be an old drug, but its still the most widely used and probably the most effective medication. A recent study from the State University of Rio de Janeiro found its still the first line of treatment, even when used in combination with other medication. Possible side-effects: An upset stomach, vomiting, nausea iStock How it works: These medications lower blood glucose levels and increase the amount of insulin produced by the pancreas. Effectiveness: Sulfonylurea drugs have been in use since the 1950s and a lot of newer medications have similar workings (and are generally cheaper). But many physicians still prescribe these medications when Biguanides are either not as effective, or when the side-effects of the latter are too severe. Possible side-effects: Hypoglycaemia, weight gain iStock How it works: These medications stop an enzyme called DPP-4 f Continue reading >>

Medicines For Diabetes

Medicines For Diabetes

Whether your child takes insulin or pills or both to control diabetes, it's important to follow the diabetes management plan prescribed by the diabetes health care team to avoid problems and reduce the risk of side effects. Insulin is a hormone that allows sugar, or glucose , to get into the body's cells to be used for energy. All people with type 1 diabetes and many people with type 2 diabetes need to take insulin every day. The overall goal of treatment with insulin (and other diabetes medicines) is to achieve the best match possible between the amounts of insulin given and the person's individual needs for insulin throughout the day and night. In this way, blood sugar levels can be kept as close to normal as possible to help avoid both short- and long-term problems from diabetes. Treatment plans are designed around the pattern of insulin normally supplied by the pancreas throughout the day in someone without diabetes. In general, this involves providing a fairly steady "background" level of insulin to control blood sugar levels between meals and overnight, along with doses of rapid- or short-acting insulin to handle the fast rises in blood sugar that occur with meals. The types of insulin used and the amount taken each day will vary depending on your child's diabetes management plan. Some plans include two injections each day, while others involve several more or the use of an insulin pump to keep blood sugar levels under control. The diabetes health care team will help you find the best treatment plan for your child. There are a few different kinds of insulin. They differ from one another based on: when they work their hardest to lower blood sugar The table below outlines the types of insulin and how they work. Remember that the actual time it takes for insulin to Continue reading >>

Best Ayurvedic Medicine For Diabetes 2

Best Ayurvedic Medicine For Diabetes 2

Effectively managing Type 2 Diabetes is essentially a three step process: Maintaining a healthy lifestyle with regular food timings, limited sugar intake and regular exercise. Taking proper medication which does NOT cause side effects over the long term. Regular monitoring of glucose and Hba1c levels as a precaution (Every 4-6 weeks if stable) Diadoma and Acidim are FDA Approved Herbal Medicines by Grocare that help maintain glucose levels without any side effects over the long term. Majority health practitioners prescribe the drug Metformin to regulate glucose levels. However, over 60% people who consume it face severe side effects such as: Kidney disease Stomach problems Hyperacidity Low blood glucose Constant need to change medication Need to increase dosage overtime to maintain glucose levels Despite the side effects, glucose levels are NOT stable in over half of the cases. Grocare offers a natural solution for managing diabetes, without the side effects. Diadoma and Acidim together work extensively on the symptoms of diabetes and thwarts the disease from getting the better of you. Their action is three fold: They exercise superior control over blood glucose by stimulating the Beta cells in the pancreas and thus regulating insulin production. They also aid in reducing insulin resistance of the cells overtime. They help increase absorption of glucose in the cells thereby naturally regulating glucose levels. Thus, they maintain the equilibrium of all vital organs putting an effective restraint on the disease without any side effects. Diadoma and Acidim together balance the pH, regulate the function of the pancreas and liver, restore the insulin secretion function and thus help to control blood glucose levels. This greatly reduces the chance of hypo/ hyperglycemic epis Continue reading >>

New Drug Appears To Eliminate Type 2 Diabetes For First Time

New Drug Appears To Eliminate Type 2 Diabetes For First Time

Type 2 diabetes, although influenced by a person’s genes, is largely thought to be brought about by a poor diet and being overweight for prolonged periods of time, particularly at an old age. The pancreas is either unable to produce enough insulin, or the body’s cells simply don’t react to insulin, which leads to dangerously high blood sugar levels. This is known as insulin resistance, and at present, there is no medical way to treat this. A new drug forged by a team at the University of California, however, might prove to be a veritable game-changer. As reported by New Scientist, a daily dose of the drug, given to mice with insulin resistance, canceled out the harmful condition. This is the first time that any treatment has effectively “cured” type 2 diabetes. The team of researchers had an inkling that a particular enzyme was responsible for bringing about insulin resistance. The enzyme – cacophonously known as low molecular weight protein tyrosine phosphate, or LMPTP – can be found in the liver, and it appears to interact with cells in such a way that they become resistance to the presence of insulin. Conjuring up a brand new drug that was specifically designed to hinder the progress of LMPTP, the team thought that it would allow the cells’ insulin receptors to once again be able to react to insulin as they normally would. Much to their delight, they found that they were correct. “Our findings suggest that LMPTP is a key promoter of insulin resistance and that LMPTP inhibitors would be beneficial for treating type 2 diabetes,” the team noted in their Nature study. For this study, their drug was orally administered to a few unfortunate laboratory mice. These mice had been fed an extremely high-fat diet, and they had developed obesity and type 2 dia Continue reading >>

Which Diabetes Drug Is Best?

Which Diabetes Drug Is Best?

HealthDay Reporter TUESDAY, July 19, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- No single drug to treat type 2 diabetes stands out from the pack when it comes to reducing the risks of heart disease, stroke or premature death, a new research review finds. The analysis of hundreds of clinical trials found no evidence that any one diabetes drug, or drug combination, beats out the others. Researchers said the results bolster current recommendations to first try an older, cheaper drug -- metformin (Glumetza, Glucophage) -- for most patients with type 2 diabetes. "There are very few things experts agree on, but this is one of them," said Dr. Kevin Pantalone, a diabetes specialist at the Cleveland Clinic and a member of the Endocrine Society. "Metformin, in the absence of contraindications or intolerability, should be the first-line agent to treat patients with type 2 diabetes," he said. Metformin can cause upset stomach and diarrhea, so some patients are unable to stick with it day to day, explained Pantalone, who wasn't involved in the study. And people with kidney disease generally shouldn't take it, he said. More than 29 million Americans have diabetes -- mostly type 2, according to the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. The disease, which is often linked to obesity, causes blood sugar levels to be chronically high. Over time, that can lead to complications, such as heart disease, stroke, kidney failure and nerve damage, the CDC says. There are numerous classes of medications that lower blood sugar levels. What's been unclear is whether any of those drugs work better than others in warding off diabetes complications and extending people's lives. The new analysis found no obvious winners. But the researchers also cautioned against drawing conclusions: The trials in the review w Continue reading >>

A Complete List Of Diabetes Medications

A Complete List Of Diabetes Medications

Diabetes is a condition that leads to high levels of blood glucose (or sugar) in the body. This happens when your body can’t make or use insulin like it’s supposed to. Insulin is a substance that helps your body use the sugar from the food you eat. There are two different types of diabetes: type 1 diabetes and type 2 diabetes. People with both types of diabetes need medications to help keep their blood sugar levels normal. The types of drugs that can treat you depend on the type of diabetes you have. This article gives you information about drugs that treat both types of diabetes to help give you an idea of the treatment options available to you. Insulin Insulin is the most common type of medication used in type 1 diabetes treatment. It’s also used in type 2 diabetes treatment. It’s given by injection and comes in different types. The type of insulin you need depends on how severe your insulin depletion is. Options include: Short-acting insulin regular insulin (Humulin and Novolin) Rapid-acting insulins Intermediate-acting insulin Long-acting insulins Combination insulins NovoLog Mix 70/30 (insulin aspart protamine-insulin aspart) Humalog Mix 75/25 (insulin lispro protamine-insulin lispro) Humalog Mix 50/50 (insulin lispro protamine-insulin lispro) Humulin 70/30 (human insulin NPH-human insulin regular) Novolin 70/30 (human insulin NPH-human insulin regular) Ryzodeg (insulin degludec-insulin aspart) Amylinomimetic drug Pramlintide (SymlinPen 120, SymlinPen 60) is an amylinomimetic drug. It’s an injectable drug used before meals. It works by delaying the time your stomach takes to empty itself. It reduces glucagon secretion after meals. This lowers your blood sugar. It also reduces appetite through a central mechanism. Most medications for type 2 diabetes are o Continue reading >>

Stopping Diabetes Medicines

Stopping Diabetes Medicines

“I want to get off some of these drugs,” Ellen told me. “But my doctor says I need them. I’m on three for glucose, two for blood pressure, and one for depression. They’re costing me hundreds every month. What can I do?” Ellen is a health-coaching client of mine, age 62 with Type 2 diabetes. She works as an executive secretary in an insurance company. It’s stressful. She’s usually there from 8 AM until 6 PM or later and comes home “too tired to exercise.” She mentioned that just “putting herself together” for work every day requires an hour of prep time. “You have to look good for these executives,” she says. I asked about her drugs. She said she takes metformin (Glucophage and others), sitagliptin ( brand name Januvia), and pioglitazone (Actos) for diabetes, lisinopril (Privinil, Zestril) for blood pressure, simvastatin (Zocor) for cholesterol, and paroxetine (Paxil) for depression. Her A1C is now at 7.3%, down from a high of 9.9% a year ago, when she was on only two medicines. “I think the drugs are depressing me,” she said. “The cost, the side effects… I have nausea most days, I have cough from the lisinopril. That doesn’t help at work. I don’t know what’s worse, the drugs or diabetes.” What would you have said to Ellen? Although I strongly believe in reducing drug use, I told her what most experts say, that she can get off some, possibly all diabetes drugs, but it will take a lot of work. Asqual Getaneh, MD, a diabetes expert who writes for Everyday Health, says that doctors want to be “assured that an A1C will stay down” if a person goes off medicines. She says doctors usually won’t reduce medicines until A1C drops below 7.0%. In the ADA publication Diabetes Forecast, pharmacist Craig Williams, PharmD, writes, “Unf Continue reading >>

Oral Diabetes Medications

Oral Diabetes Medications

A list of oral diabetes medications with advantages, disadvantages, and side effects. Click on the name of a drug for more information. Biguanides Glucophage (generic name: metformin) Glucophage XR (generic name: metformin hydrochloride) extended release Fortamet (generic name: metformin hydrochloride) extended release Glumetza (generic name: metformin hydrochloride) extended release Riomet (generic name: metformin hydrochloride liquid) What are Biguanides? Metformin is the only member of the biguanides family in use today. Metformin (met-FOR-min) helps lower blood glucose by making sure your liver does not put extra glucose into the system when it is not needed. The ADA Standards of Medical Care in Diabetes recommend the inclusion of metformin (along with diet and exercise) in initial diabetes treatment. A good thing about metformin is that it does not cause blood glucose to get too low (hypoglycemia) when it is the only diabetes medicine you take. Who can take this medicine? Adults with type 2 diabetes can take metformin with their doctor’s approval and supervision. You should avoid metformin if you have liver or kidney problems, lung or heart disease, or conditions that cause low blood oxygen levels. Who should not take this medicine? People with certain types of heart problems, such as congestive heart failure, should use caution with this medicine. People with reduced kidney function or kidney disease should probably not take metformin. It should be used with caution if you regularly consume more than two to three drinks daily, so check with your doctor about that. Advantages Metformin, when used alone, is unlikely to cause low blood sugar. It is one of those medicines that always seems to help even after people have had diabetes for a while, and, for this reason Continue reading >>

For Those With Diabetes, Older Drugs Are Often Best

For Those With Diabetes, Older Drugs Are Often Best

WHEN it comes to prescription drugs, newer is not necessarily better. And that’s especially true when treating diabetes. One in 10 Americans has Type 2 diabetes. If the trend continues, one in three will suffer from the disease by the year 2050, according to the federal Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Most Type 2 diabetes patients take one or more drugs to control blood sugar. They spent an estimated $12.5 billion on medication in 2007, twice the amount spent in 2001, according to a study by the University of Chicago. (That figure does not including drugs that diabetics are often prescribed for related health conditions, like high blood pressure and high cholesterol.) Why the increase? More diagnosed patients, more drugs per patient and an onslaught of expensive new drugs, according to Dr. G. Caleb Alexander, assistant professor of medicine at the University of Chicago and lead author of the study. Since 1995, several new classes of diabetes medications have come on the market. Diabetes drugs are important to the pharmaceutical industry, more lucrative than drugs for many other chronic diseases, Dr. Alexander noted in an interview. Simply put, many of these drugs help the body produce less glucose or more insulin, the hormone that shuttles glucose into cells for use as energy, or they increase the body’s sensitivity to its own insulin. Patients and health care professionals have long hoped that as pharmaceutical companies found ways to help the body lower blood sugar, they would produce safer and more efficient alternatives to older medications. But a true breakthrough doesn’t seem to have happened yet. A report released in March by the federal Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality and conducted by researchers at Johns Hopkins University reviewed Continue reading >>

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