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An Essential Component Of Treating Diabetes (type 1 Or Type 2) Is Meal Planning

Nutritional Recommendations For Individuals With Diabetes

Nutritional Recommendations For Individuals With Diabetes

Go to: INTRODUCTION This chapter will summarize current information on nutritional recommendations for persons with diabetes for health care practitioners who treat them. The key take home message is that the 1800 calorie ADA diet is dead! The modern diet for the individual with diabetes is based on concepts from clinical research, portion control, and individualized lifestyle changes. It cannot simply be delivered by giving a patient a diet sheet in a one-size-fits-all approach. The lifestyle modification guidance and support needed requires a team effort, best led by an expert in this area; a registered dietitian (RD), or a referral to a diabetes self-management education (DSME) program that includes instruction on nutrition therapy. Dietary recommendations need to be individualized for and accepted by the given patient. It’s important to note that the nutrition goals for diabetes are similar to those that healthy individuals should strive to incorporate into their lifestyle. Leading authorities and professional organizations have concluded that proper nutrition is an important part of the foundation for the treatment of diabetes. However, appropriate nutritional treatment, implementation, and ultimate compliance with the plan remain some of the most vexing problems in diabetic management for three major reasons: First, there are some differences in the dietary structure to consider, depending on the type of diabetes. Second, a plethora of dietary information is available from many sources to the patient and healthcare provider. Nutritional science is constantly evolving, so that what may be considered true today may be outdated in the near future. Different types of diabetes require some specialized nutritional intervention; however, many of the basic dietary princ Continue reading >>

Care Of Children And Adolescents With Type 1 Diabetes

Care Of Children And Adolescents With Type 1 Diabetes

A statement of the American Diabetes Association ADA, American Diabetes Association AER, albumin excretion rate CVD, cardiovascular disease DCCT, Diabetes Control and Complications Trial DKA, diabetic ketoacidosis EDIC, Epidemiology of Diabetes Interventions and Complications EMA, endomysial autoantibody MDI, multiple daily insulin injection NCEP, National Cholesterol Education Program NCEP-Peds, National Cholesterol Education Program for Pediatrics SMBG, self-monitoring of blood glucose tTG, tissue transglutaminase During recent years, the American Diabetes Association (ADA) has published detailed guidelines and recommendations for the management of diabetes in the form of technical reviews, position statements, and consensus statements. Recommendations regarding children and adolescents have generally been included as only a minor portion of these documents. For example, the most recent ADA position statement on “Standards of Medical Care for Patients With Diabetes Mellitus” (last revised October 2003) included “special considerations” for children and adolescents (1). Other position statements included age-specific recommendations for screening for nephropathy (2) and retinopathy (3) in children with diabetes. In addition, the ADA has published guidelines pertaining to certain aspects of diabetes that apply exclusively to children and adolescents, including care of children with diabetes at school (4) and camp (5) and a consensus statement on type 2 diabetes in children and adolescents (6). The purpose of this document is to provide a single resource on current standards of care pertaining specifically to children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes. It is not meant to be an exhaustive compendium on all aspects of the management of pediatric diabetes. Howeve Continue reading >>

Type 2 Diabetes Diet Plan: List Of Foods To Eat And Avoid

Type 2 Diabetes Diet Plan: List Of Foods To Eat And Avoid

Currently, there are nine drug classes of oral diabetes medications approved for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. Sulfonylureas, for example, glimepiride (Amaryl) and glipizide (Glucotrol, Glucotrol XL) Meglitinides, for example, nateglinide (Starlix) and repaglinide (Prandin) Thiazolidinediones, for example, pioglitazone (Actos) DPP-4 inhibitors, for example, sitagliptin (Januvia) and linagliptin (Tradjenta) What types of foods are recommended for a type 2 diabetes meal plan? A diabetes meal plan can follow a number of different patterns and have a variable ratio of fats, proteins, and carbohydrates. The carbohydrates consumed should be low glycemic load and come primarily from vegetables. The fat and proteins consumed should primarily come from plant sources. What type of carbohydrates are recommended for a type 2 diabetic diet plan? Carbohydrates (carbs) are the primary food that raises blood sugar. Glycemic index and glycemic load are scientific terms used to measure the impact of a carbohydrate on blood sugar. Foods with low glycemic load (index) raise blood sugar modestly and thus are better choices for people with diabetes. The main factors that determine a food's (or meal's) glycemic load are the amount of fiber, fat, and protein it contains. The difference between glycemic index and glycemic load is that glycemic index is a standardized measurement and glycemic load accounts for a real-life portion size. For example, the glycemic index of a bowl of peas is 68 (per 100 grams) but its glycemic load is just 16 (lower the better). If you just referred to the glycemic index, you'd think peas were a bad choice, but in reality, you wouldn't eat 100 grams of peas. With a normal portion size, peas have a healthy glycemic load as well as being an excellent source of pro Continue reading >>

Diabetes 101: Essential Facts

Diabetes 101: Essential Facts

To get an understanding of diabetes, it’s helpful to know what happens when you eat, say, an apple. Through digestion, your body breaks down the apple into usable components that travel in your blood. One of these components is glucose, a form of sugar your body’s cells need for fuel. But to get into most of your cells, glucose requires an escort: insulin, a hormone made in the pancreas. Think of insulin as the “key” that unlocks the door to your cells to allow glucose inside. When all is well, beta cells in your pancreas make the correct amount of insulin whenever your blood-glucose level rises—usually after a meal—so that the glucose can get to where it’s needed. But with diabetes, your body can’t make enough insulin, or becomes less able to use the insulin you do make. The result? Glucose stays in the bloodstream rather than getting into the cells where it belongs, and the glucose level builds up in your blood. This condition is known as hyperglycemia, or high blood glucose. When there’s too much glucose in your blood, your body tries to compensate by drawing fluid into the blood from the tissues to dilute the concentration. This loss of fluid can cause you to become dehydrated and to feel extremely thirsty—one of the hallmark symptoms of diabetes. You might also feel terribly hungry, as your body isn’t able to get enough fuel from what it eats; unplanned weight loss is a frequent result. The problems multiply when the glucose-rich blood reaches your kidneys, whose job it is to filter out waste products and produce urine. With a higher volume of blood—and so much glucose to process—the kidneys become overwhelmed and the excess glucose “spills out” into your urine. This series of events explains why diabetes can cause you to urinate more Continue reading >>

Type 1 Diabetes Mellitustreatment & Management

Type 1 Diabetes Mellitustreatment & Management

Type 1 Diabetes MellitusTreatment & Management Author: Romesh Khardori, MD, PhD, FACP; Chief Editor: George T Griffing, MD more... Patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM) require lifelong insulin therapy. Most require 2 or more injections of insulin daily, with doses adjusted on the basis of self-monitoring of blood glucose levels. Long-term management requires a multidisciplinary approach that includes physicians, nurses, dietitians, and selected specialists. In some patients, the onset of type 1 DM is marked by an episode of diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) but is followed by a symptom-free honeymoon period in which the symptoms remit and the patient requires little or no insulin. This remission is caused by a partial return of endogenous insulin secretion, and it may last for several weeks or months (sometimes for as long as 1-2 years). Ultimately, however, the disease recurs, and patients require insulin therapy. Often, the patient with new-onset type 1 DM who presents with mild manifestations and who is judged to be compliant can begin insulin therapy as an outpatient. However, this approach requires close follow-up and the ability to provide immediate and thorough education about the use of insulin; the signs, symptoms, and treatment of hypoglycemia; and the need to self-monitor blood glucose levels. The American Diabetes Association (ADA) recommends using patient age as one consideration in the establishment of glycemic goals , with targets for preprandial, bedtime/overnight, and hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) levels. [ 5 ] In 2014, the ADA released a position statement on the diagnosis and management of type 1 diabetes in all age groups. The statement includes a new pediatric glycemic control target of HbA1c of less than 7.5% across all pediatric age groups, replacing e Continue reading >>

Treating Type 2 Diabetes

Treating Type 2 Diabetes

en espaolTratamiento de la diabetes tipo 2 After kids or teens are diagnosed with type 2 diabetes , the next step is to create a diabetes management plan to help them manage the condition and stay healthy and active. Treatment plans for type 2 diabetes are based on each child's needs and the suggestions of the diabetes health care team . The blood glucose level is the amount of glucose in the blood. Glucose is the main source of energy for the body's cells and is carried to each cell through the bloodstream. The hormone insulin allows the glucose to get into the cells. In type 2 diabetes, the body doesn't respond normally to insulin, so glucose is less able to enter the cells. This makes the blood glucose level rise. Treatment goals for kids with diabetes are to control the condition in a way that minimizes symptoms; prevents short- and long-term health problems; and helps them to have normal physical, mental, emotional, and social growth and development. To do this, parents and kids should try to keep blood sugar levels as close to normal as possible. It is also important to treat other conditions that can be associated with type 2 diabetes, like obesity, high blood pressure, or abnormal blood lipid (fat) levels. In general, kids with type 2 diabetes need to: eat a healthy, balanced diet and follow a meal plan Helping kids with type 2 diabetes switch to healthier habits is a key part of treatment. Because most kids are overweight when they're diagnosed, it's important to promote healthy eating and physical activity to prevent further weight gain or to encourage weight loss while making sure they grow and develop properly. Weight gain happens when someone consumes more calories than he or she usesup through physical activity. The body stores those extra calories as fat Continue reading >>

Type 2 Diabetes

Type 2 Diabetes

Print Diagnosis To diagnose type 2 diabetes, you'll be given a: Glycated hemoglobin (A1C) test. This blood test indicates your average blood sugar level for the past two to three months. It measures the percentage of blood sugar attached to hemoglobin, the oxygen-carrying protein in red blood cells. The higher your blood sugar levels, the more hemoglobin you'll have with sugar attached. An A1C level of 6.5 percent or higher on two separate tests indicates you have diabetes. A result between 5.7 and 6.4 percent is considered prediabetes, which indicates a high risk of developing diabetes. Normal levels are below 5.7 percent. If the A1C test isn't available, or if you have certain conditions — such as if you're pregnant or have an uncommon form of hemoglobin (known as a hemoglobin variant) — that can make the A1C test inaccurate, your doctor may use the following tests to diagnose diabetes: Random blood sugar test. A blood sample will be taken at a random time. Blood sugar values are expressed in milligrams per deciliter (mg/dL) or millimoles per liter (mmol/L). Regardless of when you last ate, a random blood sugar level of 200 mg/dL (11.1 mmol/L) or higher suggests diabetes, especially when coupled with any of the signs and symptoms of diabetes, such as frequent urination and extreme thirst. Fasting blood sugar test. A blood sample will be taken after an overnight fast. A fasting blood sugar level less than 100 mg/dL (5.6 mmol/L) is normal. A fasting blood sugar level from 100 to 125 mg/dL (5.6 to 6.9 mmol/L) is considered prediabetes. If it's 126 mg/dL (7 mmol/L) or higher on two separate tests, you have diabetes. Oral glucose tolerance test. For this test, you fast overnight, and the fasting blood sugar level is measured. Then you drink a sugary liquid, and blood s Continue reading >>

Diabetes Meal Planning

Diabetes Meal Planning

Tweet Management of your blood sugar (glucose) is essential to avoid further complications such as blindness, amputations and kidney disease. Whilst diabetes often requires medication for control, it's important to remember that proper nutrition through meal planning is equally critical in diabetes care. Nutritional management, in the form of a meal plan designed especially for you, will help you to maintain blood glucose levels as close to normal as possible, and maintain or lose weight. You may feel apprehensive about meal planning, particularly if you’ve struggled with dieting in the past. It can be difficult knowing where to start, and for this reason, putting together a meal plan that fits your lifestyle with the help of a dietitian comes recommended. The following table illustrates this: General Dietary Guidelines General Dietary Guidelines Summary of General Guidelines for Diabetics Eat a variety of foods. Eat a variety of foods Balance the food you eat with physical activity-maintain or improve your weight. Balance the foods you eat with your insulin, oral medication and your physical activity. Maintain or improve your weight. Choose a diet with plenty of grain products, vegetables, and fruits. For added fibre include whole grains, legumes, fruits and vegetables. Choose a diet low in fat, saturated fat and cholesterol. The amount of calories from fat should be no higher than 30%, of which no higher than 10% should be from saturated fat. Choose a diet moderate in sugars. Avoid foods containing significant amounts of sugar. Choose a diet moderate in salt and sodium. A moderate sodium restriction is recommended. If you drink alcoholic beverages, do so in moderation. If you drink alcoholic beverages, do so in moderation and see a dietician about fitting it into yo Continue reading >>

Type 2 Diabetes: How Is It Treated?

Type 2 Diabetes: How Is It Treated?

KidsHealth / For Teens / Type 2 Diabetes: How Is It Treated? en espaolDiabetes tipo 2: Cul es el tratamiento? Has your teacher ever assigned you a huge paper or project due at the end of the semester or term? If so, you probably know the value of a plan. Making a plan that tells you when you'll research and write your material or conduct your experiments is important so you don't spend the last week before the deadline worrying about how you'll get it all done. People with type 2 diabetes need to follow a different type of plan. A treatment plan, also called a diabetes management plan, helps them manage their diabetes and stay healthy and active. Treatment plans are based on a person's individual health needs and the suggestions of the diabetes health care team . The first thing to understand when it comes to treating diabetes is your blood glucose level, which is just what it sounds like the amount of glucose in the blood. Glucose isa sugar that comes from the foods we eat and also is formed and stored inside the body. It's the main source of energy for the cells of the body, and is carried to each cell through the blood. Glucose gets into the cells with the help of the hormone insulin . So how do blood glucose levels relate to type 2 diabetes? People with type 2 diabetes don't respond normally to insulin anymore, so glucose stays in the bloodstream and doesn't get into the cells. This causes blood glucose levels to go too high. High blood sugar levels can make teens with type 2 diabetes feel sick, so their treatment plan involves keeping their blood sugar levels within a healthy range while making sure they grow and develop normally. To do that, they need to: eat a healthy, balanced diet and follow a meal plan The good news is that sticking to the plan can help peopl Continue reading >>

P&r Medical Connection | Recipe

P&r Medical Connection | Recipe

Diabetes Menu Planning: What Do I Eat? A so-called "diabetic diet" is not a life sentence to a rigid and restrictive menu plan (and the concept of a diabetic diet is mostly myth). Instead, nutritional management of diabetes is a lifestyle that balances moderation and healthy food choices. A registered dietitian, preferably one who is also a certified diabetes educator (CDE) or experienced in diabetes care, is an essential resource for learning more about individualized menu planning and food choices with diabetes. Food and Diet by Diabetes Type While food is a factor in both type 1 and type 2 diabetes management, the rationale behind dietary adjustments in each is different. Those with type 1 diabetes base their insulin dosage in part on what they eat. Those with type 2 diabetes often use their dietary choices as a method (for some, the primary method) of controlling their blood glucose levels. Type 1 Diabetes and Diet Learning how to calculate carbohydrate grams and account for other important food factors, such as fiber intake, is essential to good blood glucose control for people with type 1 diabetes. If you are on standard insulin therapy (i.e., your insulin doses stay the same from day-to-day), you need to consume roughly the same number of carbohydrate grams daily to avoid blood sugar highs and lows. People on standard insulin therapy generally use simple carbohydrate counting, which sets a certain number of insulin units for every 15 grams of carbohydrates eaten (15 g=1 carb choice). Your healthcare team can help you determine the appropriate amount of daily carbohydrates for your particular insulin regimen. People who are overweight or obese have weight loss issues to take into account when developing an eating plan. A registered dietitian experienced in diabete Continue reading >>

Type 2 Diabetes - Symptoms

Type 2 Diabetes - Symptoms

A A A Type 2 Diabetes Type 2 diabetes is a chronic medical condition that results from an inability of the body to properly use insulin. Type 2 diabetes is different from type 1 diabetes, in which the body is unable to produce sufficient levels of insulin. Symptoms of type 2 diabetes include A fasting blood sugar level of 126 mg/dl or greater on two different days establishes the diagnosis of diabetes. A number of both oral and injectable medications have been developed fo A hemoglobin A1c (HBA1c) level of 6.5% or greater indicates diabetes. Managing type 2 diabetes includes following a healthy eating plan and exercise, as well as medications in many cases. r the treatment of type 2 diabetes. A healthy eating plan and regular physical activity are important components of a type 2 diabetes treatment plan. There is no one recommended "diabetes diet" for all people with type 2 diabetes. Regular physical activity and modest weight loss can help reduce or prevent type 2 diabetes. Common complications of diabetes include cardiovascular disease, kidney disease, eye problems, and nerve damage. A A A Type 2 Diabetes (cont.) Type 2 diabetes is the most common form of diabetes mellitus. In type 2 diabetes, there is an elevated level of sugar (glucose) in the bloodstream due to the body's inability to properly respond to insulin. Insulin is a hormone that allows the body to utilize glucose for energy. Insulin is produced by specialized cells in the pancreas. An elevated level of blood glucose is known as hyperglycemia. The excessive levels of glucose in the blood spill over into the urine, leading to the presence of glucose in the urine (glucosuria). Type 2 diabetes is an enormous public health problem. It is estimated that about 29.1 million Americans (9.1% of all Americans) have Continue reading >>

Type 2 Diabetes And Exercise

Type 2 Diabetes And Exercise

When you have type 2 diabetes, physical activity is an important component of your treatment plan. It’s also important to have a healthy meal plan and maintain your blood glucose level through medications or insulin, if necessary. If you stay fit and active throughout your life, you’ll be able to better control your diabetes and keep your blood glucose level in the correct range. Controlling your blood glucose level is essential to preventing long-term complications, such as nerve pain and kidney disease. Exercise has so many benefits, but the biggest one is that it makes it easier to control your blood glucose (blood sugar) level. People with type 2 diabetes have too much glucose in their blood, either because their body doesn’t produce enough insulin to process it, or because their body doesn’t use insulin properly (insulin resistant). In either case, exercise can reduce the glucose in your blood. Muscles can use glucose without insulin when you’re exercising. In other words, it doesn’t matter if you’re insulin resistant or if you don’t have enough insulin: when you exercise, your muscles get the glucose they need, and in turn, your blood glucose level goes down. If you’re insulin resistant, exercise actually makes your insulin more effective. That is—your insulin resistance goes down when you exercise, and your cells can use the glucose more effectively. Exercise can also help people with type 2 diabetes avoid long-term complications, especially heart problems. People with diabetes are susceptible to developing blocked arteries (arteriosclerosis), which can lead to a heart attack. Exercise helps keep your heart healthy and strong. Plus, exercise helps you maintain good cholesterol—and that helps you avoid arteriosclerosis. Additionally, there ar Continue reading >>

Type 1 Diabetes

Type 1 Diabetes

Print Diagnosis Diagnostic tests include: Glycated hemoglobin (A1C) test. This blood test indicates your average blood sugar level for the past two to three months. It measures the percentage of blood sugar attached to the oxygen-carrying protein in red blood cells (hemoglobin). The higher your blood sugar levels, the more hemoglobin you'll have with sugar attached. An A1C level of 6.5 percent or higher on two separate tests indicates diabetes. If the A1C test isn't available, or if you have certain conditions that can make the A1C test inaccurate — such as pregnancy or an uncommon form of hemoglobin (hemoglobin variant) — your doctor may use these tests: Random blood sugar test. A blood sample will be taken at a random time and may be confirmed by repeat testing. Blood sugar values are expressed in milligrams per deciliter (mg/dL) or millimoles per liter (mmol/L). Regardless of when you last ate, a random blood sugar level of 200 mg/dL (11.1 mmol/L) or higher suggests diabetes, especially when coupled with any of the signs and symptoms of diabetes, such as frequent urination and extreme thirst. Fasting blood sugar test. A blood sample will be taken after an overnight fast. A fasting blood sugar level less than 100 mg/dL (5.6 mmol/L) is normal. A fasting blood sugar level from 100 to 125 mg/dL (5.6 to 6.9 mmol/L) is considered prediabetes. If it's 126 mg/dL (7 mmol/L) or higher on two separate tests, you have diabetes. If you're diagnosed with diabetes, your doctor may also run blood tests to check for autoantibodies that are common in type 1 diabetes. These tests help your doctor distinguish between type 1 and type 2 diabetes when the diagnosis is uncertain. The presence of ketones — byproducts from the breakdown of fat — in your urine also suggests type 1 diab Continue reading >>

Healthy Eating For Type 1 Diabetes

Healthy Eating For Type 1 Diabetes

Eating the right food, at the right time is important for managing type 1 diabetes . Getting the balance right can be a challenge, but alongside exercise , and insulin treatment, it is essential. Making the right food choices for a meal is not just about managing blood glucose levels for a couple of hours, healthy eating has an impact on health in the long-term for people with type 1 diabetes. It is an area where there are many myths among the facts about what you can and can't eat, but overall Diabetes UK says you should still be able to enjoy a wide variety of food. It makes sense to get to know as much as possible about good food selection, but this is not something to do on your own. As part of your diabetes care team, an appointment with a dietitian is important both when you are first diagnosed, and with check-ups as part of your treatment plan reviews. Carbohydrates are a vital part of any balanced diet , but they have a special significance for people with type 1 diabetes because of the way carbs are converted into glucose in the body. There are two main categories of carbs - sugars and starchy carbohydrates. Sugars are in sweet foods, as you would expect, including sugar itself. Starchy carbohydrates are in common foods like potatoes, bread, pasta and cereals. How many carbs you need will vary from person to person, how much a person weighs, how active they are and their age. Overall, you'll probably be advised to make starchy carbs add up to a third of your food and drink intake. The rate at which the carbohydrates are turned into glucose needs to be matched with appropriate doses of insulin to stop blood glucose levels spiking too high or dropping too low. Diabetes UK recommends trying to have a routine with starchy carbohydrate so around the same amount is Continue reading >>

Type 1 And Type 2 Diabetes: What’s The Difference?

Type 1 And Type 2 Diabetes: What’s The Difference?

There are two main types of diabetes: type 1 and type 2. Both types of diabetes are chronic diseases that affect the way your body regulates blood sugar, or glucose. Glucose is the fuel that feeds your body’s cells, but to enter your cells it needs a key. Insulin is that key. People with type 1 diabetes don’t produce insulin. You can think of it as not having a key. People with type 2 diabetes don’t respond to insulin as well as they should and later in the disease often don’t make enough insulin. You can think of this as having a broken key. Both types of diabetes can lead to chronically high blood sugar levels. That increases the risk of diabetes complications. Both types of diabetes, if not controlled, share many similar symptoms, including: frequent urination feeling very thirsty and drinking a lot feeling very hungry feeling very fatigued blurry vision cuts or sores that don’t heal properly People with type 1 diabetes may also experience irritability and mood changes, and unintentionally lose weight. People with type 2 diabetes may also have numbness and tingling in their hands or feet. Although many of the symptoms of type 1 and type 2 diabetes are similar, they present in very different ways. Many people with type 2 diabetes won’t have symptoms for many years. Then often the symptoms of type 2 diabetes develop slowly over the course of time. Some people with type 2 diabetes have no symptoms at all and don’t discover their condition until complications develop. The symptoms of type 1 diabetes develop fast, typically over the course of several weeks. Type 1 diabetes, which was once known as juvenile diabetes, usually develops in childhood or adolescence. But it’s possible to get type 1 diabetes later in life. Type 1 and type 2 diabetes may have simi Continue reading >>

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