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Animal Insulin Brands

Insulin

Insulin

What are Insulin Insulin is a hormone that occurs naturally in the body and can also be given by injection as a treatment for diabetes. Naturally-occurring insulin is made by the beta cells of the Islets of Langerhans located in the pancreas. It helps the cells of the body to uptake glucose (sugar) found in the carbohydrates we eat so that it can be used as energy or stored for later use. Insulin also controls glucose release from the liver. One of the main roles of insulin is to keep blood glucose levels from going too high (hyperglycemia) or too low (hypoglycemia). People with type 1 diabetes do not make enough insulin to satisfy their body's needs or make none at all. Insulin given by injection acts similarly to naturally occurring insulin. There are more than 20 different types of insulin available for diabetes treatment in the United States. The various types of insulin differ in several ways: such as source (animal, human or genetically engineered), the time for insulin to take effect and the length of time the insulin remains working (ie, rapid acting, short acting, intermediate acting, long acting or very long acting). Insulin is used to treat Type 1 diabetes and it may be used together with oral medications in the later stages of Type 2 diabetes. List of Insulin: Filter by: -- all conditions -- Drug Name View by: Brand | Generic Reviews Avg. Ratings Humulin R (Pro, More...) generic name: insulin regular 0 reviews 10 NovoLog Mix 70 / 30 FlexPen (More...) generic name: insulin aspart/insulin aspart protamine 0 reviews 10 Humalog Mix 75 / 25 (More...) generic name: insulin lispro/insulin lispro protamine 2 reviews 9.5 NovoLog Mix 70 / 30 (More...) generic name: insulin aspart/insulin aspart protamine 3 reviews 9.5 ReliOn / Novolin 70 / 30 (More...) generic name: i Continue reading >>

Types Of Insulin

Types Of Insulin

Diabetes has been around for a long time. In fact, documentation of symptoms of this condition date back to 1552 BC, when it was mentioned by a physician in ancient Egypt. Described in the 1600s as the “pissing evile,” urination and thirst were the hallmarks of a disease for which there was no treatment. Fast-forward a few hundred years to 1921, when researchers Frederick Banting and Charles H. Best discovered insulin in the pancreatic extracts of dogs. With help from other scientists, insulin was developed into a form suitable for human treatment. How is insulin made? Insulin is required for all forms of life (except for certain insects), including worms, fish, and mammals. In fact, the early forms of insulin available for human injection were derived from animal sources, including cows, pigs, horses, and even fish! Some of you might have even injected pork or beef insulin (these are no longer available in the U.S.). However, because the amino acid sequence of animal insulins differs from that of humans, these animal insulins were known to cause allergic reactions. Back in the 1980s, a new way to produce insulin was enacted, using a technique called recombinant DNA technology. Scientists were able to genetically alter bacteria or yeast cells to produce pure human insulin in large amounts. As a result of this technology, insulin in the U.S. is much less likely to produce allergic reactions (although some people do have an allergy to insulin). In 1982, pharmaceutical company Lilly introduced the first engineered insulin to the market under the brand name Humulin — this, by the way, was the first recombinant DNA drug in the world. What are insulin analogs? Biotechnology didn’t stop with Humulin, however. With the newfound ability to tweak insulin’s DNA, scientis Continue reading >>

Frequently Asked Questions: Animal-sourced Insulin

Frequently Asked Questions: Animal-sourced Insulin

A1) Insulin is a hormone that is made by beta cells in our pancreas. These beta cells manufacture and release the insulin into our blood so that it may circulate and allow glucose to enter and fuel the cell. As such, when insulin enters the cells the remaining supply of glucose in our blood decreases. That is, the presence of insulin in our body has the effect of lowering blood glucose. Insulin also controls other aspects of metabolism that are required by the body to sustain life, such as converting fat into glucose and glucose into fat. Diabetes (diabetes mellitus) is the term used to describe higher-than-normal glucose levels in the blood. There are different causes and types of diabetes, but all have the common abnormality of a high level of glucose in the blood. Since the presence of insulin in our body lowers our blood glucose, insulin injections are often used to control glucose levels. Failure to control blood sugar levels leads to complication such as loss of vision, diseases of the arteries, the kidneys and the heart. Insulin is an absolute requirement when treating type 1 diabetes; in persons with type 2 diabetes, insulin is used when other means of treatment, such as diet and pills, are insufficient or no longer work. Q2) What are animal-sourced insulin and biosynthetic human insulin? A2) Two types of insulin may be used in the management of diabetes: animal-sourced insulin and biosynthetic (man-made) (human) insulin. Insulin was originally derived from the pancreases of cows and pigs. Animal-sourced insulin is made from preparations of beef or pork pancreases, and has been used safely to manage diabetes for many years. With the exception of beef/pork insulin, which is no longer available, they are still being used safely today. Over the years, insulin produ Continue reading >>

Insulin And Syringe Facts

Insulin And Syringe Facts

Insulin Basics Types Absorption Onset Peak Duration Onset, Peak, Duration chart for pets Insulin Web Resources Syringes References Insulin Basics: what is insulin Insulin is a protein produced by the pancreas, a small organ located in the abdomen. Insulin is made by the pancreatic islet cells (also called the beta cells), then secreted into the blood where it travels throughout the body and helps regulate blood sugar. Insulin is also called a hormone because it is produced in one location (the pancreas) and travels to other cells and regulates their function. Insulin plays a key role in the body's ability to use and store glucose. There's often a discussion about the differences between cat, dog, human, cow, and pig insulins. Above, you read that insulin is a protein. This protein consists of building blocks called amino acids. There are two chains of amino acids; the A chain and the B chain which are linked together in two locations. Think of two strands of pearls hooked together in two spots. The amino acid sequence of the two chains of bovine (cow) insulin and their cross-linkages can be seen in this image, along with the differences (or similarities) in the amino acid sequences between various species. These amino acid differences give each species' insulin a slightly different structure and activity because the whole insulin protein folds around on itself and has very specific locations where it interacts with the insulin receptor on the cell (remember the lock and key mechanism). Because of this very specific structure-activity relationship, a substitution of one amino acid in a critical location may make the protein deform or not work as well in another species. Think of a string of pearls that you can twist up into a ball. If you use all one size of tiny pearls, Continue reading >>

Insulin Types

Insulin Types

When insulin was first developed, animal sources of insulin were used, particularly bovine or porcine insulin (from cattle or pigs). There were many complications of using these types of insulin, including allergies to animal insulin. It was then when human insulin was described and was synthesized in the laboratory. In today’s time, the major insulin type used is human insulin, which has far fewer complications and fewer allergies. Human insulin products and insulin analogs are used by the body to replace insulin not made by the pancreas. They are divided into different types according to when they begin to act on the body, the peak onset of action, and the time when the insulin is finally gone from the body. Insulin analogs have been manufactured because human insulin is not able to be used by everyone. In the vials of insulin, high concentrations of the synthetic hormone often clump the insulin together, which results in a slow and unpredictable absorption of the hormone. Insulin analogs are generally considered to be more reliable and have a more predictable effect on the body. These fast acting insulin analogs work faster than regular insulin. Long acting insulin analogs tend to last longer in the body and release steady streams of insulin, without much of a peak. The animal (bovine and porcine) insulin has been used for the treatment of diabetes since 1925. The insulin was made by extracting the insulin from the pancreases of cows and pigs. This lasted until the early part of the 1980s, when there was an advancement in technology that allowed manufacturers to make human insulin in synthetic form. Now synthetic human insulin is used by the vast majority of diabetics. In the future, insulin analogs will be the most common choice for diabetics who need glucose redu Continue reading >>

Insulin Products

Insulin Products

It's Your Health Table of Contents: Animal-sourced insulins and biosynthetic (man-made) human insulins are used worldwide for managing diabetes. Recently, some concern has been expressed about the overall safety of insulins and the availability of animal-sourced insulins for those patients who cannot manage their disease using biosynthetic human insulin. Two types of insulin may be used in the management of diabetes: animal-sourced insulin and biosynthetic human insulin. Historically, preparations of beef, pork, and combined beef-pork insulin were used for managing diabetes. These animal-sourced insulins have been used safely for many years. With the exception of beef-pork insulin, which is no longer available, they are still being used safely today. The first genetically engineered human insulin (also called biosynthetic human insulin, recombinant, or DNA-derived insulin) was manufactured by Eli Lilly Canada and authorized for the Canadian market in 1983. In 1993, biosynthetic human insulin made by Novo Nordisk entered the market. Prior to being authorized for sale in Canada, these products were thoroughly reviewed for their effectiveness, safety, and quality. Since then, human biosynthetic insulin has been shown to be safe and effective for treating type I and II diabetes. With advances in these new types of insulin products, the demand for animal-sourced insulins has declined. Manufacturers have responded by focusing on the production and sale of their recombinant or biosynthetic human insulins. Although the majority of patients with diabetes now use biosynthetic human insulin, there are a small number of patients who cannot manage their disease with these biosynthetic human insulins. They need animal-sourced insulin to manage their diabetes and they are concerned ab Continue reading >>

There Are Different Types Of Insulin And Methods Of Delivering Insulin To The Body

There Are Different Types Of Insulin And Methods Of Delivering Insulin To The Body

It’s important that you use the right insulin and the right delivery method to suit you. Always consult your healthcare team making changes to your treatment regime. There are many different types of insulin, and most people with type 1 in the UK combine the use of two insulins. This usually involves a ‘basal-bolus regime’ – combining a slow-acting and fast-acting insulin to try to balance blood glucose levels. Slow-acting insulin Slow-acting insulins (also known as long-acting, basal or background insulins) provide your body with the background insulin it needs throughout the day and night. They can last up to 24 hours. Popular types of slow-acting insulin in the UK include: Insulin glargine (Lantus) – this takes effect after an hour and can last for 24 hours Insulin determir (Levemir) – this has a shorter effect than Lantus and so if often injected twice per day Insulin degludec (Tresiba) – this is often prescribed to reduce nocturnal hypoglycaemia in people over the age of 18 Rapid-acting insulin Rapid-acting insulins (also known as fast or short-acting, bolus or mealtime insulin) are usually taken just before a meal, snack or drink containing carbohydrates to minimise the rise in blood sugar which follows eating. Types of rapid-acting insulin in the UK include: Insulin aspart (Novorapid) – takes effect approximately 10-20 minutes after injection Insulin aspart (Fiasp) – takes effect approximately 5 minutes after injection Insulin lispro (Humalog) – takes effect approximately 15-30 minutes after injection Insulin glulisine (Apidra) – takes effect approximately 10-20 minutes after injection Novorapid, Fiasp, Apidra and Humalog all peak after approximately one hour, and cease to have any effect two to five hours after injection. A note about Fiasp Continue reading >>

Why Is Insulin So Expensive In The U.s.?

Why Is Insulin So Expensive In The U.s.?

Dr. Jeremy Greene sees a lot of patients with diabetes that's out of control. In fact, he says, sometimes their blood sugar is "so high that you can't even record the number on their glucometer." Greene, a professor of medicine and history of medicine at Johns Hopkins University, started asking patients at his clinic in Baltimore why they had so much trouble keeping their blood sugar stable. He was shocked by their answer: the high cost of insulin. Greene decided to call some local pharmacies, to ask about low-cost options. He was told no such options existed. "Only then did I realize there is no such thing as generic insulin in the United States in the year 2015," he says. Greene wondered why that was the case. Why was a medicine more than 90 years old so expensive? He started looking into the history of insulin, and has published a paper about his findings in this week's issue of the New England Journal of Medicine. The story of insulin, it turns out, starts back in the late 1800s. That's when scientists discovered a link between diabetes and damaged cells in the pancreas — cells that produce insulin. In the early 1920s, researchers in Toronto extracted insulin from cattle pancreases and gave it to people who had diabetes, as part of a clinical trial. The first patient was a 14-year-old boy, who made a dramatic recovery. Most others recovered as well. Soon, insulin from pigs and cattle was being produced and sold on a massive scale around the world. But for some, the early forms of the medicine weren't ideal. Many people required multiple injections every day, and some developed minor allergic reactions. Over the next few decades, scientists figured out how to produce higher-quality insulin, Greene says. They made the drug purer, so recipients had fewer bad reaction Continue reading >>

Gm Vs Animal Insulin

Gm Vs Animal Insulin

Home » About Diabetes » GM Vs Animal Insulin Choices – The Evidence Evidence from people with diabetes A little bit of history Facts Action and duration times of animal and GM ‘human’ insulins Hypoglycaemia and loss of warnings ‘Dead in Bed Syndrome’ The concerns of patients are justified Availability of animal insulins in the UK Changing your insulin What to do if your consultant refuses to change your insulin Availability of animal insulin if admitted to hospital Frequently asked questions Allergic reactions to insulin Choices – The Evidence The NHS has always allowed patients to have an informed choice of treatment before they make their treatment decisions and this includes information about risks and benefits. In recent years, greater emphasis has been placed on informed choice as a result of NHS policy which puts patients at the centre of care and encourages involvement in their treatment decisions so that in the ideal world, patients and their doctors make decisions jointly. The treatment of diabetes is no exception and therefore people with insulin-requiring diabetes, whether Type 1 or Type 2 diabetes should have an informed choice of insulins and should be given information about risks and benefits. IDDT has always argued that this should be the case and so if people have a preference for natural pork or beef insulins, whether this is due to adverse reactions to GM synthetic insulins or simply personal preference, then their views should be respected. IDDT advocates the same principles should apply to the newer insulin analogues. The importance of high quality evidence to inform our decisions When new drugs, including new insulins, reach the market the research has been in limited numbers of people. Often this early research only involves a highly Continue reading >>

Animal Insulin

Animal Insulin

Tweet Animal insulin was the first type of insulin to be administered to humans to control diabetes. Animal insulin is derived from cows and pigs. Until the 1980s, animal insulin was the only treatment for insulin dependent diabetes. These days the use of animal insulin has largely been replaced by human insulin and human analogue insulin, however, animal insulin is still available on prescription. How is animal insulin produced? As the name suggests animal insulin is taken from the pancreases of animals, usually pigs (porcine or pork insulin) and cows (bovine or beef insulin). The insulin is purified which reduces the chance of the insulin user developing a reaction to the insulin. Can animal insulin be prescribed? Animal insulin, under the name Hypurin, is being produced by Wockhardt UK and is available on prescription. What types of animal insulin are available? Animal insulins are available in 3 different types of action and durations, short acting, intermediate and long acting: Short acting: Hypurin Porcine Neutral, Hypurin Bovine Neutral Intermediate acting: Hypurin Porcine Isophane, Hypurin Bovine Isophane Long acting: Hypurin Bovine lente, Hypurin Bovine PZI (protamine zinc insulin) Premixed: Hypurin Porcine 30/70 What are premixed animal insulins? Premixed animal insulins combine a ratio of short acting and intermediate insulin. For example, Hypurin Porcine consists of 30% short acting and 70% intermediate acting insulin. How quickly do animal insulins act? Short acting animal insulin starts to act from about 30 minutes after injecting, with their peak action occurring between 3 and 4 hours after injecting. The duration is up to 8 hours. Intermediate acting animal insulin takes about 4 to 6 hours to start acting, has its peak activity between 8 and 14 hours and Continue reading >>

Insulin Products Commonly Used In Dogs And Cats

Insulin Products Commonly Used In Dogs And Cats

Abbreviations: BG, blood glucose; NPH, Neutral Protamine Hagedorn; PZI, protamine zinc insulin; U, units. Additional Information on Available Insulin Products: Lente (U-40 porcine insulin zinc suspension; Vetsulin, Merck Animal Health) is an intermediate-acting insulin commonly used by the Task Force in dogs. It is FDA approved for use in dogs and cats. It has a close to 12 hr duration of action in most dogs and is useful for minimizing postprandial hyperglycemia. Glargine (U-100 human recombinant; Lantus, Sanofi) is a longer-acting insulin commonly used by the Task Force in cats because it has an adequate duration of action in most diabetic cats. Several studies have demonstrated that glargine is effective for controlling blood sugar levels in diabetic cats and achieving high remission rates.12 Glargine can also be used in dogs. It is a human analog insulin with modifications that provide variable solubility at different pHs. Glargine is soluble at a pH of 4.0, the pH at which it is supplied and stored, but in the neutral pH of the body’s blood or subcutaneous tissues it forms microprecipitates, facilitating slow absorption after injection. This results in rapid onset and long duration of action. Glargine is sometimes described as a “peakless” insulin, although peakless does not mean an absence of a nadir in cats but rather refers to glucose utilization rates.4 In dogs, a flat blood glucose curve (BGC) may be seen, so glargine can be referred to as a peakless insulin in that species.13 PZI (U-40 human recombinant protamine zinc insulin; ProZinc, Boehringer Ingelheim Animal Health) is considered by clinicians as a long-acting insulin, and is FDA approved for use in cats. In field studies in cats, mean time of the BG nadir was between 5 and 7 hr and the duration of Continue reading >>

Injectable Insulin Brands: What You Should Know

Injectable Insulin Brands: What You Should Know

What is insulin? Insulin is a natural hormone that is produced by the beta cells in the pancreas. When you eat foods with carbohydrates, glucose will be absorbed into the bloodstream. Glucose is a form of sugar which is one of the main sources of energy for the body and all of its cells. This naturally occurring hormone works by transporting glucose to the body tissue for energy. People with diabetes cannot produce enough insulin or use it properly. Because of this, glucose cannot enter the body cells, hence they stay in the bloodstream and build up. Too much glucose in the bloodstream can lead to health complications such as nerve damage, kidney problems and blindness. There are two types of diabetes: type 1 diabetes and type 2 diabetes. Type 1 diabetics make little or no insulin as a result of the immune system attacking and destroying the beta cells in the pancreas. People with type 1 diabetes need to take insulin injections so that they can survive. Injectable insulins work similarly to the natural hormone produced in the body, which acts by lowering blood sugar levels. There are many insulin brands available on the market which can be used to treat diabetes. Insulin analogs are used to treat type 1 diabetes and can be used in combination with oral diabetes drugs in the latter stages of type 2 diabetes. Type 2 diabetes is a chronic condition where the body cannot produce enough insulin or use it properly. Insulin brands are usually grouped depending on how fast they start to work to reduce blood sugar levels and how long their effects last in the body. The type of insulin analogs includes: Rapid-acting Short-acting Intermediate-acting and Long-acting insulin analogs Types of insulin brands Rapid acting insulins Humalog is a rapid acting insulin, which refers to the Continue reading >>

Two Types Of Insulin: Human And Analog

Two Types Of Insulin: Human And Analog

Glucose is a type of sugar from food that the body uses for energy. The level of glucose in the bloodstream usually rises after a meal. To be efficiently utilized by the body, glucose in the bloodstream needs to enter the body’s cells. If glucose is unable to enter the cells, blood glucose levels rise leading to hyperglycemia. Long-term hyperglycemia damages nerves, blood vessels and vital organs. Insulin is a hormone produced by the beta cells of the pancreas. The beta cells release more insulin whenever there is a rise in blood glucose levels. Insulin enables glucose to enter the cells, thereby restoring normal blood glucose levels and allowing efficient glucose metabolism. People with type 1 diabetes can no longer produce insulin because the disease has destroyed the beta cells of their pancreas. People with type 2 diabetes can produce insulin but their body does not respond well to it, a condition known as insulin resistance. Insulin resistance also develops in pregnant women with gestational diabetes because the placenta (organ that connects the fetus to the mother’s blood supply) produces insulin-blocking hormones. Insulin therapy replaces or supplements the body’s own insulin, thereby restoring normal or near-normal blood sugar levels. It is one of the cornerstones of diabetes management, providing intensive blood glucose control crucial in preventing diabetes-related complications. Why is insulin injected into the fat under the skin rather than taken as a pill? Because insulin taken in pill form would be broken down by digestive enzymes and rendered ineffective. The first generation of man-made insulin is called “human insulin.” Developed through the 1960s and 1970s and approved for pharmaceutical use in 1982, human insulin is the name given to synthet Continue reading >>

Insulin Analog

Insulin Analog

An insulin analog is an altered form of insulin, different from any occurring in nature, but still available to the human body for performing the same action as human insulin in terms of glycemic control. Through genetic engineering of the underlying DNA, the amino acid sequence of insulin can be changed to alter its ADME (absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion) characteristics. Officially, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) refers to these as "insulin receptor ligands", although they are more commonly referred to as insulin analogs. These modifications have been used to create two types of insulin analogs: those that are more readily absorbed from the injection site and therefore act faster than natural insulin injected subcutaneously, intended to supply the bolus level of insulin needed at mealtime (prandial insulin); and those that are released slowly over a period of between 8 and 24 hours, intended to supply the basal level of insulin during the day and particularly at nighttime (basal insulin). The first insulin analog approved for human therapy (insulin Lispro rDNA) was manufactured by Eli Lilly and Company. Fast acting[edit] Lispro[edit] Main article: Insulin lispro Eli Lilly and Company developed and marketed the first rapid-acting insulin analogue (insulin lispro rDNA) Humalog. It was engineered through recombinant DNA technology so that the penultimate lysine and proline residues on the C-terminal end of the B-chain were reversed. This modification did not alter the insulin receptor binding, but blocked the formation of insulin dimers and hexamers. This allowed larger amounts of active monomeric insulin to be available for postprandial (after meal) injections.[1] Aspart[edit] Main article: Insulin aspart Novo Nordisk created "aspart" and Continue reading >>

Just Ask The Expert: Your Insulin Options In Diabetic Dogs

Just Ask The Expert: Your Insulin Options In Diabetic Dogs

Dr. Bruyette welcome endocrinology questions from veterinarians and veterinary technicians. Click here to submit your question, or send an e-mail to [email protected] with the subject line "Endocrinoloy questions." Q. With so many insulin products to choose from, how do I decide which insulin is the best for my canine patients? A. Because there are several insulins to choose from, selecting an insulin for a newly diagnosed diabetic dog can be confusing. And how do you decide what to switch to in a dog that is responding poorly to a particular insulin? Here are my thoughts on where you might turn. Vetsulin (Merck Animal Health) Vetsulin has recently been reintroduced to the veterinary market and is approved for use in both dogs and cats. This is the same product that was previously available from Intervet/Schering-Plough Animal Health. This porcine-origin zinc Lente insulin is classified as an intermediate-acting insulin. Canine and porcine insulin have an identical amino acid sequence, which eliminates the theoretical complication of a dog's developing anti-insulin antibodies that may adversely affect glycemic control. One important change that occurred with the relaunch of Vetsulin is the manufacturer's recommendations regarding handling of the insulin. Vetsulin should be shaken thoroughly until a homogeneous, uniformly milky suspension is obtained. This is a markedly different way of handling insulin, so be sure to read the package insert for further handling instructions. This insulin is available only at a concentration of 40 IU/ml, so make sure you provide U-40 insulin syringes to owners. Reassess the dog's clinical signs and perform a serial blood glucose curve one week after starting therapy. While the manufacturer's package insert recommends once-a-day initial do Continue reading >>

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