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Metformin Diet Restrictions

Foods You Can Eat While Taking Metformin

Foods You Can Eat While Taking Metformin

Meformin Diet: Metformin is a prescription drug used to treat type 2 diabetes or non-insulin dependent diabetes. It is used alone or in combination with other diabetic medications. It works to lower blood glucose levels and allows the glucose to enter your body to produce energy. Type 2 diabetes may lead to blood vessel damage in the eyes, heart, kidney and nerves. Diet, exercise and weight loss may lower the risk of type 2 diabetes. Metformin is available in many forms such as tablet, liquid version and two long acting forms. Here is a list of foods you can eat while taking metformin. Always consult your health care provider first. Healthy diet plan for metformin: Metformin is used with a proper diet, exercise and also with other medications to control high blood sugar. You must take this medication exactly as prescribed by your doctor. It is important to check the glucose level several times even when you taking this medication. Eat a consistent amount of food every day. Take medications same time every day as directed by your doctor. This might improve blood sugar level and lower the risk of diabetes. Exercise for half an hour. Ask your doctor first. Brand names for metformin include: Glucophage, Glucophage XR, Glumetza, Riomet and Fortamet. List of foods you can eat while taking metformin: 1. Carbohydrates: There are two types of carbohydrates which includes simple and complex. Simple carbs are found in refined sugar, flour and fruits. Complex carbohydrates are found in whole grains, beans, nuts and vegetables. It contains good amounts of fiber. It is easily digestible by the body and also provides steady source of energy. For adults, you can have 4 carbs servings at each meal and 1 to 2 carbs servings as snack. Muffins and cereals: You can eat oroweat double fiber Continue reading >>

Foods To Avoid When On Metformin

Foods To Avoid When On Metformin

Metformin is often one of the first medications prescribed to people with diabetes, according to the Canadian Diabetes Association (see reference 2 under Highlights of Revisions). It helps lower your blood sugar levels by decreasing the amount of glucose, or sugar, produced by your liver. It also helps your insulin, the hormone that gets the sugar out of your blood and into your cell, work better. (see reference 1 pg 1 under Clinical Pharmacology under Mechanism of Action para 1). While you do not need to avoid any foods when taking metformin, you may need to limit or avoid alcohol (see reference 1 pg 8 under alcohol intake.). Metformin and Alcohol If your doctor has prescribed metformin to help you get better control over your blood sugar, you should not drink an excessive amount of alcohol, including beer, wine or hard liquor (see reference 1 pg 8 under Alcohol Intake). Too much alcohol causes metformin to breakdown too much lactate, which is a by-product of glucose and amino acids, and may lead to lactic acidosis (see reference 1 pg 8 under Alcohol Intake). If you drink alcohol, it's OK to have moderate amounts while on metformin, which means up to 1 drink a day for women and 2 drinks a day for men (see reference 3 pg x). But everyone is different, so be sure to talk to your doctor first to a safe amount of alcohol for you. Lactic acidosis is actually not very common when taking metformin, but it can be dangerous, and even deadly, according to the Food and Drug Administration (see reference 1 pg 15). Symptoms that warrant an immediate call to your doctor include difficulty breathing, stomach pain, diarrhea, muscle cramps, unusual sleepiness or weakness or an all-around achiness. Continue reading >>

A Comprehensive Guide To Metformin

A Comprehensive Guide To Metformin

Metformin is the top of the line medication option for Pre-Diabetes and Type 2 Diabetes. If you must start taking medication for your newly diagnosed condition, it is then likely that your healthcare provider will prescribe this medication. Taking care of beta cells is an important thing. If you help to shield them from demise, they will keep your blood sugar down. This medication is important for your beta cell safety if you have Type 2 Diabetes. Not only does Metformin lower blood sugar and decrease resistance of insulin at the cellular level, it improves cell functioning, lipids, and how fat is distributed in our bodies. Increasing evidence in research points to Metformin’s effects on decreasing the replication of cancer cells, and providing a protective action for the neurological system. Let’s find out why Lori didn’t want to take Metformin. After learning about the benefits of going on Metformin, she changed her mind. Lori’s Story Lori came in worrying. Her doctor had placed her on Metformin, but she didn’t want to get the prescription filled. “I don’t want to go on diabetes medicine,” said Lori. “If I go on pills, next it will be shots. I don’t want to end up like my dad who took four shots a day.” “The doctor wants you on Metformin now to protect cells in your pancreas, so they can make more insulin. With diet and exercise, at your age, you can reverse the diagnosis. Would you like to talk about how we can work together to accomplish that?” “Reverse?” she asked. “What do you mean reverse? Will I not have Type 2 Diabetes anymore?” “You will always have it, but if you want to put it in remission, you are certainly young enough to do so. Your doctor wants to protect your beta cells in the pancreas. If you take the new medication, Continue reading >>

Activation Of Ampk By The Putative Dietary Restriction Mimetic Metformin Is Insufficient To Extend Lifespan In Drosophila

Activation Of Ampk By The Putative Dietary Restriction Mimetic Metformin Is Insufficient To Extend Lifespan In Drosophila

Activation of AMPK by the Putative Dietary Restriction Mimetic Metformin Is Insufficient to Extend Lifespan in Drosophila Affiliation: Institute of Healthy Ageing, Department of Genetics Evolution and Environment, University College London, London, United Kingdom Affiliation: Institute of Healthy Ageing, Department of Genetics Evolution and Environment, University College London, London, United Kingdom Affiliations: Institute of Healthy Ageing, Department of Genetics Evolution and Environment, University College London, London, United Kingdom, Max Planck Institute for Biology of Ageing, ZMMK Forshungsgebaude, Koln, Germany The biguanide drug, metformin, commonly used to treat type-2 diabetes, has been shown to extend lifespan and reduce fecundity in C. elegans through a dietary restriction-like mechanism via the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and the AMPK-activating kinase, LKB1. We have investigated whether the longevity-promoting effects of metformin are evolutionarily conserved using the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster. We show here that while feeding metformin to adult Drosophila resulted in a robust activation of AMPK and reduced lipid stores, it did not increase lifespan in either male or female flies. In fact, we found that when administered at high concentrations, metformin is toxic to flies. Furthermore, no decreases in female fecundity were observed except at the most toxic dose. Analysis of intestinal physiology after metformin treatment suggests that these deleterious effects may result from disruptions to intestinal fluid homeostasis. Thus, metformin appears to have evolutionarily conserved effects on metabolism but not on fecundity or lifespan. Citation: Slack C, Foley A, Partridge L (2012) Activation of AMPK by the Putative Dietary Restriction Mi Continue reading >>

Carbohydrate Restricted Diet In Conjunction With Metformin And Liraglutide Is An Effective Treatment In Patients With Deteriorated Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: Proof-of-concept Study

Carbohydrate Restricted Diet In Conjunction With Metformin And Liraglutide Is An Effective Treatment In Patients With Deteriorated Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: Proof-of-concept Study

Go to: Abstract Type 2 diabetes mellitus is a chronic progressive disease. During the course of the disease intensive treatment is often necessary resulting in multiple interventions including administration of insulin. Although dietary intervention is highly recommended, the clinical results of the widely prescribed diets with low fat content and high carbohydrates are disappointing. In this proof-of-concept study, we tested the effect of dietary carbohydrate-restriction in conjunction with metformin and liraglutide on metabolic control in patients with type 2 diabetes. Forty patients with type 2 diabetes already being treated with two oral anti-diabetic drugs or insulin treatment and who showed deterioration of their glucose metabolism (i.e. HbA1c >7.5), were treated. A carbohydrate-restricted diet and a combination of metformin and liraglutide were instituted, after stopping either insulin or oral anti-diabetic drugs (excluding metformin). After enrollment, the study patients were scheduled for follow-up visits at one, two, three and six months. Primary outcome was glycemic control, measured by HbA1c at six months. Secondary outcomes were body weight, lipid-profile and treatment satisfaction. Thirty-five (88%) participants completed the study. Nearly all participating patients experienced a drop in HbA1c and body weight during the first three months, an effect which was maintained until the end of the study at six months. Seventy-one percent of the patients reached HbA1c values below 7.0%. The range of body weight at enrollment was extreme, reaching 165 kg as the highest initial value. The average weight loss after 6 months was 10%. Most patients were satisfied with this treatment. During the intervention no significant change of lipids was observed. Most patients wh Continue reading >>

Should Restrictions Be Relaxed For Metformin Use In Chronic Kidney Disease? No, We Should Never Again Compromise Safety!

Should Restrictions Be Relaxed For Metformin Use In Chronic Kidney Disease? No, We Should Never Again Compromise Safety!

Metformin is and has been considered as first-line therapy for type 2 diabetes for over a quarter of a century. Like other biguanides, metformin can cause a lactic acidosis that is exceptionally rare but fatal. The likelihood of metformin-associated lactic acidosis is substantially higher in patients with kidney impairment and also among those with seemingly normal kidney function who are at risk of acute kidney injury (AKI). Hence, regulatory agencies in many industrialized nations have maintained strict renal restrictions surrounding metformin. However, there have been millions of people exposed to metformin for many years, many of them with serum creatinine values at or close to 1.5 mg/dL with estimated glomerular filtration rates (eGFRs) much below 60 mL/min/1.73 m2 who have not developed lactic acidosis. Thus, there clearly remains controversy in this area, and there has been heightened pressure to remove the renal restrictions of metformin. To provide a discussion on the pros and cons of relaxing the renal restrictions for metformin use, we provide a Point-Counterpoint. In the point narrative below, Drs. Kalantar-Zadeh and Kovesdy provide their argument that although there is little evidence of the potential benefits of metformin in kidney disease, just considering the sheer numbers of metformin users and the high fatality rate of its associated lactic acidosis, the most appropriate practice is to avoid metformin use in people with eGFR <45 mL/min/1.73 m2 or in those who are at high risk of AKI irrespective of underlying eGFR. In the following counterpoint narrative, Drs. Bakris and Molitch argue that the data from a very large analysis demonstrate clearly that serum creatinine should be supplanted with eGFR as the criteria for metformin use and that the incidence Continue reading >>

Diet And Diabetes

Diet And Diabetes

Gary Deed John Barlow Dev Kawol Gary Kilov Anita Sharma Liew Yu Hwa Background Guidelines for the prevention and management of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) reinforce lifestyle management, yet advice to guide general practitioners on principles around dietary choices is needed. Objective/s This article provides current evidence regarding the differing diets in diabetes prevention and management once T2DM arises, including the role in management of complications such as hypoglycaemia. Discussion Diets should incorporate weight maintenance or loss, while complementing changes in physical activity to optimise the meta-bolic effects of dietary advice. Using a structured, team-care approach supports pragmatic and sustainable individualised plans, while incorporating current evidence-based dietary approaches. Diabetes mellitus is expected to be the leading cause of chronic disease in Australia by 2023. Being overweight or obese carries significant risks for developing type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Lifestyle modification remains the bedrock of management of T2DM and its related comorbidities in Australian and international treatment guidelines.1,2 Once T2DM develops, the combination of diet, lifestyle changes and physical activity has a major impact on glycaemic control, weight management and complication prevention. The role of diet in diabetes prevention It is estimated that 16.4% of Australians have prediabetes.3 This is defined as impaired fasting glucose (IFG) and impaired glucose tolerance, or an HbA1c of 6.0–6.4% (42– 46 mmol/mol).4 Prediabetes carries an independent risk for cardiovascular disease, separate from the risks of developing T2DM.3 Thus, prediabetes risk prevention must address the prevention of cardiovascular risks as much as managing progressive d Continue reading >>

The Best Diet For Pcos: Splitting Fact From Fiction

The Best Diet For Pcos: Splitting Fact From Fiction

PCOS is one of the most common hormonal disorders in the developed world. In fact, it’s thought to affect almost 7% of pre-menopausal women in the US (1). But there is surprisingly limited information on how to treat it naturally. This article explores the best diet for PCOS, as based on scientific evidence. If You Prefer Video: What is PCOS (Polycystic Ovary Syndrome)? PCOS (Polycystic ovary syndrome) is a condition characterised by hormonal imbalances in women. Specifically, it’s an imbalance in the amount of male hormones (or androgens) produced by the ovaries. This short Youtube video illustrates the condition well. The term polycystic ovary means, “to have multiple cysts in the ovaries.” However, the development of cysts isn’t actually necessary for the diagnosis of PCOS. Unfortunately there is no known cure yet, and the cause is unknown. However, genetic predisposition coupled with inadequate diet is thought to be a major driver (2). Summary: PCOS is characterised by an imbalance of male hormones in women. It is likely a genetic condition triggered by diet. Excessive androgen secretion appears to be responsible for most PCOS symptoms. Most will experience one or more of the following symptoms: Irregular or absence of menstrual periods Excess body or facial hair, indicative of increased androgen levels Cysts on one or both ovaries Uncontrollable weight gain Infertility Sleep apnoea Insulin resistance and associated metabolic problems. Summary: PCOS has a cluster of symptoms related to increased male hormone levels. PCOS and Diet: Insulin and Weight Loss are Key The most effective eating pattern for PCOS is one that promotes weight loss and reduces levels of the hormone insulin (3, 4). This is because PCOS coupled with weight gain drives insulin resistance Continue reading >>

What Is The Best Pcos Diet?

What Is The Best Pcos Diet?

A PCOS diet is crucial role in the management of PCOS, not only for weight loss and maintenance, but also to regulate insulin levels. Many women with PCOS are resistant to insulin, resulting in the pancreas producing more insulin in order to be effective. Insulin and PCOS Insulin is an important hormone as it transports sugar from the blood into the muscles of the body, allowing the body to effectively make use of the energy from glucose. High insulin levels wreak havoc on the body, leading to a lot of the symptoms of PCOS like, increased hair growth, weight gain, skin tags, fatty liver and high cholesterol, polycystic ovaries and an irregular menstrual cycle, not to mention increased hunger levels and cravings. Sounds familiar, doesn’t it? Most of us have many, if not all, of those symptoms. So, management of blood insulin levels is crucial in the management of PCOS. Refined carbohydrates cause a spike in insulin levels and should therefore be avoided. Also, foods that are high in fat will lead to weight gain and high cholesterol. Many doctors will recommend a low GI diet of wholegrain, unprocessed foods in the management of PCOS. Metformin is also a drug commonly prescribed for women with PCOS, in an attempt to tackle insulin resistance. BUT, insulin is not the only hormone impacted by PCOS. If it were, we’d all have been diagnosed with Type 2 Diabetes, which we have not. So, our diets need to incorporate low GI foods to manage insulin levels, in addition to tackling other aspects of the Polycystic Ovarian SYNDROME. Finding the right diet to tackle your PCOS is a highly individual and complex process as the underlying cause of PCOS and different hormone levels will vary from woman to woman. Here are some of the general PCOS diet guidelines: THRIVE WITH PCOS - FREE Continue reading >>

Metformin

Metformin

Metformin may rarely cause a serious, life-threatening condition called lactic acidosis. Tell your doctor if you have kidney disease. Your doctor will probably tell you not to take metformin. Also, tell your doctor if you are over 65 years old and if you have ever had a heart attack; stroke; diabetic ketoacidosis (blood sugar that is high enough to cause severe symptoms and requires emergency medical treatment); a coma; or heart or liver disease. Taking certain other medications with metformin may increase the risk of lactic acidosis. Tell your doctor if you are taking acetazolamide (Diamox), dichlorphenamide (Keveyis), methazolamide, topiramate (Topamax, in Qsymia), or zonisamide (Zonegran). Tell your doctor if you have recently had any of the following conditions, or if you develop them during treatment: serious infection; severe diarrhea, vomiting, or fever; or if you drink much less fluid than usual for any reason. You may have to stop taking metformin until you recover. If you are having surgery, including dental surgery, or any major medical procedure, tell the doctor that you are taking metformin. Also, tell your doctor if you plan to have any x-ray procedure in which dye is injected, especially if you drink or have ever drunk large amounts of alcohol or have or have had liver disease or heart failure. You may need to stop taking metformin before the procedure and wait 48 hours to restart treatment. Your doctor will tell you exactly when you should stop taking metformin and when you should start taking it again. If you experience any of the following symptoms, stop taking metformin and call your doctor immediately: extreme tiredness, weakness, or discomfort; nausea; vomiting; stomach pain; decreased appetite; deep and rapid breathing or shortness of breath; dizzi Continue reading >>

Metformin Use Rising In Us Treatment Of Type 2 Diabetes

Metformin Use Rising In Us Treatment Of Type 2 Diabetes

Metformin use rising in US treatment of type 2 diabetes Metformin use rising in US treatment of type 2 diabetes Poor sleeping habits in adults with type 2 diabetes linked to health problems 08 November 2017 The use of metformin as a first treatment for type 2 diabetes has risen by almost 30 per cent over an 11-year period, according to a study of more than one million Americans. Researchers from Australia's Queensland University of Technology say initial use of the medication increased from 60 to 77 per cent between 2005 and 2016. Sulphonylureas are still the most popular second treatment option despite prescriptions going down from 60 to 46 per cent, the study found. But the research published in the Diabetes Care journal also showed use of the drugs as the first treatment went down from 20 to eight per cent. The use of insulin as a second medication on the back of metformin went up from seven to 17 per cent during the period, while use of DPP-4 Inhibitors (gliptins) as a second-line treatment jumped from 0.4 to 21 per cent. After an average of 3.4 years, 48 per cent of people given metformin as a first treatment went onto a second drug, with their HbA1c at 68 mmol/mol (8.4%), the researchers said. The conclusions were based on information from an American database called the Centricity Electronic Medical Records, with records examined from 1,023,340 people with type 2 diabetes aged between 18 and 80 given any initial medication for the condition and 357,482 people given a second treatment following metformin. "Despite the introduction of newer therapies, sulphonylureas remained the most popular second-line agent, and the rates of intensification with sulphonylureas and insulin remained consistent over time. The incretin-based therapies were associated with a small de Continue reading >>

Metformin During Pregnancy Reduces Insulin, Insulin Resistance, Insulin Secretion, Weight, Testosterone And Development Of Gestational Diabetes: Prospective Longitudinal Assessment Of Women With Polycystic Ovary Syndrome From Preconception Throughout Pregnancy

Metformin During Pregnancy Reduces Insulin, Insulin Resistance, Insulin Secretion, Weight, Testosterone And Development Of Gestational Diabetes: Prospective Longitudinal Assessment Of Women With Polycystic Ovary Syndrome From Preconception Throughout Pregnancy

Metformin during pregnancy reduces insulin, insulin resistance, insulin secretion, weight, testosterone and development of gestational diabetes: prospective longitudinal assessment of women with polycystic ovary syndrome from preconception throughout pregnancy Cholesterol Center, Jewish Hospital, Cincinnati, OH, USA To whom correspondence should be addressed at Cholesterol Center, ABC Building, 3200 Burnet Ave, Cincinnati, OH 45229, USA. email [email protected] Search for other works by this author on: Cholesterol Center, Jewish Hospital, Cincinnati, OH, USA Search for other works by this author on: Cholesterol Center, Jewish Hospital, Cincinnati, OH, USA Search for other works by this author on: Cholesterol Center, Jewish Hospital, Cincinnati, OH, USA Search for other works by this author on: Cholesterol Center, Jewish Hospital, Cincinnati, OH, USA Search for other works by this author on: Human Reproduction, Volume 19, Issue 3, 1 March 2004, Pages 510521, C.J. Glueck, N. Goldenberg, P. Wang, M. Loftspring, A. Sherman; Metformin during pregnancy reduces insulin, insulin resistance, insulin secretion, weight, testosterone and development of gestational diabetes: prospective longitudinal assessment of women with polycystic ovary syndrome from preconception throughout pregnancy, Human Reproduction, Volume 19, Issue 3, 1 March 2004, Pages 510521, BACKGROUND: In a prospective observational study of 42 pregnancies in 39 Caucasian women (age 304 years) with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), we examined effects of metformin on maternal insulin, insulin resistance (IR), insulin secretion (IS), weight gain, development of gestational diabetes (GD), testosterone and plasminogen activator inhibitor activity. We assessed the hypothesis that dietmetformin (MET) lessens the phy Continue reading >>

Metformin For Gestational Diabetes - What It Is And How It Works

Metformin For Gestational Diabetes - What It Is And How It Works

In the UK it is common to use Metformin for gestational diabetes where dietary and lifestyle changes are not enough to lower and stabilise blood sugar levels. It is widely used to help lower fasting blood sugar levels as well as post meal levels. Metformin is an oral medication in tablet form. It is used in diabetics to help the body use insulin better by increasing how well the insulin works. In pregnancy it can be used in women who have diabetes before becoming pregnant (Type 2 diabetes) and in women who develop diabetes during pregnancy (gestational diabetes). Metformin is also used for other conditions too, commonly used in those that have PCOS (polycystic ovarian syndrome). Metformin is a slow release medication. Here are the most commonly asked Q&A on Metformin for gestational diabetes from our Facebook support group Why do I need to take Metformin? For many ladies with gestational or type 2 diabetes, if lower blood sugar levels cannot be reached through diet and exercise then medication will be required to assist. If blood sugar levels remain high, then the diabetes is not controlled and can cause major complications with the pregnancy and baby. Some consultants will prescribe Metformin on diagnosis of gestational diabetes on the basis of your GTT results. Others will let you try diet control first and when blood glucose levels rise out of target range, or close to the target range, they may prescribe Metformin as a way to help lower and control your levels. NICE guidelines regarding the timing and use of Metformin for gestational diabetes 1.2.19 Offer a trial of changes in diet and exercise to women with gestational diabetes who have a fasting plasma glucose level below 7 mmol/litre at diagnosis. [new 2015] 1.2.20 Offer metformin[4] to women with gestational dia Continue reading >>

The Right Diet For Prediabetes

The Right Diet For Prediabetes

A prediabetes diagnosis can be alarming. This condition is marked by abnormally high blood sugar (glucose) most often due to insulin resistance. This is a condition in which the body doesn’t use insulin properly. It’s often a precursor to type 2 diabetes. According to the Mayo Clinic, people with prediabetes are more likely to develop type 2 diabetes within 10 years. With prediabetes, you may also be at risk of developing cardiovascular disease. However, a prediabetes diagnosis doesn’t mean you will definitely get type 2 diabetes. The key is early intervention; to get your blood sugar out of the prediabetes range. Your diet is important, and you need to know the right kind of foods to eat. How diet relates to prediabetes There are many factors that increase your risk for prediabetes. Genetics can play a role, especially if diabetes runs in your family. Excess body fat and a sedentary lifestyle are other potential risk factors. In prediabetes, sugar from food begins to build up in your bloodstream because insulin can’t easily move it into your cells. Eating carbohydrates doesn’t cause prediabetes. But a diet filled with carbohydrates that digest quickly can lead to blood sugar spikes. For most people with prediabetes, your body has a difficult time lowering blood sugar levels after meals. Avoiding blood sugar spikes can help. When you eat more calories than your body needs, they get stored as fat. This can cause you to gain weight. Body fat, especially around the belly, is linked to insulin resistance. This explains why many people with prediabetes are also overweight. You can’t control all risk factors for prediabetes, but some can be mitigated. Lifestyle changes can help you maintain balanced blood sugar levels as well as a healthy weight. Watch carbs with Continue reading >>

Critical Review Dietary Carbohydrate Restriction As The First Approach In Diabetes Management: Critical Review And Evidence Base

Critical Review Dietary Carbohydrate Restriction As The First Approach In Diabetes Management: Critical Review And Evidence Base

Highlights • We present major evidence for low-carbohydrate diets as first approach for diabetes. • Such diets reliably reduce high blood glucose, the most salient feature of diabetes. • Benefits do not require weight loss although nothing is better for weight reduction. • Carbohydrate-restricted diets reduce or eliminate need for medication. • There are no side effects comparable with those seen in intensive pharmacologic treatment. The inability of current recommendations to control the epidemic of diabetes, the specific failure of the prevailing low-fat diets to improve obesity, cardiovascular risk, or general health and the persistent reports of some serious side effects of commonly prescribed diabetic medications, in combination with the continued success of low-carbohydrate diets in the treatment of diabetes and metabolic syndrome without significant side effects, point to the need for a reappraisal of dietary guidelines. The benefits of carbohydrate restriction in diabetes are immediate and well documented. Concerns about the efficacy and safety are long term and conjectural rather than data driven. Dietary carbohydrate restriction reliably reduces high blood glucose, does not require weight loss (although is still best for weight loss), and leads to the reduction or elimination of medication. It has never shown side effects comparable with those seen in many drugs. Here we present 12 points of evidence supporting the use of low-carbohydrate diets as the first approach to treating type 2 diabetes and as the most effective adjunct to pharmacology in type 1. They represent the best-documented, least controversial results. The insistence on long-term randomized controlled trials as the only kind of data that will be accepted is without precedent in science Continue reading >>

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