Is Metformin An Effective Treatment For Type 2 Diabetes?
If your doctor has prescribed Metformin for diabetes or another use, what exactly is this medication and how does it work? What is the best way to take it to reduce side effects? What adverse effects might you experience and why is it important to be aware of these? Overview According to the American Diabetes Association Standards of Care, Metformin, if tolerated, is the preferred initial oral diabetes medication for Type 2 diabetes because it is the most effective. . The problem is that they are either not making enough insulin or the insulin they do make isn't being used efficiently. Metformin is a weight neutral medication that helps the body use insulin. Weight neutral means that it is not associated with weight gain (or loss) as are many other diabetes medications. Like all medicines, however, Metformin can produce some side effects, some of which it is important to know. How It Works , which are derived from the French lilac. Metformin helps to lower blood sugar by utilizing insulin and reducing insulin resistance (making your body more sensitive to insulin.) Many people with Type 2 diabetes carry excess weight—fat cells prevent insulin from doing its job, ultimately causing the cells to become resistant to insulin. When cells become resistant to insulin, insulin is unable to direct sugar from the bloodstream to the cells to use for energy, and instead, the sugar remains in the blood. As a result, the liver responds by making more sugar because it thinks the body needs it for fuel and the pancreas responds by making more insulin. You wind up with chaos—high blood sugars and high insulin levels. Metformin helps to restore normalcy by increasing insulin sensitivity and reducing the production of sugar made by the liver. Other Uses In addition to being used for d Continue reading >>
Metformin In Prevention And Treatment Of Antipsychotic Induced Weight Gain: A Systematic Review And Meta-analysis
Abstract Most antipsychotics are associated with weight gain and other metabolic complications. Several randomized trials have shown metformin to be effective, but this still hasn’t been included in clinical guidelines on managing antipsychotic induced weight gain. All double blind placebo controlled trials assessing the efficacy of metformin in the treatment of antipsychotic induced weight gain were included. Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) and MEDLINE were searched for the period January 2000-December 2015. Meta-analysis was carried out using the random effects model. Meta analysis of 12 published studies with a total of 743 patients found that in patients treated with antipsychotics, metformin treatment resulted in significantly better anthropometric and metabolic parameters than placebo. The mean change in weight was −3.27 kg (95 % CI −4.66 to −1.89) (Z = 4.64, p < 0.001). Metformin compared to placebo resulted in significant reduction in BMI [−1.13 kg/m2 (95 % CI −1.61 to −0.66)] and insulin resistance index [−1.49 (95 % CI −2.40 to −0.59)] but not fasting blood sugar [−2.48 mg/dl (95 % CI −5.54 to 0.57]. This meta-analysis confirms that metformin is effective in treating antipsychotic induced weight gain in patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder. Background Most antipsychotics are associated with weight gain and other metabolic complications . Prevalence of metabolic syndrome is higher in patients treated with antipsychotics than in drug naive patients with schizophrenia. Metabolic syndrome is more likely with second generation antipsychotics than first generation antipsychotics . Rate of weight gain is highest in the first six months after commencing treatment however patients continue to gai Continue reading >>
Long-term Safety, Tolerability, And Weight Loss Associated With Metformin In The Diabetes Prevention Program Outcomes Study
OBJECTIVE Metformin produced weight loss and delayed or prevented diabetes in the Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP). We examined its long-term safety and tolerability along with weight loss, and change in waist circumference during the DPP and its long-term follow-up. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS The randomized double-blind clinical trial of metformin or placebo followed by a 7–8-year open-label extension and analysis of adverse events, tolerability, and the effect of adherence on change in weight and waist circumference. RESULTS No significant safety issues were identified. Gastrointestinal symptoms were more common in metformin than placebo participants and declined over time. During the DPP, average hemoglobin and hematocrit levels were slightly lower in the metformin group than in the placebo group. Decreases in hemoglobin and hematocrit in the metformin group occurred during the first year following randomization, with no further changes observed over time. During the DPP, metformin participants had reduced body weight and waist circumference compared with placebo (weight by 2.06 ± 5.65% vs. 0.02 ± 5.52%, P < 0.001, and waist circumference by 2.13 ± 7.06 cm vs. 0.79 ± 6.54 cm, P < 0.001 in metformin vs. placebo, respectively). The magnitude of weight loss during the 2-year double-blind period was directly related to adherence (P < 0.001). Throughout the unblinded follow-up, weight loss remained significantly greater in the metformin group than in the placebo group (2.0 vs. 0.2%, P < 0.001), and this was related to the degree of continuing metformin adherence (P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS Metformin used for diabetes prevention is safe and well tolerated. Weight loss is related to adherence to metformin and is durable for at least 10 years of treatment. Metformin is Continue reading >>
Metformin, The Anti-aging Miracle Drug
Metformin, The Anti-Aging Miracle Drug Diabetes Drugs Take A BAD RAP This article is part two of a series, for part one, click here. You probably think of Diabetes Drugs as all lumped together as “Bad Drugs”. For many years , I certainly did. Perhaps it was the Avandia story that gave Diabetes Drugs a Bad Rap and made us think poorly of ALL Diabetes Drugs. Upper Left Image: Photo of French Lilac Plant , the plant origin of Metformin, courtesy of Wikimedia Commons. Avandia, the “BAD Drug” for Diabetes Take the case of Avandia, approved in 1999, it quickly became the world’s best selling diabetes drug. However, 8 years later, the New England Journal reported that Avandia causes increased heart attack rates, and sales were suspended in Europe.(1A) In November 2011, GlaxoSmithKline admitted they withheld safety data on Avandia and agreed to pay the US government 3 billion in civil and criminal penalties related to illegal marketing. The Avandia case gave all diabetes drugs a “Bad Rap”. The reality is that there is one diabetes drug that has stood the test of time, and is in fact a “Good Drug”. This is Metformin. Perhaps the plant origin of the drug makes it a “good drug”. Metformin, the “Good Drug” Is There Anyone Who Should not Take It ? At the May 2012 Orlando A4M Meeting, Terry Grossman, M.D. from Golden Colorado gave an excellent presentation on Metformin. Credit and thanks goes to Terry Grossman MD for sharing his talk at the meeting with all of us. Much of this article comes from Grossman’s PowerPoint slides. Dr Terry Grossman is co-author of the Ray Kurzweil book, Fantastic Voyage. Upper Left Image : Photo of Terry Grossman MD, courtesy of Terry Grossman MD. Metformin by Terry Grossman MD- Metformin Discovery and Approval Discovered in the Continue reading >>
Metformin, Weight Loss & Pcos – Does It Actually Work?
Did you know that one of the main reasons you can't lose weight with PCOS is because of your hormones? It's true, and that's why many women (and physicians) turn to using Metformin to try and help with weight loss. But just because it works for some people doesn't mean it will necessarily work for YOU. Find out why metformin helps with weight loss, but more important what works better and how to finally lose weight if you have PCOS. Insulin & PCOS: Why It's so Important One of the most common medications prescribed for PCOS is metformin. But, PCOS is a hormonal condition which results in weight gain, hair growth on the face, infertility, acne and estrogen/progesterone imbalances. So why is metformin, a medication used to lower blood sugar and treat insulin resistance, used to treat estrogen/progesterone imbalances in women? The logic is quite simple: Most of the symptoms of PCOS (all those listed above) stem from insulin resistanc e! In fact many physicians recommend that ALL women with PCOS should be treated for insulin resistance regardless of what their fasting insulin and fasting blood sugar levels are. This means that the root cause of PCOS (at least the majority of it) is insulin resistance, and this is why metformin is so commonly used to treat. Insulin resistance causes a block of glucose uptake in your skeletal muscles which results in a lower metabolism (and weight gain), insulin also directly acts on your ovaries and adrenals increasing androgens like testosterone and DHEA. It's also the action of insulin on your pituitary that results in increased LH production which over stimulates your ovaries resulting in the characteristic "cysts" of PCOS. High levels of DHEA and testosterone lead to acne and hair growth (hirsutism). But one simple question r Continue reading >>
How does this medication work? What will it do for me? Metformin belongs to the class of medications called oral hypoglycemics, which are medications that lower blood sugar. It is used to control blood glucose (blood sugar) for people with type 2 diabetes. It is used when diet, exercise, and weight reduction have not been found to lower blood glucose well enough on their own. Metformin works by reducing the amount of glucose made by the liver and by making it easier for glucose to enter into the tissues of the body. Metformin has been found to be especially useful in delaying problems associated with diabetes for overweight people with diabetes. This medication may be available under multiple brand names and/or in several different forms. Any specific brand name of this medication may not be available in all of the forms or approved for all of the conditions discussed here. As well, some forms of this medication may not be used for all of the conditions discussed here. Your doctor may have suggested this medication for conditions other than those listed in these drug information articles. If you have not discussed this with your doctor or are not sure why you are taking this medication, speak to your doctor. Do not stop taking this medication without consulting your doctor. Do not give this medication to anyone else, even if they have the same symptoms as you do. It can be harmful for people to take this medication if their doctor has not prescribed it. What form(s) does this medication come in? 500 mg Each white, round, biconvex, film-coated tablet with a partial scored-line on one side and "rph M12" on the other side, contains metformin HCl 500 mg. Nonmedicinal ingredients: hypromellose, magnesium stearate, maltodextrin, polyethylene glycol, and povidone. 850 mg Each Continue reading >>
Metformin And Pcos Treatment - 3 Fat Chicks On A Diet Weight Loss Community
If you have polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), there's a good chance your doctor has prescribed a drug called metformin (brand name "Glucophage" or "Glucophage XR"). Metformin offers both benefits and risks. They are summarized below. We also offer some suggestions if you are now taking metformin. A small number of medical studies are mentioned in this article in order to give you some context for understanding the benefits and risks of metformin. Some of the purported benefits of metformin are controversial or unproven, and the studies cited below are not conclusive proof of benefits. Other relevant studies have not been included because of lack of space. Metformin is a drug that has been used to help control blood glucose levels in people with Type 2 Diabetes. Although metformin has been used in Europe for over 25 years, it was not available in the US until 1995. The FDA has approved metformin only for the treatment of Type 2 Diabetes. Consequently, some physicians don't have much clinical experience with metformin, or are reluctant to use it unless the patient has diabetes.(1) Metformin appears to work in three ways. First, it decreases the absorption of dietary carbohydrates through the intestines. Second, it reduces the production of glucose by the liver.(2) The liver uses the raw material in your food to create a reserve supply of blood sugar. When your body experiences stress, the liver releases the reserve glucose to supply your brain and muscles with an immediate source of energy to cope with the stress. Metformin suppresses the production of this reserve fuel. Third, and perhaps most importantly, metformin increases the sensitivity of muscle cells to insulin.(2) Insulin is the hormone that delivers glucose into your cells to be burned as fuel, or stored. Women Continue reading >>
Does Metformin Cause Weight Loss? What To Know Before You Take It
If you’re managing type 2 diabetes with metformin (Glucophage), you might be well acquainted with unwanted side effects of this drug — namely, upset stomach, diarrhea, muscle aches, and sleepiness. These can be a figurative and literal pain, but you might welcome one side effect of metformin with open arms, particularly if you’ve struggled to lose weight. Metformin isn’t a weight loss drug, but researchers have found a link between the drug and weight loss. In fact, a long-term study published in April 2012 in the journal Diabetes Care that was conducted by the Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP) concluded that the drug could serve as a treatment for excess body weight, although more studies are needed. What Is Metformin and How Does It Work? “[Metformin] has been considered a first-line medication in the treatment of type 2 diabetes, and it mainly acts by lowering the amount of glucose released by the liver,” says Minisha Sood, MD, an endocrinologist at Lenox Hill Hospital in New York City. “It also helps a hormone called insulin to work better by helping muscles use glucose in a more efficient manner. When insulin works better (and insulin sensitivity improves), a person’s insulin levels are lower than they would be otherwise.” There’s no cure for type 2 diabetes, but the right combination of medication and healthy lifestyle can stabilize blood sugar levels, which, of course, is the end goal of any diabetes treatment. As the medication helps your body properly metabolize food and restores your ability to respond to insulin, you’ll not only feel better, you can potentially avoid complications of high blood sugar, such as heart disease, kidney damage, nerve damage (diabetic neuropathy), and eye damage (retinopathy). Why Does Metformin Cause Weight Lo Continue reading >>
Systematic Review Of Metformin Use In Obese Nondiabetic Children And Adolescents
Abstract Objective: Childhood obesity has become epidemic and has been accompanied by an increase in prevalence of type 2 diabetes (T2DM) in youth. Addressing obesity and insulin resistance by drug treatment represents a rational strategy for the prevention of T2DM. A systematic review was performed to evaluate the effectiveness of metformin in reducing weight and ameliorating insulin resistance in obese nondiabetic children. Methods: A PubMed database search was conducted, using ‘metformin', ‘obesity', ‘insulin resistance', ‘children', ‘adolescents' as search terms. Results: Eleven trials were included in the present review. Metformin was administered for 6-12 months at a dosage of 1,000-2,000 mg/daily, decreasing BMI by 1.1-2.7 compared with placebo or lifestyle intervention alone. Concomitantly, fasting insulin resistance improved after metformin therapy. Posttreatment follow-up was performed in one study, showing that after 1 year of discontinuation of therapy the decrease in BMI disappears. Conclusions: Short-term metformin treatment appears to moderately affect weight reduction in severely obese children and adolescents, with a concomitant improvement in fasting insulin sensitivity. Further studies with longer treatment period are needed to establish how much metformin can reduce weight and its real utility in preventing T2DM development in pediatric patients. © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel Introduction The past generation has witnessed a surge in the number of children, adolescents, and young adults with obesity and consequently a marked increase in the incidence of type 2 diabetes (T2DM) even in the youngest. Insulin resistance, strictly related to excessive weight gain, is the first step in the pathogenesis of T2DM, whose development requires pancreas β Continue reading >>
Why Metformin (glucophage) Causes Weight Loss And Reduced Appetite Despite Stimulating Ampk?
In regard to weight loss, Metformin provides two primary benefits. First, it significantly improves glycemic control. This stabilizes your blood sugar, and makes you less likely to experience the up-and-down rollercoaster experience that often comes along with dieting. The second benefit of Metformin (partially a result of the first benefit) is suppressed appetite. Users typically note a measurable improvement from their usual cravings for food. By simply not desiring as much food, and still feeling normal despite eating less (due to the improved glycemic control), the result can be profound weight loss. That’s the good news, but you can’t just take the pill and expect everything to change on its own. Weight loss just doesn’t work that way. Metformin won’t work for you – rather, it will work with you. Continue reading >>
Galvumet (vildagliptin/metformin Hydrochloride) Drug / Medicine Information
This leaflet answers some common questions about Galvumet. It does not contain all the available information. It does not take the place of talking to your doctor, pharmacist or diabetes educator. The information in this leaflet was last updated on the date listed on the final page. More recent information on the medicine may be available. You should ensure that you speak to your pharmacist or doctor to obtain the most up to date information on the medicine. You can also download the most up to date leaflet from www.novartis.com.au. Those updates may contain important information about the medicine and its use of which you should be aware. All medicines have risks and benefits. Your doctor has weighed the risks of you taking this medicine against the benefits they expect it will provide. If you have any concerns about this medicine, ask your doctor or pharmacist. Galvumet is used to treat type 2 diabetes mellitus in people who are already taking vildagliptin and metformin tablets separately, or whose diabetes cannot be controlled by metformin alone. Galvumet is also used with a sulfonylurea by patients whose blood sugar levels are not adequately controlled when taking only metformin and a sulfonylurea. Galvumet is also added to insulin in patients when a stable dose of insulin and metformin do not provide adequate blood sugar control. It is prescribed by your doctor together with diet and exercise. Galvumet contains two ingredients: vildagliptin, which belongs to a class of medicines called 'islet enhancers', and metformin, which belongs to the 'biguanide' class. Type 2 diabetes mellitus used to be known as 'non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM)' or 'maturity onset diabetes'. Type 2 diabetes develops if the body does not produce enough insulin, or where the i Continue reading >>
Does Metformin For Weight Loss Works?
DOES METFORMIN WORK WHEN IT COMES TO WEIGHT LOSS? Amongst the medical professionals and generally in the medical fraternity there is a raging debate as to whether it is prudent to begin a metformin therapy. The question that begs for an answer is whether the claims that there are benefits in starting a metformin therapy are they real? The type 2 diabetes is treated through the use of metformin. It is therefore of great importance that it should be established without a shadow of doubt whether metformin for weight loss works. If it does work the use of metformin to help in weight loss could be a major medical breakthrough that would become like a double edged sword treating type 2 diabetes while at the same time assisting those who are overweight lose their weight without the risk of their bodies being harmed in the process. SO WHAT IS METFORMIN? Metformin can be defined as a medication that is oral by nature and hypoglycemic that is used in bringing down sugars amounts in the blood. It is suggested that Metformin should be introduced immediately as part of the early treatment for type 2 diabetes. Metformin is administered to patients in the form of tablets. Regarding the dose, it is administered in small doses at the onset and then slowly added until the highest dose required is achieved. HOW DOES METFORMIN FUNCTION AND WHAT IS THE REASON BEHIND IT CAUSING WEIGHT LOSS? The method through which Metformin functions may be the reason behind the claims that it can effectively help those that need to lose their weight to do that successfully. Metformin can reduce the manufacturing of sugar by the liver. Although the liver can manufacture sugar from other elements, Metformin stops a particular enzyme’s pathway which in turn allows less sugar to be released into the blood st Continue reading >>
Orlistat (Xenical) the most commonly used medication to treat obesity and sibutramine (Meridia) a medication that was recently withdrawn due to cardiovascular side effects Anti-obesity medication or weight loss drugs are pharmacological agents that reduce or control weight. These drugs alter one of the fundamental processes of the human body, weight regulation, by altering either appetite, or absorption of calories. The main treatment modalities for overweight and obese individuals remain dieting and physical exercise. In the United States orlistat (Xenical) is currently approved by the FDA for long-term use. It reduces intestinal fat absorption by inhibiting pancreatic lipase. Rimonabant (Acomplia), a second drug, works via a specific blockade of the endocannabinoid system. It has been developed from the knowledge that cannabis smokers often experience hunger, which is often referred to as "the munchies". It had been approved in Europe for the treatment of obesity but has not received approval in the United States or Canada due to safety concerns. The European Medicines Agency in October 2008 recommended the suspension of the sale of rimonabant as the risks seem to be greater than the benefits. Sibutramine (Meridia), which acts in the brain to inhibit deactivation of the neurotransmitters, thereby decreasing appetite was withdrawn from the United States and Canadian markets in October 2010 due to cardiovascular concerns. Because of potential side effects, and limited evidence of small benefits in weight reduction especially in obese children and adolescents, it is recommended that anti-obesity drugs only be prescribed for obesity where it is hoped that the benefits of the treatment outweigh its risks. Mechanisms of action Current Continue reading >>
Baby Obesity Research: No Need To Panic
Babies are to be “treated in the womb for obesity”, according to the Daily Mail. The newspaper said that overweight mothers-to-be will be given a diabetes pill “to cut the risk of having a fat child”. The news is based on an ongoing study to find out if giving the diabetes drug metformin to obese pregnant women can reduce the risk of their babies being born overweight. This is of interest as obese women tend to have poorer control of their blood sugar, a problem that metformin can help regulate in people with diabetes. If exposed to excess blood sugar in the womb, growing babies may be born with excess birth weight, which has been linked to difficulties during birth and illness in later life. While the Mail’s front-page presentation of this research might make this research seem frightening or frivolous, it should be noted that metformin is already used to help some pregnant women control their blood sugar and prevent complications. The study has also gone through various safety checks to ensure it does not pose any significant risks to either mother or baby and that it could be of potential medical benefit. This research is neither new nor finished yet, and it is unclear why the Daily Mail has chosen to cover it. This study began in 2010 and will run until 2014, when its results will be revealed. Only then will we be able to see if the research is truly newsworthy. What is metformin? Metformin is currently used by patients with type 2 diabetes to control their blood sugar levels. It is commonly the first choice of medication for the treatment of type 2 diabetes, particularly in overweight and obese patients. In type 2 diabetes, patients build up too much glucose (sugar) in their blood, which can make them very ill. This happens either because they do not make Continue reading >>
Metformin For Prediabetes: Success
In a controlled trial, 600 overweight and obese people with prediabetes were given metformin. Metformin is in the biguanide class. It works by decreasing glucose production by the liver and increasing the insulin sensitivity of body tissues. It also can possibly help patients to lose weight, and possibly prevent some forms of cancer. Metformin was discovered in 1922. Study in humans began in the 1950s, by French physician Jean Sterne. It was introduced as a medication in France in 1957 and the United States in 1995. It is on the World Health Organization’s List of Essential Medicines, the most important medications needed in a basic healthcare system. Metformin is believed to be the most widely used medication for diabetes, which is taken by mouth. It is available as a generic medication. The wholesale price in In the United States costs $3 to $25 USD per month. For those patients who are under age 60 with prediabetes, the ADA has recommended metformin for those with a BMI over 34 and for women with gestational diabetes in the past. But, for others, especially for those over the age of 60, and even teenagers who rarely are treated with metformin, the study found that just 3.7% of those with prediabetes were actually prescribed metformin, over a 3-year period. Since metformin has been around since 1950 and even longer overseas and has even been shown to possibly prevent certain kinds of cancer, why should it not be standard procedure to provide all those with prediabetes the option to be treated with metformin? With the cost for the 29 million patients with diabetes at over 300 billion dollars, should we be asking the question: with more than 90 million people in the U.S. with prediabetes — a number that’s still growing — why doesn’t the FDA or the ADA recommen Continue reading >>