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Outline Why A Carbohydrate Controlled Diet Is Important In Preventing Raised Blood Glucose Levels

Why A Low-carb Diet Should Be The First Approach In Diabetes Treatment

Why A Low-carb Diet Should Be The First Approach In Diabetes Treatment

A panel of medical experts, including our own Advisory Board member Dr. Richard K. Bernstein, presents the evidence for low-carbohydrate diets as initial therapy… Please note: the following summary was excerpted by Jennifer Piggot, LECOM PharmD candidate, from the original article which can be found here. We encourage all interested readers to look over the full article and supporting research. The current state of diabetes care in the United States health system shows the inability of existing recommendations to control the epidemic of diabetes, the failure of low-fat diets to improve obesity rates, cardiovascular risk or general health, and the continual reports of serious side effects of commonly prescribed diabetic medications. The success of low carbohydrate diets in the treatment of diabetes and metabolic syndrome without significant side effects point to the need for a reappraisal of dietary guidelines. The immediate benefits of carbohydrate restriction in diabetes patients include reduction of high blood glucose, less requirement for weight loss, fewer side effects than medication therapy and the reduction or elimination of medications. This article outlines the current evidence supporting the use of low-carbohydrate diets as the first approach to treating type 2 diabetes, and an effective adjunct to pharmacology in type 1. These results represent the best documented and least controversial studies. It is known that diabetics are defective in response to carbohydrates, which can lead to hyperglycemia. Hussain et al. compared a very low carbohydrate ketogenic diet (VLCKD) with a low calorie diet over a 24-week period in diabetics and non-diabetics. Blood glucose dropped more dramatically in the VLCKD group than in those given the low-calorie diet. Patients with Continue reading >>

Carbohydrates And Blood Sugar

Carbohydrates And Blood Sugar

When people eat a food containing carbohydrates, the digestive system breaks down the digestible ones into sugar, which enters the blood. As blood sugar levels rise, the pancreas produces insulin, a hormone that prompts cells to absorb blood sugar for energy or storage. As cells absorb blood sugar, levels in the bloodstream begin to fall. When this happens, the pancreas start making glucagon, a hormone that signals the liver to start releasing stored sugar. This interplay of insulin and glucagon ensure that cells throughout the body, and especially in the brain, have a steady supply of blood sugar. Carbohydrate metabolism is important in the development of type 2 diabetes, which occurs when the body can’t make enough insulin or can’t properly use the insulin it makes. Type 2 diabetes usually develops gradually over a number of years, beginning when muscle and other cells stop responding to insulin. This condition, known as insulin resistance, causes blood sugar and insulin levels to stay high long after eating. Over time, the heavy demands made on the insulin-making cells wears them out, and insulin production eventually stops. Glycemic index In the past, carbohydrates were commonly classified as being either “simple” or “complex,” and described as follows: Simple carbohydrates: These carbohydrates are composed of sugars (such as fructose and glucose) which have simple chemical structures composed of only one sugar (monosaccharides) or two sugars (disaccharides). Simple carbohydrates are easily and quickly utilized for energy by the body because of their simple chemical structure, often leading to a faster rise in blood sugar and insulin secretion from the pancreas – which can have negative health effects. Complex carbohydrates: These carbohydrates have mo Continue reading >>

Carbohydrate Controlled Diets

Carbohydrate Controlled Diets

Tweet One area of confusion for diabetics and their diets is carbohydrates. So, should you eat carbohydrates or avoid them? Carbohydrates have a direct influence on blood sugar levels and so diets followed by people with diabetes tend to focus either on the quantity of carbohydrate intake or the speed at which carbohydrates are absorbed by the body. In the UK, patients diagnosed with diabetes are generally recommended by health professionals to follow a low GI diet rather than a low-carb diet. What is a carbohydrate controlled diet? A carbohydrate controlled diet is a diet in which carbohydrate intake is either limited or set at a particular value. Setting carbohydrate intake at set values or limits can be used by people with diabetes help stabilise blood glucose levels. Examples of carbohydrate controlled diets include: Fixed carbohydrate intakes A diet involving fixed intakes of carbohydrate through the day can help to simply diabetes control and may be helpful to people on insulin, and particularly those on fixed dose insulin regimens. Having a fixed intake of carbohydrate each day offers less flexibility in terms of meals but can offer more consistency over blood glucose control. People with type 1 diabetes will still need to have competence in carbohydrate counting. Restricted carbohydrate diets Restricted carbohydrate diets set a limit on how much carbohydrate you take in over the course of a day or for each meal. Low carbohydrate diets are a form of restricted carbohydrate diet. Restricted carbohydrate diets may specify a maximum value of carbohydrate intake. However, sometimes this is not needed, particularly if the diet suggests avoiding many of the kind of foods with higher carbohydrate intakes. How do restricted carbohydrate diets work? Restricting carbohydra Continue reading >>

Basic Diabetes Meal Plan

Basic Diabetes Meal Plan

Diabetes meal planning starts with eating a well-balanced diet that includes carbohydrates (carbs), protein, and fat. Carbs (found in starches, fruit, vegetables, milk/yogurt and sweets) turn into sugar (glucose) in the body. The body needs carbs for energy. Eating too many carbs can raise blood glucose levels too much, but it is important not cut out these foods. Eating too few carbs may cause your blood glucose to go too low. Eating a moderate amount of carbs at each meal, with a balanced intake of protein and fat, will help your blood glucose stay in a healthy range. Here are some tips to get you started. Your dietitian will give you more specific information when you meet with him or her. Limit your intake and portion sizes of high-sugar foods to 2 or 3 times a week or less. These include: Cakes (frosted, layer, plain), pies, and cookies Candy (hard tack, chocolate, nougats, etc.) Jelly, jam, and preserves Table sugar, honey, molasses, and syrup Regular ice cream, sherbet, regular and frozen yogurt, fruit ices, and Popsicles Regular soft drinks, fruit drinks (canned or concentrated), and drink mixes with sugar added Milkshakes, chocolate milk, hot cocoa mix Sugar coated cereals, granola, breakfast/snack bars Canned fruits with heavy syrup, dried fruit, fruit roll-ups, candied fruit Iced sweet breads, coffee cakes, breakfast rolls, and donuts Avoid the following: Table sugar, honey, molasses and syrup Regular soft drinks, fruit drinks (canned or concentrated), and drink mixes with sugar added Milkshakes, chocolate milk, hot cocoa mix Canned fruits with heavy syrup Eat 3 well-balanced meals a day and a small snack at night. Each meal should contain both carbs and protein. When planning meals, select a variety of foods from each food group, and watch your portion sizes Continue reading >>

Diabetes

Diabetes

What is diabetes? When a food containing carbohydrate is eaten, your body digests the carbohydrate into sugar (called glucose), which can then be used as energy by the cells in your body. Diabetes is a condition where your body can’t properly control the amount of glucose in your blood. A hormone called insulin is needed for transferring glucose from the bloodstream to enter the body cells and be converted to energy. In people with diabetes, blood glucose levels are often higher than normal because either the body does not produce insulin (type 1 diabetes) or cannot use insulin properly (type 2 diabetes). High levels of glucose in the bloodstream can lead to short term complications such as: passing large amounts of urine being extremely thirsty and drinking lots of fluids being tired having blurred vision having frequent skin infections and being slow to heal Blood glucose levels are normally between about 4.0 and 8.0 mmol/L. People with diabetes should aim for blood glucose levels as near to normal as possible, but individual targets should always be discussed with your diabetes health care professional. Controlling diabetes is important to prevent serious long term complications such as: heart and circulation problems infections kidney disease eye problems, which can lead to blindness nerve damage to the lower limbs and other parts of the body Types of diabetes There are three types of diabetes: Type 1 diabetes Type 1 diabetes affects less than 1% of all Australians. It can appear at any age, but most commonly in childhood and early adult life. People with type 1 diabetes cannot produce enough insulin, and therefore they must inject themselves with insulin several times a day. Type 2 diabetes Type 2 diabetes is the most common form of diabetes, affecting 7.1 % of a Continue reading >>

Principles Of Biochemistry/glucose, Glycogen And Diabetes

Principles Of Biochemistry/glucose, Glycogen And Diabetes

Glucose (C6H12O6, also known as D-glucose, dextrose, or grape sugar) is a simple sugar (monosaccharide) and an important carbohydrate in biology. Cells use it as a source of energy and a metabolic intermediate. Glucose is one of the main products of photosynthesis and starts cellular respiration. Glucose exists in several different structures, but all of these structures can be divided into two families of mirror-images (stereoisomers). Only one set of these isomers exists in nature, those derived from the "right-handed form" of glucose, denoted D-glucose. D-glucose is often referred to as dextrose. The term dextrose is derived from dextrorotatory glucose. Solutions of dextrose rotate polarized light to the right (in Latin: dexter = "right"). Starch and cellulose are polymers derived from the dehydration of D-glucose. The other stereoisomer, called L-glucose, is hardly found in nature. The name "glucose" comes from the Greek word glukus (γλυκύς), meaning "sweet". The suffix "-ose" denotes a sugar. The name "dextrose" and the 'D-' prefix come from Latin dexter ("right"), referring to the handedness of the molecules. Glucose is a monosaccharide with formula C6H12O6 or H-(C=O)-(CHOH)5-H, whose five hydroxyl (OH) groups are arranged in a specific way along its six-carbon backbone.[1] In its fleeting open-chain form, the glucose molecule has an open (as opposed to cyclic) and unbranched backbone of six carbon atoms, C-1 through C-6; where C-1 is part of an aldehyde group H(C=O)-, and each of the other five carbons bears one hydroxyl group -OH. The remaining bonds of the backbone carbons are satisfied by hydrogen atoms -H. Therefore glucose is an hexose and an aldose, or an aldohexose. Each of the four carbons C-2 through C-5 is chiral, meaning that its four bonds conne Continue reading >>

Diabetes Management: How Lifestyle, Daily Routine Affect Blood Sugar

Diabetes Management: How Lifestyle, Daily Routine Affect Blood Sugar

Diabetes management requires awareness. Know what makes your blood sugar level rise and fall — And how to control these day-to-day factors. Keeping your blood sugar levels within the range recommended by your doctor can be challenging. That's because many things make your blood sugar levels change, sometimes unexpectedly. Following are some factors that can affect your blood sugar levels. Food Healthy eating is a cornerstone of healthy living — with or without diabetes. But if you have diabetes, you need to know how foods affect your blood sugar levels. It's not only the type of food you eat but also how much you eat and the combinations of food types you eat. What to do: Learn about carbohydrate counting and portion sizes. A key to many diabetes management plans is learning how to count carbohydrates. Carbohydrates are the foods that often have the biggest impact on your blood sugar levels. And for people taking mealtime insulin, it's crucial to know the amount of carbohydrates in your food, so you get the proper insulin dose. Learn what portion size is appropriate for each type of food. Simplify your meal planning by writing down portions for the foods you eat often. Use measuring cups or a scale to ensure proper portion size and an accurate carbohydrate count. Make every meal well-balanced. As much as possible, plan for every meal to have a good mix of starches, fruits and vegetables, proteins and fats. It's especially important to pay attention to the types of carbohydrates you choose. Some carbohydrates, such as fruits, vegetables and whole grains, are better for you than are others. These foods are low in carbohydrates and contain fiber that helps keep your blood sugar levels more stable. Talk to your doctor, nurse or dietitian about the best food choices and Continue reading >>

Type 2 Diabetes Treatment

Type 2 Diabetes Treatment

Although diabetes cannot be cured, it can be treated successfully. If a high blood sugar level is brought down to a normal level, your symptoms will ease. You still have some risk of complications in the long term if your blood glucose level remains even mildly high - even if you have no symptoms in the short term. However, studies have shown that people who have better glucose control have fewer complications (such as heart disease or eye problems) compared with those people who have poorer control of their glucose level. Therefore, the main aims of treatment are: To keep your blood glucose level as near normal as possible. To reduce any other risk factors that may increase your risk of developing complications. In particular, to lower your blood pressure if it is high and to keep your blood lipids (cholesterol) low. To detect any complications as early as possible. Treatment can prevent or delay some complications from becoming worse. Type 2 diabetes is usually initially treated by following a healthy diet, losing weight if you are overweight, and having regular physical activity. If lifestyle advice does not control your blood sugar (glucose) levels then medicines are used to help lower your blood glucose levels. One medicine (usually metformin) is used first but two or even three medicines may be needed. Most of the medicines for type 2 diabetes are given in tablet form. However, some people with type 2 diabetes need insulin injections to help control blood glucose levels. Some people gain a great deal of benefit from insulin injections and these are sometimes used fairly soon after the diagnosis of type 2 diabetes has been made. Insulin injections can be used in combination with other medicines to further improve glucose control. Lifestyle - diet, weight control an Continue reading >>

Low-carb Diets For People With Diabetes (may 2017)

Low-carb Diets For People With Diabetes (may 2017)

Save for later Diabetes UK has put together this position statement to explain how low-carb diets might be used to help manage diabetes. We used the best level of evidence to inform the recommendations and conclusions. Where available, we used evidence from systematic reviews and meta-analyses, but also included good-quality randomised controlled trials. The current evidence suggest that low-carb diets can be safe and effective for people with Type 2 diabetes. They can help with weight loss and glucose management, and reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease. So, we can recommend a low-carb diet for some people with Type 2 diabetes. But there is no consistent evidence that a low-carb diet is any more effective than other approaches in the long term, so it shouldn't be seen as the diet for everyone. At the moment, there is no strong evidence to say that a low-carb diet is safe or effective for people with Type 1 diabetes. Because of this, Diabetes UK does not recommend low-carb diets to people with Type 1 diabetes. Evidence for low-carb diets in children reports adverse effects such as poor growth, a greater risk of cardiovascular disease, and psychological problems. So, we don't recommend low-carb diets for children with diabetes. People should be encouraged to eat more vegetables, fruits, wholegrains, pulses, seafood, nuts, and to eat less red meat and processed meat, sugar-sweetened drinks, sugar-sweetened foods, and refined grains such as white bread. Douglas Twenefour, dietitian and Deputy Head of Care at Diabetes UK said: "It is extremely important that dietary recommendations are based on good evidence rather than individual opinions. This position statement has been put together using the best evidence available, taking into consideration anecdotal reports and f Continue reading >>

Understanding Gestational Diabetes

Understanding Gestational Diabetes

Introduction Approximately 3 to 5 percent of all pregnant women in the United States are diagnosed as having gestational diabetes. These women and their families have many questions about this disorder. Some of the most frequently asked questions are: What is gestational diabetes and how did I get it? How does it differ from other kinds of diabetes? Will it hurt my baby? Will my baby have diabetes? What can I do to control gestational diabetes? Will I need a special diet? Will gestational diabetes change the way or the time my baby is delivered? Will I have diabetes in the future? This brochure will address these and many other questions about diet, exercise, measurement of blood sugar levels, and general medical and obstetric care of women with gestational diabetes. It must be emphasized that these are general guidelines and only your health care professional(s) can tailor a program specific to your needs. You should feel free to discuss any concerns you have with your doctor or other health care provider, as no one knows more about you and the condition of your pregnancy. What is gestational diabetes and what causes it? Diabetes (actual name is diabetes mellitus) of any kind is a disorder that prevents the body from using food properly. Normally, the body gets its major source of energy from glucose, a simple sugar that comes from foods high in simple carbohydrates (e.g., table sugar or other sweeteners such as honey, molasses, jams, and jellies, soft drinks, and cookies), or from the breakdown of complex carbohydrates such as starches (e.g., bread, potatoes, and pasta). After sugars and starches are digested in the stomach, they enter the blood stream in the form of glucose. The glucose in the blood stream becomes a potential source of energy for the entire body, sim Continue reading >>

Diabetes And Healthy Eating

Diabetes And Healthy Eating

People with diabetes do not need a special diet. Include a wide variety of healthy foods in your diet. You may need to reduce serving sizes to maintain or achieve a healthy weight. Meals should be based on high-fibre carbohydrates and be low in total saturated fats, added sugar and salt. On this page: Diabetes can be well managed with healthy eating, combined with regular physical activity and weight management. If you have diabetes, it is recommended that you follow a healthy eating plan based on plenty of vegetables and legumes (such as chickpeas, lentils, low-salt baked beans and kidney beans). Include some high-fibre carbohydrate foods such as wholegrain breads and cereals and fruit, as well as some lean protein sources and reduced-fat dairy products. Reduce your intake of saturated (unhealthy) fat and added sugars, and choose foods low in salt. Reducing the serving size of your meals can also help you to maintain a healthy body weight and allows for better blood glucose management. It is recommended that you see a dietitian who can work with you to develop a healthy eating plan that is just right for you. Healthy eating and diabetes If you have diabetes, healthy eating can help you to: maintain general good health better manage your blood glucose levels achieve target blood lipid (fat) levels maintain a healthy blood pressure maintain a healthy body weight prevent or slow the development of diabetes complications. Healthy eating for people with diabetes is no different than for everyone else. You do not need to prepare separate meals or buy special foods, so relax and enjoy healthy eating with the rest of your family. Physical activity and diabetes Along with healthy eating, physical activity is important. Be as active as possible in as many different ways as possi Continue reading >>

How Insulin And Glucagon Work To Regulate Blood Sugar Levels

How Insulin And Glucagon Work To Regulate Blood Sugar Levels

The pancreas secretes insulin and glucagon, both of which play a vital role in regulating blood sugar levels. The two hormones work in balance. If the level of one hormone is outside the ideal range, blood sugar levels may spike or drop. Together, insulin and glucagon help keep conditions inside the body steady. When blood sugar is too high, the pancreas secretes more insulin. When blood sugar levels drop, the pancreas releases glucagon to bring them back up. Blood sugar and health The body converts carbohydrates from food into sugar (glucose), which serves as a vital source of energy. Blood sugar levels vary throughout the day but, in most instances, insulin and glucagon keep these levels normal. Health factors including insulin resistance, diabetes, and problems with diet can cause a person's blood sugar levels to soar or plummet. Blood sugar levels are measured in milligrams per decilitre (mg/dl). Ideal blood sugar ranges are as follows: Before breakfast - levels should be less than 100 mg/dl for a person without diabetes and 70-130 mg/dl for a person with diabetes. Two hours after meals - levels should be less than 140 mg/dl for a person without diabetes and less than 180 mg/dl for a person with diabetes. Blood sugar regulation Blood sugar levels are a measure of how effectively an individual's body uses glucose. When the body does not convert enough glucose for use, blood sugar levels remain high. Insulin helps the body's cells absorb glucose, lowering blood sugar and providing the cells with the glucose they need for energy. When blood sugar levels are too low, the pancreas releases glucagon. Glucagon forces the liver to release stored glucose, which causes the blood sugar to rise. Insulin and glucagon are both released by islet cells in the pancreas. These cells Continue reading >>

Diabetes Treatment (type 1 And Type 2 Medications And Diet)

Diabetes Treatment (type 1 And Type 2 Medications And Diet)

Diabetes type 1 and type 2 treatment facts Controlling blood sugar (glucose) levels is the major goal of diabetes treatment, in order to prevent complications of the disease. Type 2 diabetes may be managed with non-insulin medications, insulin, weight reduction, or dietary changes. The choice of medications for type 2 diabetes is individualized, taking into account: the effectiveness and side effect profile of each medication, the patient's underlying health status, any medication compliance issues, and cost to the patient or health-care system. Medications for type 2 diabetes can work in different ways to reduce blood glucose levels. They may: increase insulin sensitivity, increase glucose excretion, decrease absorption of carbohydrates from the digestive tract, or work through other mechanisms. Medications for type 2 diabetes are often used in combination. Proper nutrition is a part of any diabetes care plan. There is no one specific "diabetic diet" that is recommended for all individuals. Pancreas transplantation is an area of active study for the treatment of diabetes. What is the treatment for diabetes? The major goal in treating type 1 and type 2 diabetes is to control blood sugar (glucose) levels within the normal range, with minimal excursions to low or high levels. Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is treated: Oral medications are prescribed when these measures fail to control the elevated blood sugars of type 2 diabetes. If oral medications become ineffective treatment with insulin is initiated. Adherence to a diabetic diet is a critical aspect of controlling blood sugar in people with diabetes. When considering an ideal diabetic diet, a number of factors must be taken into consideration, including the amount and type of carbohydrates consumed as well as the amount of fib Continue reading >>

Carbohydrate Counting For People With Type 2 Diabetes

Carbohydrate Counting For People With Type 2 Diabetes

Carbohydrate counting is an effective medical nutrition therapy option for adults with type 2 diabetes. This meal planning tool has increased in popularity as a result of research demonstrating the benefits of intensive therapy in individuals with type 1 diabetes.1 It can also lead to improved diabetes control and weight loss in adults with type 2 diabetes. This article describes our experience in teaching carbohydrate counting in a diabetes specialty practice using "carbohydrate homework." In my full-time practice with an endocrinologist and diabetologist, I see a large population of patients with type 2 diabetes. Nutrition services are provided in one-to-one consultations, and 8–12 patients are seen per day. Our type 2 diabetes population spans the spectrum in terms of educational and socioeconomic level. Whether working or retired, many eat the majority of their meals out or on the run, because their spouse has died, their children are grown, or busy lifestyles don't allow for meals at home. Most have a misconception of the role nutrition plays in their diabetes control. When patients enter our practice, they often express frustration with their lack of glycemic control, lack of success with weight loss, and continuing problems with weight gain. Patients report frustration that, although they are following a meal plan and their premeal blood glucose levels are close to target, their HbAlc levels are still elevated. It is often at this frustration point that a patient first meets with the dietitian, and the concept of carbohydrate counting is introduced. Carbohydrate counting with fat- gram counting is an effective way to work on weight loss and to improve the control of diabetes. Carbohydrate is converted to blood glucose almost 100% within approximately 90 minutes Continue reading >>

Avoiding Blood Sugar Spikes

Avoiding Blood Sugar Spikes

Do you ever get that “2 o’clock feeling when all you really want is a candy bar? What about a mid-morning headache along with fatigue, confusion, and brain fog? You might be riding the blood sugar roller coaster, which is when your blood sugar goes from low to high frequently throughout the day. Most of us opt for a quick fix and that usually involves eating sugar. But brushing these symptoms off can cause insulin resistance over time and lead to health problems in the future including diabetes and heart disease. So what causes blood sugar fluctuation? While there are a few reasons why it could occur (stress, lack of sleep, etc.), the simple answer is carbohydrate (carb) consumption. Carbohydrates are the only macronutrient that can raise blood sugar significantly, whereas protein and fat act as carbohydrate buffers, helping to keep blood sugar stable throughout the day. Because carbohydrates make up a major portion of the standard American diet, many may be unaware that their blood sugar could be troublesome. There are a few different things you can do to control it, but it’s important to get your diet in check first. Start with the simple tips listed below. 1. Balance your meals with fat and protein. These two macronutrients have a minimal effect on your blood sugar levels. Not only will they help you feel full and stay full, they slow the digestion of carbs, keeping your blood sugar from spiking rapidly. Here is an example of a meal that includes a good balance of protein, fat, and carbs: a serving of chicken (protein) sautéed in coconut oil (fat) with broccoli and carrots (carbs) on the side, along with a small serving of berries (carbs) for dessert. 2. Eat 3 meals a day, and a few snacks if you need them. Another option is eating smaller meals more frequentl Continue reading >>

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