diabetestalk.net

A Woman With One Risk Factor For Gestational Diabetes Should Be Tested For It

Women With Pica May Crave A Clay B Cornstarch C

Women With Pica May Crave A Clay B Cornstarch C

Women with pica may crave A clay B cornstarch C baking soda D All of these Women with pica may crave a clay b cornstarch c 97% (58) 56 out of 58 people found this document helpful This preview shows page 6 - 9 out of 13 pages. 30) Women with pica may craveA) clay.B) cornstarch.C) baking soda.D) All of these answers are correct.Answer: DPage Ref: 54731) The recommended weight gain during pregnancy for a woman with a normal BMI is32) Pregnant women who are vegans are at risk for a deficiency of which nutrient?6 33) Which of the following is NOT a food that should be avoided by pregnant women?34) Which activity is NOT safe for a pregnant woman?A) gymnasticsB) walkingC) swimmingD) low-impact aerobicsAnswer: APage Ref: 55235) What is macrosomia?36) A woman should be tested for gestational diabetes37) All of the following are risk factors for gestational diabetes EXCEPT38) Eclampsia in a pregnant woman canA) be the sign that morning sickness is over.B) be due to a woman drinking alcohol during her pregnancy.C) lead to the death of the woman.D) be easily treated with vitamin supplements.Answer: CPage Ref: 5537 39) All of the following characterize teenage mothers EXCEPT40) All of the following are signs of infant readiness for solid foods EXCEPT that the infant41) Whole milk should not be given to an infant until after42) Which food should NOT be given to infants, due to the possibility of botulism?A) skim milkB) strawberriesC) honeyD) tunaAnswer: CPage Ref: 56743) Symptoms of a food allergy can include Continue reading >>

Risk Factor Screening To Identify Women Requiring Oral Glucose Tolerance Testing To Diagnose Gestational Diabetes: A Systematic Review And Meta-analysis And Analysis Of Two Pregnancy Cohorts

Risk Factor Screening To Identify Women Requiring Oral Glucose Tolerance Testing To Diagnose Gestational Diabetes: A Systematic Review And Meta-analysis And Analysis Of Two Pregnancy Cohorts

Abstract Easily identifiable risk factors including: obesity and ethnicity at high risk of diabetes are commonly used to indicate which women should be offered the oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) to diagnose gestational diabetes (GDM). Evidence regarding these risk factors is limited however. We conducted a systematic review (SR) and meta-analysis and individual participant data (IPD) analysis to evaluate the performance of risk factors in identifying women with GDM. We searched MEDLINE, Medline in Process, Embase, Maternity and Infant Care and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) up to August 2016 and conducted additional reference checking. We included observational, cohort, case-control and cross-sectional studies reporting the performance characteristics of risk factors used to identify women at high risk of GDM. We had access to IPD from the Born in Bradford and Atlantic Diabetes in Pregnancy cohorts, all pregnant women in the two cohorts with data on risk factors and OGTT results were included. Results Twenty nine published studies with 211,698 women for the SR and a further 14,103 women from two birth cohorts (Born in Bradford and the Atlantic Diabetes in Pregnancy study) for the IPD analysis were included. Six studies assessed the screening performance of guidelines; six examined combinations of risk factors; eight evaluated the number of risk factors and nine examined prediction models or scores. Meta-analysis using data from published studies suggests that irrespective of the method used, risk factors do not identify women with GDM well. Using IPD and combining risk factors to produce the highest sensitivities, results in low specificities (and so higher false positives). Strategies that use the risk factors of age (>25 or >30) and B Continue reading >>

Gestational Diabetes

Gestational Diabetes

Gestational diabetes mellitus (sometimes referred to as GDM) is a form of diabetes that occurs during pregnancy and usually goes away after the baby is born. It is diagnosed when higher than normal blood glucose levels first appear during pregnancy. Gestational diabetes is the fastest growing type of diabetes in Australia, affecting thousands of pregnant women. Between 5% and 10% of pregnant women will develop gestational diabetes and this usually occurs around the 24th to 28th week of pregnancy. All women are tested for gestational diabetes as part of the 24-28 week routine examination with their GP. Women who have one or more of the risk factors are advised to have a diabetes test when pregnancy is confirmed then again at 24 weeks if diabetes was not detected in early pregnancy. While there is no one reason for why women develop gestational diabetes, you are at risk of developing gestational diabetes if you: Are over 25 years of age Have a family history of type 2 diabetes Are overweight Are from an Indigenous Australian or Torres Strait Islander background Are from a Vietnamese, Chinese, middle eastern, Polynesian or Melanesian background Have had gestational diabetes during previous pregnancies Have previously had Polycystic Ovary Syndrome Have previously given birth to a large baby Have a family history of gestational diabetes Most women are diagnosed after special blood tests. A Glucose Challenge Test (GCT) is a screening test where blood is taken for a glucose measurement one hour after a glucose drink. If this test is abnormal then an Oral Glucose Tolerance Test (OGTT) is done. For an OGTT a blood sample is taken before and two hours after the drink. For many people, being diagnosed with gestational diabetes can be upsetting. However, it is important to remember Continue reading >>

Nutrition Final Quiz 14

Nutrition Final Quiz 14

Eclampsia is a major cause of death of women during pregnancy? Which of the following is a fertilized egg during the third through the eighth week? An organ of common tissue between the mother and the growing embryo is called the Which of the following triggers milk production in the breast? In the United States, food allergies are the cause of approximately 30,000 anaphylactic reactions The American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) and the American Dietetic Association (ADA) recommend that women breast-feed for the first ________ of infancy Inconsolable crying by an infant, often for long periods of time, is called colic Pregnant women who are vegans are at risk for a deficiency of which nutrient? The least allergy-causing food is wheat cereal; it is a great first food for a child A man's diet and lifestyle do not affect the likelihood of conception The moment of contraception marks the third trimester The cells that release histamines when allergic reactions occur are called mass cells Two micronutrients necessary for the healthy production of sperm are folate and zinc Besides iron, which other minerals should a pregnant woman also take to prevent a deficiency? Which of the following causes the milk to be released from the breast? Malnutrition is a common cause of morning sickness during pregnancy Which is a benefit of daily exercise during pregnancy? Honey should not be fed to infants, due to the risk of botulism A cup (8 ounces) of which beverage has the highest caffeine content? Fertility begins to increase in women starting in their early 30s. If a woman is breast-feeding, she cannot get pregnant again All of the following are signs of infant readiness for solid foods except that the infant Which of the following is a fatty acid needed for brain development? Which typ Continue reading >>

What Is Gestational Diabetes?

What Is Gestational Diabetes?

Gestational diabetes is a type of diabetes that develops during pregnancy due to hormonal changes. Diabetes is a disease marked by high levels of glucose (a simple sugar that the body stores and uses for energy) in the blood, which can cause a range of health issues. There are several different types of diabetes. Type 1 diabetes develops when the pancreas produces little to no insulin (a hormone that regulates the amount of glucose in the blood and helps move glucose into cells for energy). Type 2 diabetes — the most common type of diabetes — develops when the liver, muscles, and fat cells don't properly respond to insulin. Gestational diabetes, by comparison, develops only in pregnant women who didn't have diabetes before becoming pregnant. Gestational Diabetes Prevalence Gestational diabetes is fairly common in the United States, but its exact prevalence is unknown. Studies suggest the disease affects between 1 and 14 percent of pregnancies in the United States each year, but these estimates vary by population and diagnostic criteria, according to a 2014 report in the journal Preventing Chronic Disease. But by looking at information from birth certificates and a pregnancy questionnaire, the report suggests that gestational diabetes affects between 4.6 and 9.2 percent of pregnant women in the country. This rate doesn't appear to have changed between 2007 and 2010, the report notes. The rate of gestational diabetes is lower in white women than in women of other racial backgrounds, according to a 2008 article in the journal Reviews in Obstetrics and Gynecology. Causes of Gestational Diabetes Similar to type 2 diabetes, gestational diabetes develops when the body is no longer able to respond effectively to insulin — a condition called insulin resistance. When the bo Continue reading >>

Gestational Diabetes During Pregnancy

Gestational Diabetes During Pregnancy

Has your doctor diagnosed you with gestational diabetes (GD or GDM), a form of diabetes that appears only during pregnancy? While it might feel overwhelming at first, it turns out that this pregnancy complication is much more common than you might think. In fact, up to 9.2 percent of pregnant women have GD, according to a 2014 analysis by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Know that with careful monitoring and treatment, it can be managed, and you can have a safe and healthy pregnancy. READ MORE: What causes gestational diabetes? Who's most at risk? What are the symptoms? How is it diagnosed? What are the complications? How can you prevent gestational diabetes? How is it treated? What happens to mom and baby after birth? What causes gestational diabetes? Gestational diabetes usually starts between week 24 and week 28 of pregnancy when hormones from the placenta block insulin — a hormone produced in the pancreas that regulates the body's metabolism of fats and carbs and helps the body turn sugar into energy — from doing its job and prevent the body from regulating the increased blood sugar of pregnancy effectively. This causes hyperglycemia (or high levels of sugar in the blood), which can damage the nerves, blood vessels and organs in your body. Who’s most at risk for gestational diabetes? While researchers aren't certain why some women get gestational diabetes while others don’t, they do know that you may be at an increased risk if: You are overweight. Having a BMI of 30 or more going into pregnancy is one of the most common risk factors for gestational diabetes because the extra weight affects insulin's ability to properly keep blood sugar levels in check. You have a higher level of abdominal fat. Recent research published in the American Di Continue reading >>

Gestational Diabetes: Symptoms, Diagnosis & Complications

Gestational Diabetes: Symptoms, Diagnosis & Complications

MORE Gestational diabetes is a type of diabetes that develops, or is first diagnosed, during pregnancy. The condition, like other forms of diabetes, involves high blood sugar levels. Often times, gestational diabetes is a temporary disorder that occurs around the second trimester of pregnancy, and disappears after a woman gives birth. "Even if a woman had required quite a bit of therapy and treatment to keep her blood sugars under control when she was pregnant … usually the day after delivery, [her] sugars go back down to normal," said Dr. Christopher Glantz, a professor of obstetrics and gynecology at the University of Rochester Medical Center. But women who've had gestational diabetes should be monitored closely after birth, because they are more likely to develop diabetes later in life, according to the National Institutes of Health (NIH). A 2014 study from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention found that between 4 and 9 percent of pregnant women in the United States develop gestational diabetes. Gestational diabetes occurs more frequently among certain ethic groups, including African Americans, Hispanics, American Indians, Asians, and Pacific Islanders according to the March of Dimes. Symptoms Women with gestational diabetes usually have no symptoms or mild, non-life-threatening symptoms, according to the NIH. These symptoms are mostly related to abnormal blood sugar levels, and can include fatigue, excessive thirst and increased urination. Causes During pregnancy, changes happen in the mother's body to make sugar more available to the fetus, Glantz said. One of these changes is that the placenta produces hormones that interfere with the action of insulin, a hormone that helps sugar (or glucose) get from the bloodstream into cells. This means that sugar i Continue reading >>

Risk Factor Screening To Identify Women Requiring Oral Glucose Tolerance Testing To Diagnose Gestational Diabetes: A Systematic Review And Meta-analysis And Analysis Of Two Pregnancy Cohorts

Risk Factor Screening To Identify Women Requiring Oral Glucose Tolerance Testing To Diagnose Gestational Diabetes: A Systematic Review And Meta-analysis And Analysis Of Two Pregnancy Cohorts

Risk factor screening to identify women requiring oral glucose tolerance testing to diagnose gestational diabetes: A systematic review and meta-analysis and analysis of two pregnancy cohorts We are experimenting with display styles that make it easier to read articles in PMC. The ePub format uses eBook readers, which have several "ease of reading" features already built in. The ePub format is best viewed in the iBooks reader. You may notice problems with the display of certain parts of an article in other eReaders. Generating an ePub file may take a long time, please be patient. Risk factor screening to identify women requiring oral glucose tolerance testing to diagnose gestational diabetes: A systematic review and meta-analysis and analysis of two pregnancy cohorts Diane Farrar, Mark Simmonds, [...], and Trevor A. Sheldon Easily identifiable risk factors including: obesity and ethnicity at high risk of diabetes are commonly used to indicate which women should be offered the oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) to diagnose gestational diabetes (GDM). Evidence regarding these risk factors is limited however. We conducted a systematic review (SR) and meta-analysis and individual participant data (IPD) analysis to evaluate the performance of risk factors in identifying women with GDM. We searched MEDLINE, Medline in Process, Embase, Maternity and Infant Care and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) up to August 2016 and conducted additional reference checking. We included observational, cohort, case-control and cross-sectional studies reporting the performance characteristics of risk factors used to identify women at high risk of GDM. We had access to IPD from the Born in Bradford and Atlantic Diabetes in Pregnancy cohorts, all pregnant women in the Continue reading >>

Gestational Diabetes - Diabetes In Pregnancy - Ncbi Bookshelf

Gestational Diabetes - Diabetes In Pregnancy - Ncbi Bookshelf

FBG more than 6.0 mmol/L, or random blood glucose more than 7.0 mmol/L Evidence shows that risk factors for developing gestational diabetes are: pre-pregnancy obesity, advanced maternal age, previous gestational diabetes, family history of diabetes, minority ethnic background, previous macrosomic baby (4500 g or more for white and black women), increased maternal weight gain in early adulthood, and current smoker. Family origins with a high prevalence of gestational diabetes are South Asian (specifically women whose country of family origin is India, Pakistan or Bangladesh), black Carribean and Middle Eastern (specifically women whose country of family origin is Saudi Arabia, United Arab Emirates, Iraq, Jordan, Syria, Oman, Qatar, Kuwait, Lebanon or Egypt). Recurrence rates for gestational diabetes varied from 30% to 84% after the index pregnancy. The probability of gestational diabetes given insulin-treated gestational diabetes in a previous pregnancy is approximately 75%. The following have been shown to be independent risk factors for gestational diabetes and should be recognised as such by healthcare professionals: previous macrosomic baby weighing 4.5 kg or more GRADE profiles for the diagnostic test accuracy of fasting plasma glucose test performed in the first trimester to detect gestational diabetes diagnosed using a 75 g 2 hour OGTT in the second trimester (International Association of the Diabetes and Pregnancy (more...) 4.3.2.4.1. Incidence of gestational diabetes, WHO criteria Two prospective cohort studies (n=708; n=163) and 1 retrospective cohort study (n=69) provided very low and low quality evidence that the incidence of gestational diabetes in the first trimester ranged from 4.9% to 17.4% and that the proportion of gestational diabetes diagnosed in the Continue reading >>

Gestational Diabetes

Gestational Diabetes

Gestational diabetes is high blood sugar that develops during pregnancy and usually disappears after giving birth. It can occur at any stage of pregnancy, but is more common in the second half. It occurs if your body cannot produce enough insulin – a hormone that helps control blood sugar levels – to meet the extra needs in pregnancy. Gestational diabetes can cause problems for you and your baby during and after birth. But the risk of these problems happening can be reduced if it's detected and well managed. Who's at risk of gestational diabetes Any woman can develop gestational diabetes during pregnancy, but you're at an increased risk if: your body mass index (BMI) is above 30 – use the healthy weight calculator to work out your BMI you previously had a baby who weighed 4.5kg (10lbs) or more at birth you had gestational diabetes in a previous pregnancy one of your parents or siblings has diabetes your family origins are south Asian, Chinese, African-Caribbean or Middle Eastern If any of these apply to you, you should be offered screening for gestational diabetes during your pregnancy. Symptoms of gestational diabetes Gestational diabetes doesn't usually cause any symptoms. Most cases are only picked up when your blood sugar level is tested during screening for gestational diabetes. Some women may develop symptoms if their blood sugar level gets too high (hyperglycaemia), such as: But some of these symptoms are common during pregnancy anyway and aren't necessarily a sign of a problem. Speak to your midwife or doctor if you're worried about any symptoms you're experiencing. How gestational diabetes can affect your pregnancy Most women with gestational diabetes have otherwise normal pregnancies with healthy babies. However, gestational diabetes can cause problems s Continue reading >>

Non Classical Risk Factors For Gestational Diabetes Mellitus: A Systematic Review Of The Literature

Non Classical Risk Factors For Gestational Diabetes Mellitus: A Systematic Review Of The Literature

Age, obesity and family history of diabetes are well known risk factors for gestational diabetes mellitus. Others are more controversial. The objective of this review is to find evidence in the literature that justifies the inclusion of these other conditions among risk factors. The MEDLINE, Cochrane, LILACS and Pan American Health Organization databases were searched, covering articles dating from between 1992 and 2006. Keywords were used in combination (AND) with gestational diabetes mellitus separately and with each one of the risk factors studied. The methodological quality of the studies included was assessed, resulting in the selection of 41 papers. Most studies investigating maternal history of low birth weight, low stature, and low level of physical activity have found positive associations with gestational diabetes mellitus. Low socioeconomic levels, smoking during pregnancy, high parity, belonging to minority groups, and excessive weight gain during pregnancy presented conflicting results. Publication bias cannot be ruled out. Standardization of techniques, cutoff points for screening and diagnosis, as well as studies involving larger sample sizes would allow future meta-analyses. Gestational Diabetes; Diabetes Mellitus; Risk Factors Idade, obesidade e histria familiar de diabetes so fatores de risco bem conhecidos para diabetes mellitus gestacional. Outros so controversos. O objetivo desta reviso encontrar evidncias na literatura que justifiquem a incluso dessas condies entre os fatores de risco. Bases de dados MEDLINE, Cochrane, LILACS e Organizao Pan-Americana da Sade foram procuradas. A reviso incluiu artigos de 1992 a 2006. Palavras-chave foram usadas em combinao com diabetes mellitus gestacional separadamente e com cada um dos fatores de risco estudados Continue reading >>

Screening For Gestational Diabetes

Screening For Gestational Diabetes

Understanding Task Force Recommendations The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (Task Force) has issued a final recommendation statement on Screening for Gestational Diabetes. This final recommendation statement applies to pregnant women who have not already been diagnosed with diabetes. The recommendation statement summarizes what the Task Force learned about the potential benefits and harms of screening for gestational diabetes: (1) All women should be screened after 24 weeks of pregnancy. (2) There is not enough evidence to judge the benefits and harms of screening women before 24 weeks of pregnancy. This fact sheet explains these recommendations and what they might mean for you. What is gestational diabetes? This condition is diabetes that begins during pregnancy. Diabetes is a disease in which the body does not make enough insulin (a hormone) or use it correctly. When this happens, the body can’t turn starches or sugars from foods and beverages into the energy it needs to function. As a result, blood sugar levels become too high and this can cause many health problems. Facts About Gestational Diabetes About 240,000 of the 4 million women who give birth every year in the United States develop diabetes during their pregnancy. This condition has become more common over the past 20 years because a growing number of pregnant women have risks factors for it, such as being overweight or obese or having a family history of diabetes. Gestational diabetes usually goes away after the baby is born, but it can put the pregnant woman and her baby at risk for serious health problems: • Pregnant women have a greater chance of complications during pregnancy, labor, and delivery, including a higher risk for preeclampsia. Preeclampsia is a condition defined by high bloo Continue reading >>

Diabetes Mellitus And Pregnancy

Diabetes Mellitus And Pregnancy

Initiate testing early enough to avoid significant stillbirth but not so early that a high rate of false-positive test results is encountered. In patients with poor glycemic control, intrauterine growth restriction, or significant hypertension, begin formal biophysical testing as early as 28 weeks. In patients who are at lower risk, most centers begin formal fetal testing by 34 weeks. Fetal movement counting is performed in all pregnancies from 28 weeks onward. There is no consensus regarding antenatal testing in patients with gestational diabetes that is well controlled with diet. Monitoring fetal growth continues to be a challenging and imprecise process. Although currently available tools (serial plotting of fetal growth parameters based on ultrasonographic measurement) are superior to those used previously for clinical estimations, accuracy is still only within 15%. [ 95 ] In the obese fetus, the inaccuracies are further magnified. In 1992, Bernstein and Catalano reported that significant correlation exists between the degree of error in the ultrasonogram-based estimation of fetal weight and the percentage of body fat on the fetus. [ 96 ] Perhaps this is the reason no single formula has proven to be adequate in identifying a macrosomic fetus with certainty. Despite problems with accuracy, ultrasonogram-based estimations of fetal size have become the standard of care. Estimate fetal size once or twice at least 3 weeks apart in order to establish a trend. Time the last examination to be at 36-37 weeks' gestation or as close to the planned delivery date as possible. Select the timing of delivery to minimize morbidity for the mother and fetus. Delaying delivery to as near as possible to the expected date of confinement helps maximize cervical maturity and improves the Continue reading >>

Diagnosis

Diagnosis

Print Medical experts haven't agreed on a single set of screening guidelines for gestational diabetes. Some question whether gestational diabetes screening is needed if you're younger than 25 and have no risk factors. Others say that screening all pregnant women is the best way to identify all cases of gestational diabetes. When to screen Your doctor will likely evaluate your risk factors for gestational diabetes early in your pregnancy. If you're at high risk of gestational diabetes — for example, your body mass index (BMI) before pregnancy was 30 or higher or you have a mother, father, sibling or child with diabetes — your doctor may test for diabetes at your first prenatal visit. If you're at average risk of gestational diabetes, you'll likely have a screening test during your second trimester — between 24 and 28 weeks of pregnancy. Routine screening for gestational diabetes Initial glucose challenge test. You'll drink a syrupy glucose solution. One hour later, you'll have a blood test to measure your blood sugar level. A blood sugar level below 130 to 140 milligrams per deciliter (mg/dL), or 7.2 to 7.8 millimoles per liter (mmol/L), is usually considered normal on a glucose challenge test, although this may vary by clinic or lab. If your blood sugar level is higher than normal, it only means you have a higher risk of gestational diabetes. You'll need a glucose tolerance test to determine if you have the condition. Follow-up glucose tolerance testing. You'll fast overnight, then have your blood sugar level measured. Then you'll drink another sweet solution — this one containing a higher concentration of glucose — and your blood sugar level will be checked every hour for three hours. If at least two of the blood sugar readings are higher than normal, you'll Continue reading >>

Screening, Diagnosis, And Management Of Gestational Diabetes Mellitus

Screening, Diagnosis, And Management Of Gestational Diabetes Mellitus

Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) affects approximately 6% of pregnancies in the United States, and it is increasing in prevalence. Pregnant women without known diabetes mellitus should be screened for GDM after 24 weeks of gestation. Treatment of GDM results in a statistically significant decrease in the incidence of preeclampsia, shoulder dystocia, and macrosomia. Initial management includes glucose monitoring and lifestyle modifications. If glucose levels remain above target values, pharmacologic therapy with metformin, glyburide, or insulin should begin. Antenatal testing is customary for women requiring medications. Induction of labor should not occur before 39 weeks in women with GDM, unless glycemic control is poor or another indication for delivery is present. Unless otherwise indicated, scheduled cesarean delivery should be considered only in women with an estimated fetal weight greater than 4,500 g. Women with a history of GDM are at high risk of subsequently developing diabetes. These patients should be screened six to 12 weeks postpartum for persistently abnormal glucose metabolism, and should undergo screening for diabetes every three years thereafter. Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is a condition of glucose intolerance with onset or first recognition in pregnancy that is not clearly overt diabetes.1,2 Normal pregnancy is characterized by pancreatic β-cell hyperplasia resulting in higher fasting and postprandial insulin levels. Increased secretion of placental hormones leads to increasing insulin resistance, especially throughout the third trimester. GDM occurs when β-cell function is insufficient to overcome this insulin resistance.3 Clinical recommendation Evidence rating References Comments Screening for GDM should occur after 24 weeks of gestat Continue reading >>

More in insulin