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Animal Insulin Brands

Insulin Analog

Insulin Analog

An insulin analog is an altered form of insulin, different from any occurring in nature, but still available to the human body for performing the same action as human insulin in terms of glycemic control. Through genetic engineering of the underlying DNA, the amino acid sequence of insulin can be changed to alter its ADME (absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion) characteristics. Officially, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) refers to these as "insulin receptor ligands", although they are more commonly referred to as insulin analogs. These modifications have been used to create two types of insulin analogs: those that are more readily absorbed from the injection site and therefore act faster than natural insulin injected subcutaneously, intended to supply the bolus level of insulin needed at mealtime (prandial insulin); and those that are released slowly over a period of between 8 and 24 hours, intended to supply the basal level of insulin during the day and particularly at nighttime (basal insulin). The first insulin analog approved for human therapy (insulin Lispro rDNA) was manufactured by Eli Lilly and Company. Fast acting[edit] Lispro[edit] Main article: Insulin lispro Eli Lilly and Company developed and marketed the first rapid-acting insulin analogue (insulin lispro rDNA) Humalog. It was engineered through recombinant DNA technology so that the penultimate lysine and proline residues on the C-terminal end of the B-chain were reversed. This modification did not alter the insulin receptor binding, but blocked the formation of insulin dimers and hexamers. This allowed larger amounts of active monomeric insulin to be available for postprandial (after meal) injections.[1] Aspart[edit] Main article: Insulin aspart Novo Nordisk created "aspart" and Continue reading >>

Insulin Products

Insulin Products

It's Your Health Table of Contents: Animal-sourced insulins and biosynthetic (man-made) human insulins are used worldwide for managing diabetes. Recently, some concern has been expressed about the overall safety of insulins and the availability of animal-sourced insulins for those patients who cannot manage their disease using biosynthetic human insulin. Two types of insulin may be used in the management of diabetes: animal-sourced insulin and biosynthetic human insulin. Historically, preparations of beef, pork, and combined beef-pork insulin were used for managing diabetes. These animal-sourced insulins have been used safely for many years. With the exception of beef-pork insulin, which is no longer available, they are still being used safely today. The first genetically engineered human insulin (also called biosynthetic human insulin, recombinant, or DNA-derived insulin) was manufactured by Eli Lilly Canada and authorized for the Canadian market in 1983. In 1993, biosynthetic human insulin made by Novo Nordisk entered the market. Prior to being authorized for sale in Canada, these products were thoroughly reviewed for their effectiveness, safety, and quality. Since then, human biosynthetic insulin has been shown to be safe and effective for treating type I and II diabetes. With advances in these new types of insulin products, the demand for animal-sourced insulins has declined. Manufacturers have responded by focusing on the production and sale of their recombinant or biosynthetic human insulins. Although the majority of patients with diabetes now use biosynthetic human insulin, there are a small number of patients who cannot manage their disease with these biosynthetic human insulins. They need animal-sourced insulin to manage their diabetes and they are concerned ab Continue reading >>

Animal Insulins

Animal Insulins

For many years the world relied on insulin derived from the minced pancreata of slaughtered pigs and cows. At first, allergic injection site reactions, varying from itchy lumps to anaphylactic shock, were quite common. Once it became clear that these side-effects were mainly due to contaminants, purification steps such as crystallisation were introduced which yielded a product that contained very few impurities—a few hundred parts per million. Insulin production changed little over the next years. However, some problems persisted, the major one being lipoatrophy. This was a tendency for patients to develop disfiguring hollows at their injection sites; the fat just melted away until skin rested directly upon muscle. Monocomponent insulin Most manufacturers used beef pancreas, because of the ample supply, but cow insulin differs from human insulin in three of the 51 amino acids in the peptide chain (see figure), and the immune system can spot the difference. Allergic responses apart, many users developed antibodies to insulin, and it was natural to wonder if these interfered with its therapeutic benefits. Pig insulin differs from human insulin by only one amino acid, and people also wondered whether this was less immunogenic than beef insulin. And which was more important: the remaining impurities in the preparation, or the insulin itself? The Swedish physician Erik Jorpes made the chance discovery that insulin allergy could be treated with insulin that had been through the purification process not once, but thrice, suggesting that the problem lay with the impurities. Jorgen Schlichtkrull, a skilled Danish insulin chemist who pioneered the zinc insulins took note of this and set out to produce a cleaner insulin. Impurities can be detected by passing the extracted insuli Continue reading >>

Frequently Asked Questions: Animal-sourced Insulin

Frequently Asked Questions: Animal-sourced Insulin

A1) Insulin is a hormone that is made by beta cells in our pancreas. These beta cells manufacture and release the insulin into our blood so that it may circulate and allow glucose to enter and fuel the cell. As such, when insulin enters the cells the remaining supply of glucose in our blood decreases. That is, the presence of insulin in our body has the effect of lowering blood glucose. Insulin also controls other aspects of metabolism that are required by the body to sustain life, such as converting fat into glucose and glucose into fat. Diabetes (diabetes mellitus) is the term used to describe higher-than-normal glucose levels in the blood. There are different causes and types of diabetes, but all have the common abnormality of a high level of glucose in the blood. Since the presence of insulin in our body lowers our blood glucose, insulin injections are often used to control glucose levels. Failure to control blood sugar levels leads to complication such as loss of vision, diseases of the arteries, the kidneys and the heart. Insulin is an absolute requirement when treating type 1 diabetes; in persons with type 2 diabetes, insulin is used when other means of treatment, such as diet and pills, are insufficient or no longer work. Q2) What are animal-sourced insulin and biosynthetic human insulin? A2) Two types of insulin may be used in the management of diabetes: animal-sourced insulin and biosynthetic (man-made) (human) insulin. Insulin was originally derived from the pancreases of cows and pigs. Animal-sourced insulin is made from preparations of beef or pork pancreases, and has been used safely to manage diabetes for many years. With the exception of beef/pork insulin, which is no longer available, they are still being used safely today. Over the years, insulin produ Continue reading >>

Why Is Insulin So Expensive In The U.s.?

Why Is Insulin So Expensive In The U.s.?

Dr. Jeremy Greene sees a lot of patients with diabetes that's out of control. In fact, he says, sometimes their blood sugar is "so high that you can't even record the number on their glucometer." Greene, a professor of medicine and history of medicine at Johns Hopkins University, started asking patients at his clinic in Baltimore why they had so much trouble keeping their blood sugar stable. He was shocked by their answer: the high cost of insulin. Greene decided to call some local pharmacies, to ask about low-cost options. He was told no such options existed. "Only then did I realize there is no such thing as generic insulin in the United States in the year 2015," he says. Greene wondered why that was the case. Why was a medicine more than 90 years old so expensive? He started looking into the history of insulin, and has published a paper about his findings in this week's issue of the New England Journal of Medicine. The story of insulin, it turns out, starts back in the late 1800s. That's when scientists discovered a link between diabetes and damaged cells in the pancreas — cells that produce insulin. In the early 1920s, researchers in Toronto extracted insulin from cattle pancreases and gave it to people who had diabetes, as part of a clinical trial. The first patient was a 14-year-old boy, who made a dramatic recovery. Most others recovered as well. Soon, insulin from pigs and cattle was being produced and sold on a massive scale around the world. But for some, the early forms of the medicine weren't ideal. Many people required multiple injections every day, and some developed minor allergic reactions. Over the next few decades, scientists figured out how to produce higher-quality insulin, Greene says. They made the drug purer, so recipients had fewer bad reaction Continue reading >>

Gm Vs Animal Insulin

Gm Vs Animal Insulin

Home » About Diabetes » GM Vs Animal Insulin Choices – The Evidence Evidence from people with diabetes A little bit of history Facts Action and duration times of animal and GM ‘human’ insulins Hypoglycaemia and loss of warnings ‘Dead in Bed Syndrome’ The concerns of patients are justified Availability of animal insulins in the UK Changing your insulin What to do if your consultant refuses to change your insulin Availability of animal insulin if admitted to hospital Frequently asked questions Allergic reactions to insulin Choices – The Evidence The NHS has always allowed patients to have an informed choice of treatment before they make their treatment decisions and this includes information about risks and benefits. In recent years, greater emphasis has been placed on informed choice as a result of NHS policy which puts patients at the centre of care and encourages involvement in their treatment decisions so that in the ideal world, patients and their doctors make decisions jointly. The treatment of diabetes is no exception and therefore people with insulin-requiring diabetes, whether Type 1 or Type 2 diabetes should have an informed choice of insulins and should be given information about risks and benefits. IDDT has always argued that this should be the case and so if people have a preference for natural pork or beef insulins, whether this is due to adverse reactions to GM synthetic insulins or simply personal preference, then their views should be respected. IDDT advocates the same principles should apply to the newer insulin analogues. The importance of high quality evidence to inform our decisions When new drugs, including new insulins, reach the market the research has been in limited numbers of people. Often this early research only involves a highly Continue reading >>

Types Of Insulin

Types Of Insulin

Insulin analogs are now replacing human insulin in the US. Insulins are categorized by differences in onset, peak, duration, concentration, and route of delivery. Human Insulin and Insulin Analogs are available for insulin replacement therapy. Insulins also are classified by the timing of their action in your body – specifically, how quickly they start to act, when they have a maximal effect and how long they act.Insulin analogs have been developed because human insulins have limitations when injected under the skin. In high concentrations, such as in a vial or cartridge, human (and also animal insulin) clumps together. This clumping causes slow and unpredictable absorption from the subcutaneous tissue and a dose-dependent duration of action (i.e. the larger dose, the longer the effect or duration). In contrast, insulin analogs have a more predictable duration of action. The rapid acting insulin analogs work more quickly, and the long acting insulin analogs last longer and have a more even, “peakless” effect. Background Insulin has been available since 1925. It was initially extracted from beef and pork pancreases. In the early 1980’s, technology became available to produce human insulin synthetically. Synthetic human insulin has replaced beef and pork insulin in the US. And now, insulin analogs are replacing human insulin. Characteristics of Insulin Insulins are categorized by differences in: Onset (how quickly they act) Peak (how long it takes to achieve maximum impact) Duration (how long they last before they wear off) Concentration (Insulins sold in the U.S. have a concentration of 100 units per ml or U100. In other countries, additional concentrations are available. Note: If you purchase insulin abroad, be sure it is U100.) Route of delivery (whether they a Continue reading >>

There Are Different Types Of Insulin And Methods Of Delivering Insulin To The Body

There Are Different Types Of Insulin And Methods Of Delivering Insulin To The Body

It’s important that you use the right insulin and the right delivery method to suit you. Always consult your healthcare team making changes to your treatment regime. There are many different types of insulin, and most people with type 1 in the UK combine the use of two insulins. This usually involves a ‘basal-bolus regime’ – combining a slow-acting and fast-acting insulin to try to balance blood glucose levels. Slow-acting insulin Slow-acting insulins (also known as long-acting, basal or background insulins) provide your body with the background insulin it needs throughout the day and night. They can last up to 24 hours. Popular types of slow-acting insulin in the UK include: Insulin glargine (Lantus) – this takes effect after an hour and can last for 24 hours Insulin determir (Levemir) – this has a shorter effect than Lantus and so if often injected twice per day Insulin degludec (Tresiba) – this is often prescribed to reduce nocturnal hypoglycaemia in people over the age of 18 Rapid-acting insulin Rapid-acting insulins (also known as fast or short-acting, bolus or mealtime insulin) are usually taken just before a meal, snack or drink containing carbohydrates to minimise the rise in blood sugar which follows eating. Types of rapid-acting insulin in the UK include: Insulin aspart (Novorapid) – takes effect approximately 10-20 minutes after injection Insulin aspart (Fiasp) – takes effect approximately 5 minutes after injection Insulin lispro (Humalog) – takes effect approximately 15-30 minutes after injection Insulin glulisine (Apidra) – takes effect approximately 10-20 minutes after injection Novorapid, Fiasp, Apidra and Humalog all peak after approximately one hour, and cease to have any effect two to five hours after injection. A note about Fiasp Continue reading >>

Insulin Types

Insulin Types

When insulin was first developed, animal sources of insulin were used, particularly bovine or porcine insulin (from cattle or pigs). There were many complications of using these types of insulin, including allergies to animal insulin. It was then when human insulin was described and was synthesized in the laboratory. In today’s time, the major insulin type used is human insulin, which has far fewer complications and fewer allergies. Human insulin products and insulin analogs are used by the body to replace insulin not made by the pancreas. They are divided into different types according to when they begin to act on the body, the peak onset of action, and the time when the insulin is finally gone from the body. Insulin analogs have been manufactured because human insulin is not able to be used by everyone. In the vials of insulin, high concentrations of the synthetic hormone often clump the insulin together, which results in a slow and unpredictable absorption of the hormone. Insulin analogs are generally considered to be more reliable and have a more predictable effect on the body. These fast acting insulin analogs work faster than regular insulin. Long acting insulin analogs tend to last longer in the body and release steady streams of insulin, without much of a peak. The animal (bovine and porcine) insulin has been used for the treatment of diabetes since 1925. The insulin was made by extracting the insulin from the pancreases of cows and pigs. This lasted until the early part of the 1980s, when there was an advancement in technology that allowed manufacturers to make human insulin in synthetic form. Now synthetic human insulin is used by the vast majority of diabetics. In the future, insulin analogs will be the most common choice for diabetics who need glucose redu Continue reading >>

Injectable Insulin Brands: What You Should Know

Injectable Insulin Brands: What You Should Know

What is insulin? Insulin is a natural hormone that is produced by the beta cells in the pancreas. When you eat foods with carbohydrates, glucose will be absorbed into the bloodstream. Glucose is a form of sugar which is one of the main sources of energy for the body and all of its cells. This naturally occurring hormone works by transporting glucose to the body tissue for energy. People with diabetes cannot produce enough insulin or use it properly. Because of this, glucose cannot enter the body cells, hence they stay in the bloodstream and build up. Too much glucose in the bloodstream can lead to health complications such as nerve damage, kidney problems and blindness. There are two types of diabetes: type 1 diabetes and type 2 diabetes. Type 1 diabetics make little or no insulin as a result of the immune system attacking and destroying the beta cells in the pancreas. People with type 1 diabetes need to take insulin injections so that they can survive. Injectable insulins work similarly to the natural hormone produced in the body, which acts by lowering blood sugar levels. There are many insulin brands available on the market which can be used to treat diabetes. Insulin analogs are used to treat type 1 diabetes and can be used in combination with oral diabetes drugs in the latter stages of type 2 diabetes. Type 2 diabetes is a chronic condition where the body cannot produce enough insulin or use it properly. Insulin brands are usually grouped depending on how fast they start to work to reduce blood sugar levels and how long their effects last in the body. The type of insulin analogs includes: Rapid-acting Short-acting Intermediate-acting and Long-acting insulin analogs Types of insulin brands Rapid acting insulins Humalog is a rapid acting insulin, which refers to the Continue reading >>

Questions And Answers On Importing Beef Or Pork Insulin For Personal Use

Questions And Answers On Importing Beef Or Pork Insulin For Personal Use

Why can’t I obtain beef or pork insulin manufactured in the U.S.? How can I obtain beef or pork insulin manufactured in a foreign country for my personal use? What are FDA’s concerns regarding the importation of beef or pork insulin for my personal use? Why will FDA allow me to import beef or pork insulin into the U.S. if the product is not approved? How does FDA determine whether it will allow me to import beef or pork insulin for my personal use? Where can I obtain information on USDA requirements to import beef or pork insulin from a foreign country? Q-1. Why can’t I obtain beef or pork insulin manufactured in the U.S.? A. The manufacturing of beef insulin for human use in the U.S. was discontinued in 1998. In 2006, the manufacturing of pork insulin (Iletin II) for human use was discontinued. The discontinuation of animal-sourced insulins was a voluntary withdrawal of these products made by the manufacturers and not based on any FDA regulatory action. Although there are no FDA-approved animal-sourced insulins available in the U.S., recombinant human insulins and their analogs are safe and effective FDA-approved products available for the treatment of type 1 and 2 diabetes mellitus. Q-2. How can I obtain beef or pork insulin manufactured in a foreign country for my personal use? A. You may be able to import beef or pork insulin for your personal use from a foreign country, if you follow certain FDA and USDA requirements. After your shipment of beef or pork insulin arrives in this country, the United States Customs Service will notify FDA. FDA then will decide whether or not to allow the shipment to enter the country. Q-3. What are FDA’s concerns regarding the importation of beef or pork insulin for my personal use? A. Manufacturers producing beef or pork insul Continue reading >>

Just Ask The Expert: Your Insulin Options In Diabetic Dogs

Just Ask The Expert: Your Insulin Options In Diabetic Dogs

Dr. Bruyette welcome endocrinology questions from veterinarians and veterinary technicians. Click here to submit your question, or send an e-mail to [email protected] with the subject line "Endocrinoloy questions." Q. With so many insulin products to choose from, how do I decide which insulin is the best for my canine patients? A. Because there are several insulins to choose from, selecting an insulin for a newly diagnosed diabetic dog can be confusing. And how do you decide what to switch to in a dog that is responding poorly to a particular insulin? Here are my thoughts on where you might turn. Vetsulin (Merck Animal Health) Vetsulin has recently been reintroduced to the veterinary market and is approved for use in both dogs and cats. This is the same product that was previously available from Intervet/Schering-Plough Animal Health. This porcine-origin zinc Lente insulin is classified as an intermediate-acting insulin. Canine and porcine insulin have an identical amino acid sequence, which eliminates the theoretical complication of a dog's developing anti-insulin antibodies that may adversely affect glycemic control. One important change that occurred with the relaunch of Vetsulin is the manufacturer's recommendations regarding handling of the insulin. Vetsulin should be shaken thoroughly until a homogeneous, uniformly milky suspension is obtained. This is a markedly different way of handling insulin, so be sure to read the package insert for further handling instructions. This insulin is available only at a concentration of 40 IU/ml, so make sure you provide U-40 insulin syringes to owners. Reassess the dog's clinical signs and perform a serial blood glucose curve one week after starting therapy. While the manufacturer's package insert recommends once-a-day initial do Continue reading >>

Insulin (medication)

Insulin (medication)

"Insulin therapy" redirects here. For the psychiatric treatment, see Insulin shock therapy. Insulin is used as a medication to treat high blood sugar.[3] This includes in diabetes mellitus type 1, diabetes mellitus type 2, gestational diabetes, and complications of diabetes such as diabetic ketoacidosis and hyperosmolar hyperglycemic states.[3] It is also used along with glucose to treat high blood potassium levels.[4] Typically it is given by injection under the skin, but some forms may also be used by injection into a vein or muscle.[3] The common side effect is low blood sugar.[3] Other side effects may include pain or skin changes at the sites of injection, low blood potassium, and allergic reactions.[3] Use during pregnancy is relatively safe for the baby.[3] Insulin can be made from the pancreas of pigs or cows.[5] Human versions can be made either by modifying pig versions or recombinant technology.[5] It comes in three main types short–acting (such as regular insulin), intermediate–acting (such as NPH insulin), and longer-acting (such as insulin glargine).[5] Insulin was first used as a medication in Canada by Charles Best and Frederick Banting in 1922.[6] It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines, the most effective and safe medicines needed in a health system.[7] The wholesale cost in the developing world is about US$2.39 to $10.61 per 1,000 iu of regular insulin and $2.23 to $10.35 per 1,000 iu of NPH insulin.[8][9] In the United Kingdom 1,000 iu of regular or NPH insulin costs the NHS 7.48 pounds, while this amount of insulin glargine costs 30.68 pounds.[5] Medical uses[edit] Giving insulin with an insulin pen. Insulin is used to treat a number of diseases including diabetes and its acute complications such as diabetic ketoacid Continue reading >>

Types Of Insulin

Types Of Insulin

Diabetes has been around for a long time. In fact, documentation of symptoms of this condition date back to 1552 BC, when it was mentioned by a physician in ancient Egypt. Described in the 1600s as the “pissing evile,” urination and thirst were the hallmarks of a disease for which there was no treatment. Fast-forward a few hundred years to 1921, when researchers Frederick Banting and Charles H. Best discovered insulin in the pancreatic extracts of dogs. With help from other scientists, insulin was developed into a form suitable for human treatment. How is insulin made? Insulin is required for all forms of life (except for certain insects), including worms, fish, and mammals. In fact, the early forms of insulin available for human injection were derived from animal sources, including cows, pigs, horses, and even fish! Some of you might have even injected pork or beef insulin (these are no longer available in the U.S.). However, because the amino acid sequence of animal insulins differs from that of humans, these animal insulins were known to cause allergic reactions. Back in the 1980s, a new way to produce insulin was enacted, using a technique called recombinant DNA technology. Scientists were able to genetically alter bacteria or yeast cells to produce pure human insulin in large amounts. As a result of this technology, insulin in the U.S. is much less likely to produce allergic reactions (although some people do have an allergy to insulin). In 1982, pharmaceutical company Lilly introduced the first engineered insulin to the market under the brand name Humulin — this, by the way, was the first recombinant DNA drug in the world. What are insulin analogs? Biotechnology didn’t stop with Humulin, however. With the newfound ability to tweak insulin’s DNA, scientis Continue reading >>

Two Types Of Insulin: Human And Analog

Two Types Of Insulin: Human And Analog

Glucose is a type of sugar from food that the body uses for energy. The level of glucose in the bloodstream usually rises after a meal. To be efficiently utilized by the body, glucose in the bloodstream needs to enter the body’s cells. If glucose is unable to enter the cells, blood glucose levels rise leading to hyperglycemia. Long-term hyperglycemia damages nerves, blood vessels and vital organs. Insulin is a hormone produced by the beta cells of the pancreas. The beta cells release more insulin whenever there is a rise in blood glucose levels. Insulin enables glucose to enter the cells, thereby restoring normal blood glucose levels and allowing efficient glucose metabolism. People with type 1 diabetes can no longer produce insulin because the disease has destroyed the beta cells of their pancreas. People with type 2 diabetes can produce insulin but their body does not respond well to it, a condition known as insulin resistance. Insulin resistance also develops in pregnant women with gestational diabetes because the placenta (organ that connects the fetus to the mother’s blood supply) produces insulin-blocking hormones. Insulin therapy replaces or supplements the body’s own insulin, thereby restoring normal or near-normal blood sugar levels. It is one of the cornerstones of diabetes management, providing intensive blood glucose control crucial in preventing diabetes-related complications. Why is insulin injected into the fat under the skin rather than taken as a pill? Because insulin taken in pill form would be broken down by digestive enzymes and rendered ineffective. The first generation of man-made insulin is called “human insulin.” Developed through the 1960s and 1970s and approved for pharmaceutical use in 1982, human insulin is the name given to synthet Continue reading >>

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