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Clinical Guidelines On The Identification, Evaluation, And Treatment Of Overweight And Obesity In Adults: The Evidence Report

Clinical Guidelines On The Identification, Evaluation, And Treatment Of Overweight And Obesity In Adults: The Evidence Report

Clinical Guidelines on the Identification, Evaluation, and Treatment of Overweight and Obesity in Adults: The Evidence Report Clinical practice guidelines are systematically developed statements to assist practitioner and patient decisions about appropriate health care for specific clinical circumstances (Institute of Medicine, 1990). They define the role of specific diagnostic and treatment modalities in the diagnosis and management of patients. The statements contain recommendations that are based on evidence from a rigorous systematic review and synthesis of the published medical literature. National Institutes of Health, National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute in cooperation with the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases. Clinical Guidelines on the Identification, Evaluation, and Treatment of Overweight and Obesity in Adults: The Evidence Report [Internet]. 1998 Sep [cited 2013 Jan 17]. NIH Publication no. 98-4083. Available from: Effect Behavioral Change , Reduce Morbidity , Reduce Risk or Incidence of Disease or Condition , Public Health , Health Care , Clinical Practice , Informational & Educational , Secondary Prevention , Health Care Providers , Patients The Healthy People 2020 evidence-based resources identified have been selected by subject matter experts at the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Each of the selected evidence-based resources has been rated and classified according to a set of specific criteria based, in part, on publication status, publication type, and number of studies. This classification scheme does no necessarily consider all dimensions of quality, such as statistical significance, effect size (e.g., magnitude of effect), meaningfulness of effect, additional effect over control, and study design ( Continue reading >>

Medical Student Research Program In Diabetes

Medical Student Research Program In Diabetes

The Medical Student Research Program in Diabetes is sponsored by the National Institutes of Health through the NIDDK and allows medical students to conduct research under the direction of an established scientist in the areas of diabetes, hormone action, physiology, islet cell biology or obesity at an institution with one of the NIDDK-funded Research Centers during the summer between the first and second year or second and third year of medical school. The Program helps students gain an improved understanding of career opportunities in biomedical research and a comprehensive understanding of diabetes, its clinical manifestations and its unsolved problems. Prior research experience is not required. In addition to working on his/her own research project, each student attends a series of web-cast seminars addressing various clinical and research aspects of diabetes mellitus and its complications. At the conclusion of the summer, each student presents a brief summary of his/her work at a scientific symposium for all Program participants in Nashville, TN (commencement and conclusion dates reasonably flexible) - Stipend of approximately $1950 per month for food and housing, etc. - Students must find housing (Diabetes Centers will help) - Must attend research symposium August 1-2, 2018 in Nashville, TN Continue reading >>

Executive Summary Of The Strategic Plan For National Institutes Of Health Obesity Research

Executive Summary Of The Strategic Plan For National Institutes Of Health Obesity Research

Executive summary of the Strategic Plan for National Institutes of Health Obesity Research From the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (AMS) and the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (BMA), National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD Address reprint requests and correspondence to AM Spiegel, Director, National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, National Institutes of Health, 31 Center Drive, Building 31, Room 9A52, Bethesda, MD 20892. E-mail: [email protected] . Search for other works by this author on: From the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (AMS) and the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (BMA), National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD Search for other works by this author on: The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, Volume 82, Issue 1, 1 July 2005, Pages 211S214S, Allen M Spiegel, Barbara M Alving; Executive summary of the Strategic Plan for National Institutes of Health Obesity Research, The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, Volume 82, Issue 1, 1 July 2005, Pages 211S214S, The Strategic Plan for National Institutes of Health (NIH) Obesity Research is intended to serve as a guide for coordinating obesity research activities across the NIH and for enhancing the development of new efforts based on identification of areas of greatest scientific opportunity and challenge. Developed by the NIH Obesity Research Task Force with critical input from external scientists and the public, the Strategic Plan reflects a dynamic planning process and presents a multidimensional research agenda, with an interrelated set of goals and strategies for achieving the goals. The major scientific themes around which the Strategic Plan is framed include the following: pr Continue reading >>

Next Generation Sequencing To Identify Genes For Type 2 Diabetes And Obesity Baier, Leslie National Institute Of Diabetes And Digestive And Kidney Diseases

Next Generation Sequencing To Identify Genes For Type 2 Diabetes And Obesity Baier, Leslie National Institute Of Diabetes And Digestive And Kidney Diseases

Next Generation Sequencing to Identify Genes for Type 2 Diabetes and Obesity To identify rare or novel variants that affect risk for type 2 diabetes in Native Americans, we obtained exome sequence data on 177 Pima Indians. These unrelated individuals had been metabolically characterized for predictors of type 2 diabetes when they were nondiabetic, which included measures of insulin secretion, insulin action, and percent body fat (pfat). A subset (N50) had undergone abdominal fat and/or skeletal muscle biopsies for genome-wide gene expression profiling. Exome sequencing was performed by ShanghaiBio Corp. SNP validation showed that variants with a quality score of 100, that met HWE expectations, were unlikely to be artifacts. Among SNPs that met these criteria (N=408,487) only 88,005 mapped within exons;of these, 71,367 were coding (35,195 nonsynonymous), while 3,913 and 12,725 were in 5 and 3 UTRs, respectively. There were also 1,359 coding indels (698 predicted a frameshift). Variants occurring in 5 subjects were preliminarily analyzed for association with a metabolic trait in the 177 individuals, and those SNPS with the strongest associations are currently being genotyped in a sample of 3500 Pima Indians informative for type 2 diabetes and BMI. SNPs detected by sequencing are also being analyzed for association with cis-acting gene expression levels in individuals with expression data. In the preliminary analyses, 3 of the 8 top signals for pfat (P=10-5-10-6) resulted from novel variants. Five of these signals were in genes unknown to be associated with obesity (LYSMD4, ANKRD36, USP5, DHX32, AGPAT1) and require validation which is ongoing. Another top signal (CYB5A) had been detected in our prior GWAS for BMI, and the BMI association replicated in two independent samp Continue reading >>

Nida Will Contribute To Obesity Research

Nida Will Contribute To Obesity Research

The United States has a serious weight problem. Two-thirds of our adults are overweight or obese. The prevalence of overweight among our children has nearly tripled since 1970. The consequences for the Nation's health and economy are grave. Obesity has been shown to decrease overall life expectancy and to increase the risk for cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, and other chronic conditions. Annually, it costs an estimated $117 billion or more in lost productivity and future earnings. To identify new strategies for prevention and treatment, the National Institutes of Health (NIH) has established an Agency-wide obesity task force and research plan (see obesityresearch.nih.gov ). NIDA's assignment on the 25-Institute task force represents a natural extension of the Institute's research agenda. Addiction and compulsive eating both involve impaired impulse control and distorted valuation of the rewards to be derived from a certain behaviori.e., drug-taking or eating. The two conditions have roots in some of the same brain areas and circuits, including the hypothalamus, prefrontal cortex, and limbic system. The knowledge NIDA-funded scientists have developed of how those areas function normally and in the context of drug abuse undoubtedly will have great application to understanding the other compulsive behavior. In this issue, we report an exemplary illustration of the neurobiological overlap between addiction and eating disorders: The hormone orexin appears to foster cravings for both food and drugs (see " Neuropeptide Promotes Drug-Seeking and Craving in Rats "). Several other NIDA-supported studies are investigating compounds found to be effective in suppressing appetite and food intake. Some of the most promising produce their effects by blocking the brain's canna Continue reading >>

National Institute Of Diabetes And Digestive And Kidney Diseases

National Institute Of Diabetes And Digestive And Kidney Diseases

National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK) Logo The National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK) is part of the United States National Institutes of Health , which in turn is part of the Department of Health and Human Services . NIDDK is approximately the fifth-largest of the 27 NIH institutes . [1] The institute's mission is to support research, training, and communication with the public in the topic areas of "diabetes and other endocrine and metabolic diseases; digestive diseases, nutritional disorders, and obesity; and kidney, urologic, and hematologic diseases". [2] As of 2015, the Director of the institute is Dr. Griffin P. Rodgers , who assumed the position on an acting basis in 2006 and on a permanent basis in 2007. [3] The mission of the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK) is to conduct and support medical research and research training and to disseminate science-based information on diabetes and other endocrine and metabolic diseases; digestive diseases, nutritional disorders, and obesity; and kidney, urologic, and hematologic diseases, to improve peoples health and quality of life. [4] The institute that would become NIDDK was established in 1947 as the Experimental Biology and Medicine Institute, subsequently incorporated in 1950 by President Harry S Truman into the National Institute of Arthritis and Metabolic Diseases. The name of the institute was changed in 1972 to National Institute of Arthritis, Metabolism, and Digestive Diseases, again in 1981 to National Institute of Arthritis, Diabetes, and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, and to Continue reading >>

Diabetes And Obesity Research

Diabetes And Obesity Research

The Scripps Research Institute (TSRI) undertakes basic biomedical research, primarily in laboratory settings, to learn how the human body operates on all levels. Our discoveries are often licensed to biotechnology or pharmaceutical firms for further development toward a drug or treatment. As a nonprofit biomedical research institute, we do not see patients and rarely conduct clinical trials; for the latest information on clinical trials throughout the United States, visit www.clinicaltrials.gov . For information on specific diseases, search for associations or organizations dedicated to the disease, for example, the American Diabetes Association or the National Institute for Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases. Diabetes and obesity are two related conditions affecting the body’s metabolism. What Is Diabetes? Diabetes is a group of conditions in which people have too much sugar (glucose) in their blood, due to the body’s inability to produce and/or use the hormone insulin. Insulin normally causes cells to take up glucose as an energy source from the blood. Symptoms of diabetes can include increased thirst, frequent urination, fatigue, and unusual hunger accompanied by weight loss, blurred vision, frequent infections, and slow-healing sores. In type 1 diabetes (formerly called juvenile diabetes), the body's immune system attacks insulin-producing ? cells in the pancreas. Without insulin, the glucose in the bloodstream increases dramatically. Without treatment with replacement insulin, this condition can progress rapidly, leading to dangerously high blood sugar, coma, and death. In type 2 diabetes (formerly called adult-onset diabetes), which accounts for 90 to 95 percent of all diabetes cases in the United States, the body does not produce enough insulin, or th Continue reading >>

Openclinical - Clinical Applications - Obesity Education Initiative (oei) Treatment Guidelines Application

Openclinical - Clinical Applications - Obesity Education Initiative (oei) Treatment Guidelines Application

Obesity Education Initiative (OEI) of the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI) of the National Institutes of Health (NIH)in cooperation with the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (USA) Evidence-based medicine, clinical guidelines, decision support, risk assessment The Practical Guide: Identification, Evaluation, and Treatment of Overweight and Obesity in Adults was published in 1998. The tool was released in 2003. Point-of-care reference tool available for clinical use by health professionals. NB: Use of the OEI guidelines application is restricted to health professionals - see also below. The tool stratifies risk and provides "individualized and evidence-based assessment and treatment recommendations for each patient at the point-of-care. Features include: Individualized treatment recommendations (lifestyle therapy, pharmacotherapy,and surgery options) Follow-up and maintenance recommendations Evidence-based supporting information available throughout. NB: "The OEI Guidelines application for handheld computers (Palm OS and PocketPC) is intended as a point-of-care reference to the full Clinical Guidelines on the Identification, Evaluation, and Treatment of Overweight and Obesity in Adults: the Evidence Report and the Practical Guide to the Identification, Evaluation, and Treatment of Overweight and Obesity in Adults. Clinicians should be thoroughly familiar with these documents before using this reference tool in patient care." Clinical Guidelines on the Identification, Evaluation, and Treatment of Overweight and Obesity in Adults from the USA National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute in cooperation with the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (1998) " Overweight and obesity in the United States h Continue reading >>

Diabetes Research: A Perspective From The National Institute Of Diabetes And Digestive And Kidney Diseases

Diabetes Research: A Perspective From The National Institute Of Diabetes And Digestive And Kidney Diseases

This is the third in a series of articles, invited by the editors of Diabetes, that describes the research programs and aims of organizations committed to funding and fostering diabetes-related research. The first piece, contributed by the Juvenile Diabetes Research Foundation, appeared in the January 2012 issue of Diabetes. The second piece that describes the American Diabetes Association’s research program appeared in the June 2012 issues of Diabetes and Diabetes Care. ENHANCING THE DIABETES RESEARCH WORKFORCE A well-trained and diverse scientific workforce is essential to our efforts to improve outcomes for people with or at risk for diabetes. To ensure a pipeline of new well-trained investigators in basic and clinical disciplines, NIDDK supports training grant, fellowship, and career award mechanisms to provide opportunities for investigators at all stages of the career trajectory. These are supplemented by programs targeted to specific needs, such as our medical student research program in diabetes, which allows medical students to conduct research under the direction of an established scientist at one of our seventeen NIDDK-funded Diabetes Research Centers; supplements to research and training grants to foster recruitment of underrepresented minority scientists to diabetes research; and institutional career development programs to attract pediatric endocrinologists to careers in childhood diabetes research. It is increasingly important to build multidisciplinary research teams and train multidisciplinary researchers. We are establishing interdisciplinary training grants to promote diabetes research training for bioengineers as well as career development programs in diabetes research for behavioral scientists. We will continue to foster the application of new exp Continue reading >>

Health Risks Of Being Overweight

Health Risks Of Being Overweight

Overweight and obesity may increase the risk of many health problems, including diabetes, heart disease, and certain cancers. If you are pregnant, excess weight may lead to short- and long-term health problems for you and your child. This fact sheet tells you more about the links between excess weight and many health conditions. It also explains how reaching and maintaining a normal weight may help you and your loved ones stay healthier as you grow older. What kinds of health problems are linked to overweight and obesity? Excess weight may increase the risk for many health problems, including type 2 diabetes high blood pressure heart disease and strokes certain types of cancer sleep apnea osteoarthritis fatty liver disease kidney disease pregnancy problems, such as high blood sugar during pregnancy, high blood pressure, and increased risk for cesarean delivery (C-section) How can I tell if I weigh too much? Gaining a few pounds during the year may not seem like a big deal. But these pounds can add up over time. How can you tell if your weight could increase your chances of developing health problems? Knowing two numbers may help you understand your risk: your body mass index (BMI) score and your waist size in inches. Body Mass Index The BMI is one way to tell whether you are at a normal weight, are overweight, or have obesity. It measures your weight in relation to your height and provides a score to help place you in a category: normal weight: BMI of 18.5 to 24.9 overweight: BMI of 25 to 29.9 obesity: BMI of 30 or higher For an online tool that will calculate your BMI score, see the Additional Links section. Waist Size Another important number to know is your waist size in inches. Having too much fat around your waist may increase health risks even more than having fat Continue reading >>

National Institute Of Diabetes And Digestive And Kidney Diseases (niddk)

National Institute Of Diabetes And Digestive And Kidney Diseases (niddk)

National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK) Until May 19, 1972, the National Institute of Arthritis and Metabolic Diseases; until June 23, 1981, the National Institute of Arthritis, Metabolism, and Digestive Diseases; and until April 8, 1986, the National Institute of Arthritis, Diabetes, and Digestive and Kidney Diseases. The mission of the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK) is to conduct and support medical research and research training and to disseminate science-based information on diabetes and other endocrine and metabolic diseases; digestive diseases, nutritional disorders, and obesity; and kidney, urologic, and hematologic diseases, to improve peoples health and quality of life. The NIDDK supports a wide range of medical research through grants to universities and other medical research institutions across the country. The Institute also supports government scientists who conduct basic, translational, and clinical research across a broad spectrum of research topics and serious, chronic diseases and conditions related to the Institute's mission. In addition, the NIDDK supports research training for students and scientists at various stages of their careers and a range of education and outreach programs to bring science-based information to patients and their families, health care professionals, and the public. External research funded by the NIDDK is organized into three scientific program divisions: Diabetes, Endocrinology, and Metabolic Diseases Kidney, Urologic, and Hematologic Diseases The NIDDKs overarching principles in moving research forward include: maintaining a vigorous, investigator-initiated research portfolio that supports cross-cutting science that can be broadly applied to many di Continue reading >>

How Obese Mice Get Moving

How Obese Mice Get Moving

By a showing of hands: how many of you started this New Year with the resolution toget moving? Burn off those extra holiday calories, or finally really get in shape? Because, lets be honest, its all about willpower right? Just do it! We all know getting active is good for our health; it is scientific fact that obesity and physical inactivity are linked. But what comes first? Gaining weight because you dont move enough, or decreasing activity because its just harder to get around with the physical burden of that extra weight? A couple of weeks ago, I spoke to Alexxai Kravitz at Neuroscience 2016 in San Diego. His lab at the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK, National Institutes of Health, US) has the goal of understanding the underlying physical behaviors related to obesity. Their work was recently published inCell Metabolismand received quite a bit of attention in the press . The Kravitz lab asked the question: "dopamine is critical for movement, and obesity is associated with a lack of movement. Can problems with dopamine signaling alone explain the inactivity?" They actually found that inactivity, at least in part, was caused by problems in the dopamine system in the brain, specifically, activity of the dopamine 2 (D2) receptor. One group of mice was fed a normal diet, while a second identical group was given high-fat food. Within a week, a noticeable difference in body weight appeared between the two groups. By week four, the heavier mice were also significantly slower. However, here is the interesting part: the overweight mice got slowerbeforethey gained significant weight. Whats going on? Analysis of brain chemistry showed that the high-fat diet caused a deficit in activity at the D2 receptors in the striatum, which in turn ca Continue reading >>

Obesity And Diabetes Research At Niddk Would Benefit From Psychological Science

Obesity And Diabetes Research At Niddk Would Benefit From Psychological Science

The mission of the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK) is to conduct and support research and research training and to disseminate science-based information on diabetes and other endocrine and metabolic diseases; digestive diseases, nutritional disorders and obesity; and kidney, urologic and hematologic diseases, to improve peoples health and quality of life. Behavioral and social science research is important across the NIDDK as many of the diseases within its mission have behavioral, psychological or lifestyle factors that contribute to the onset, maintenance or exacerbation of the condition. This article focuses on obesity and diabetes research to illustrate the range of research opportunities at the NIDDK that would benefit from the expertise of the psychological sciences. Diabetes is a common chronic disease that imposes considerable demands on the individual as well as the U.S. healthcare system. People with diabetes have a higher rate of cardiovascular disease than those without diabetes and are at increased risk for kidney failure, lower limb amputation and blindness. Obesity is a significant risk factor for diabetes and the prevalence of obesity in children and adults in the United States has dramatically increased in the past four decades. Diabetes currently affects an estimated 25.8 million people in the United States. Another 79 million Americans are estimated to be at greatly increased risk of developing diabetes in the next several years. Type 1 and type 2 diabetes in youth are also on the rise. Overweight, obesity and/or excessive weight gain during pregnancy are also contributing to rising rates of gestational diabetes mellitus which in turn increases risk of future type 2 diabetes in the mother and child. The Center Continue reading >>

Overweight & Obesity Statistics

Overweight & Obesity Statistics

This content describes the prevalence of overweight and obesity in the United States. Defining Overweight and Obesity A person whose weight is higher than what is considered as a normal weight adjusted for height is described as being overweight or having obesity.1 Fast Facts According to data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), 2013–20142,3,4,5 More than 1 in 3 adults were considered to be overweight. More than 2 in 3 adults were considered to be overweight or have obesity. More than 1 in 3 adults were considered to have obesity. About 1 in 13 adults were considered to have extreme obesity. About 1 in 6 children and adolescents ages 2 to 19 were considered to have obesity. Using Body Mass Index (BMI) to Estimate Overweight and Obesity BMI is the tool most commonly used to estimate and screen for overweight and obesity in adults and children. BMI is defined as weight in kilograms divided by height in meters squared. For most people, BMI is related to the amount of fat in their bodies, which can raise the risk of many health problems. A health care professional can determine if a person’s health may be at risk because of his or her weight. The tables below show BMI ranges for overweight and obesity. Adults An online tool for gauging the BMIs of adults can be found at: Children and Adolescents BMI of Children and Adolescents Ages 2 to 19 BMI Classification At or above the 85th percentile on the CDC growth charts Overweight or obesity At or above the 95th percentile on the CDC growth charts Obesity (including extreme obesity) At or above 120 percent of the 95th percentile on the CDC growth charts Extreme obesity Children grow at different rates at different times, so it is not always easy to tell if a child is overweight. The CDC BMI gro Continue reading >>

Nation's Leader On Diabetes And Obesity Prevention To Speak At Vtcri

Nation's Leader On Diabetes And Obesity Prevention To Speak At Vtcri

Nation's leader on diabetes and obesity prevention to speak at VTCRI Griffin P. Rodgers, director of the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, will speak at the Virginia Tech Carilion Research Institute on Thursday, Feb. 8. Diabetes and obesity are increasing at an alarming rate in the United States, but the ailments can be prevented or delayed, according to Griffin P. Rodgers , the director of the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases. Rodgers will discuss research-based approaches to prevent diabetes and obesity, which are known as lifestyle diseases because they are caused or aggravated by poor health behavior, as part of the Virginia Tech Carilion Research Institute Distinguished Public Lecture Series at 5:30 p.m., Feb. 8, at the VTCRI. Rodgers will focus his talk on the Diabetes Prevention Program , a multicenter clinical research study conducted by the National Institutes of Health that found modest weight loss through diet and exercise significantly reduced the chances that a pre-diabetic person would develop diabetes. [For the] 86 million Americans who have the possibility of going on to develop diabetes, we have tried to translate a very effective diabetes prevention program to scale this up in a way to offer this lifestyle thats quite effective in these patients to prevent them from becoming diabetic, Rodgers testified before the Senate Appropriations Subcommittee on Health & Human Services on Oct. 7, 2015. These will have an important financial role in the future, in terms of cutting costs. Rodgers will discuss the programs impacts to date. He will also address other potential approaches to preventing diabetes, and the critical role of exercise not only for promoting weight loss, but also for maintaining Continue reading >>

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