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Glucose Is The Preferred Fuel Source For The Following

Why Is Glucose An Important Energy Source?

Why Is Glucose An Important Energy Source?

Starches, sugars and fiber are the carbohydrates in food. Carbohydrates are a molecule that plants make during photosynthesis, combining carbon, hydrogen and oxygen. They are very important in your body's metabolism because they are generally the part of food that is digested most quickly. Carbohydrates can give you quick energy, and cause a rise in blood sugar levels. Diabetics, in particular, need to pay attention to the carbohydrates they eat to help manage their blood sugar. Some carbohydrates, those found in whole grains and leafy vegetables, for example have a much slower impact on blood sugar than carbohydrates in fruits or candy. It's easy to consume a lot of carbohydrates, as foods like breads, pasta, cake, cookies and potatoes are loaded with them. Nutrition experts suggest that you should only get 45 to 65 percent of your daily nutrition from carbohydrates. Continue reading >>

Chapter 4

Chapter 4

Sort Fatty Acids Carbohydrates can be converted into glycogen for short-term energy storage in the liver and muscle cells. When the capacity for glycogen storage is reached, excess glucose is converted to ________ in the process of lipogenesis Fatty Acids Amino Acids Starch None of The Above Continue reading >>

“are Carbs The Body’s Preferred Fuel Source?” By James Barnum

“are Carbs The Body’s Preferred Fuel Source?” By James Barnum

The subject of this article is one that divides coaches, training partners, and even families. OK…Maybe families haven’t been driven apart discussing whether the body prefers either carbs or fat to produce energy, but this is a topic that a lot of people take very personally. The rise in popularity of Paleo and low carb dieting within the fitness community made believers out of many of us. Lately though, it seems like a more balanced approach – like the one Eat To Perform espouses – has made a comeback. Carbohydrates can super-charge high intensity athletic performance! This is because glycogen, the intramuscular fuel source, is the human equivalent to plant starches and is thus replenished faster when we eat a moderate amount of starchy carbs – potatoes, rice, oats, quinoa, etc. – around our workouts! How can we then, as a group, have gotten things wrong? Well, it’s happened before… Recall that at one point a high fat diet was attributed to all kinds of diseases and disorders related to the heart and circulatory system. We know now that fat isn’t bad for us – in fact, we know that a diet rich in essential fatty acids from both plant and animal sources has very little to do with obesity and heart disease; the right balance of dietary fats can actually lower the risk and severity of many conditions! So if fat was bad but it wasn’t, and carbs were bad but they aren’t…What gives!? Which one of these energy substrates is actually the body’s preferred fuel source? I hear you screaming “TELL ME NOW SO I KNOW WHAT TO EAT!” Personal Preference vs. Physiological Fact Settle down and consider this, dear reader. When we talk about what the body prefers, it’s an issue of semantics. Bodies are a collection of cells. Cells don’t have “preferences Continue reading >>

Carbohydrates, The Bodies Preferred Source Of Energy

Carbohydrates, The Bodies Preferred Source Of Energy

Carbohydrates, the Bodies Preferred Source of Energy Are carbohydrates the bodies preferred source of energy? By the time you finish reading this article you will understand the bodies need, function and the roles carbohydrates play in our nutrition. We start our discussion by comparing complex and simple carbohydrates. Complex carbohydrates include bread, pasta and cereals. They are digested at a slower rate than simple carbohydrates. This slower digestion offers a more continual and stable flow of energy. Simple carbohydrates deliver the same amount of energy, four calories per gram, but at a far more rapid pace. Therefore, simple carbohydrates provide an immediate boost in blood sugar. But the boost comes with a price -- it wears off quickly and more is needed to sustain blood sugar levels. As a result, excess food cravings are experienced and may cause individuals to increase their calorie consumption. Thus, simple carbohydrates should be avoided within your diet. They include sugar, honey, soda and candy. Sugar and Carbohydrates are broken down into smaller versions called glucose. All cells in the human body depend on glucose. This makes carbohydrates the body's number one energy source. The brain and nervous system run directly off glucose. The human body will convert protein to glucose without enough carbohydrates in the diet. Carbohydrates spare other nutrients (protein), and allow these nutrients to carry out their intended functions. Carbohydrates offer a thermogenic effect that will increase calorie burning. This will cause your body to burn more calories every time you eat. If your diet is high in fat, the fat is put faster into storage. To top if off, fat is much harder to take out of lipid(fat) stores and used as energy. Carbohydrates on the other hand, Continue reading >>

Spotlight On Energy

Spotlight On Energy

Have you ever thought about what your brain needs to be able to think? Every living being needs energy – but none of them can generate it on their own. It has to be taken in from outside. We humans meet our needs through what we eat every day. If we want to use this energy on a targeted basis during physical and mental activity, we have to know how our bodies convert food into energy. Carbohydrates, and most especially glucose (also known as dextrose) play a key role in this process. Our Brain: A Fuel-Hungry Powerhouse The brain is far and away the biggest user of energy in the human body. It’s hard to believe that our brain – a real lightweight, at only about three percent of our total body weight – burns huge quantities of fuel at the same time, powering away like a turbine. That’s because the brain is the body’s all-powerful control center and the center of cognition, and it has to be able to cope with a flood of tasks at all times: By comparison to computer technology, the human brain manages a staggering ten trillion (that’s a 1 followed by 13 zeroes) analog calculations per second. With so much work to manage, this unique powerhouse always needs an adequate supply of fuel. Pure glucose simply delivers a faster supply of energy to the brain, for an immediate cognitive boost. Glucose: The Elixir of Life for the Brain Amid all this activity, the brain grants itself one very special luxury – it prefers glucose to meet its energy needs. And those needs are huge indeed: The brain needs more than half of the glucose present in the body. In stressful situations, when brain activity ramps up, the brain can commandeer even more of the available glucose, up to 90 percent. These kinds of peaks occur when the brain is asked to perform to its utmost, such as dur Continue reading >>

Carbohydrates As A Source Of Energy.

Carbohydrates As A Source Of Energy.

Institute of Physiology, University of Lausanne, Switzerland. Am J Clin Nutr. 1994 Mar;59(3 Suppl):682S-685S. Carbohydrates are the main energy source of the human diet. The metabolic disposal of dietary carbohydrates is direct oxidation in various tissues, glycogen synthesis (in liver and muscles), and hepatic de novo lipogenesis. This latter pathway is quantitatively not important in man because under most conditions the rate of de novo lipogenesis does not exceed the concomitant rate of lipid oxidation in the whole body. Thus, dietary carbohydrates do not appear to increase an individual's fat content by de novo lipogenesis. The intake of dietary carbohydrates mainly has the effect of inhibiting fat oxidation while glucose oxidation is increased. Dietary carbohydrates are involved in the control of energy balance because the regulation of food intake depends, in part, on the carbohydrate need of the individual. Because there is an obligatory requirement for glucose in several organs such as the brain, a spontaneous increase in food intake is seen when the diet has a low-carbohydrate, high-fat content. Therefore, the present nutritional advice of increasing the proportion of carbohydrate energy while decreasing that of fat in the everyday diet has strong scientific support in terms of the regulation of the energy balance. Continue reading >>

Each Organ Has A Unique Metabolic Profile

Each Organ Has A Unique Metabolic Profile

The metabolic patterns of the brain, muscle, adipose tissue, kidney, and liver are strikingly different. Let us consider how these organs differ in their use of fuels to meet their energy needs: 1. Brain. Glucose is virtually the sole fuel for the human brain, except during prolonged starvation. The brain lacks fuel stores and hence requires a continuous supply of glucose. It consumes about 120 g daily, which corresponds to an energy input of about 420 kcal (1760 kJ), accounting for some 60% of the utilization of glucose by the whole body in the resting state. Much of the energy, estimates suggest from 60% to 70%, is used to power transport mechanisms that maintain the Na+-K+ membrane potential required for the transmission of the nerve impulses. The brain must also synthesize neurotransmitters and their receptors to propagate nerve impulses. Overall, glucose metabolism remains unchanged during mental activity, although local increases are detected when a subject performs certain tasks. Glucose is transported into brain cells by the glucose transporter GLUT3. This transporter has a low value of KM for glucose (1.6 mM), which means that it is saturated under most conditions. Thus, the brain is usually provided with a constant supply of glucose. Noninvasive 13C nuclear magnetic resonance measurements have shown that the concentration of glucose in the brain is about 1 mM when the plasma level is 4.7 mM (84.7 mg/dl), a normal value. Glycolysis slows down when the glucose level approaches the KM value of hexokinase (~50 μM), the enzyme that traps glucose in the cell (Section 16.1.1). This danger point is reached when the plasma-glucose level drops below about 2.2 mM (39.6 mg/dl) and thus approaches the KM value of GLUT3. Fatty acids do not serve as fuel for the brain, beca Continue reading >>

The Body’s Fuel Sources

The Body’s Fuel Sources

The Body’s Fuel Sources Our ability to run, bicycle, ski, swim, and row hinges on the capacity of the body to extract energy from ingested food. As potential fuel sources, the carbohydrate, fat, and protein in the foods that you eat follow different metabolic paths in the body, but they all ultimately yield water, carbon dioxide, and a chemical energy called adenosine triphosphate (ATP). Think of ATP molecules as high-energy compounds or batteries that store energy. Anytime you need energy—to breathe, to tie your shoes, or to cycle 100 miles (160 km)—your body uses ATP molecules. ATP, in fact, is the only molecule able to provide energy to muscle fibers to power muscle contractions. Creatine phosphate (CP), like ATP, is also stored in small amounts within cells. It’s another high-energy compound that can be rapidly mobilized to help fuel short, explosive efforts. To sustain physical activity, however, cells must constantly replenish both CP and ATP. Our daily food choices resupply the potential energy, or fuel, that the body requires to continue to function normally. This energy takes three forms: carbohydrate, fat, and protein. (See table 2.1, Estimated Energy Stores in Humans.) The body can store some of these fuels in a form that offers muscles an immediate source of energy. Carbohydrates, such as sugar and starch, for example, are readily broken down into glucose, the body’s principal energy source. Glucose can be used immediately as fuel, or can be sent to the liver and muscles and stored as glycogen. During exercise, muscle glycogen is converted back into glucose, which only the muscle fibers can use as fuel. The liver converts its glycogen back into glucose, too; however, it’s released directly into the bloodstream to maintain your blood sugar (blood Continue reading >>

Why Is It That Glucose Is Preferred As The Prime Energy Source?

Why Is It That Glucose Is Preferred As The Prime Energy Source?

1) Since all carbohydrates share certain structural features in common they are likely to also share certain metabolic steps. Strings of such steps are usually referred to as metabolic pathways. These would generally be most employed for the energy extraction from the most readily available substrate. The metabolism of other similar substrates would employ some portions of the same pathways with the aid of specialized 'adapter' steps. Doing so conserves cellular resources. 2) Mammals generally store carbohydrate energy in the form of glycogen, and most tissues are generally primed to channel resources either for energy storage or energy utilization from stores, in response to hormonal signals. Most cells constitutively express receptors for glucose, and certain organs are almost wholly dependent on it for energy. 3) While other carbohydrate forms may also be used in most tissues, the necessary receptors are at least to some extent inducible. This helps conserve resources. 4) What the above reasoning leads us to is the following conclusion: A preferred substrate is employed in order to conserve resources. One could still argue: but why glucose? Would this kind of question be resolved if the preferred molecule was different? Continue reading >>

How Carbohydrates Provide Energy For Exercise

How Carbohydrates Provide Energy For Exercise

How Carbohydrates Provide Energy for Exercise How Carbohydrates Provide Energy for Exercise Carbohydrates are a common fuel for athletes Cultura RM Exclusive/Danielle Wood/Getty Images All the energy we need for life as well as for exercise comes from the food we eat and the fluids we drink. These nutrients are commonly broken into three classes: Carbohydrate is arguably the most efficient source of energy for athletes. No matter what sport you play, complex carbs provide the energy that fuels muscle contractions. Once eaten, carbohydrates break down into smaller sugars (glucose, fructose, and galactose) that get absorbed and used as energy. Any glucose not needed right away gets stored in the muscles and the liver in the form of glycogen. Once these glycogen stores are filled up, any extra gets stored as fat. Glycogen is the source of energy most often used for exercise. It is needed for any short, intense bouts of exercise from sprinting to weightlifting because it is immediately accessible. Glycogen also supplies energy during the first few minutes of any sport. During long, slow duration exercise, fat can help fuel activity, but glycogen is still needed to help break down the fat into something the muscles can use. Adequate carbohydrate intake also helps prevent protein from being used as energy. If the body doesnt have enough carbohydrate, protein is broken down to make glucose for energy. Because the primary role of protein is as the building blocks for muscles, bone, skin, hair, and other tissues, relying on protein for energy (by failing to take in adequate carbohydrate) can limit your ability to build and maintain tissues. Additionally, this stresses the kidneys because they have to work harder to eliminate the byproducts of this protein breakdown. Carbohydrat Continue reading >>

Why Fats (and Not Carbs) Are The Body's Preferred Fuel Source

Why Fats (and Not Carbs) Are The Body's Preferred Fuel Source

Why Fats (And Not Carbs) Are The Body's Preferred Fuel Source #dmt , #healthandfitness , #lifehack , #occult , #superfoods , #synchro , #transhumanism , #yoga , anti-inflammatory , fitness , health , nutrition Insulin. Not only does it look cool...it's also the key to understanding how your body stores fat. If you keep up with the Synchro Life Design System, you'll know by now that I'm a huge advocate of eating a diet that is low-glycemic load and fuels the body primarily with high-quality, easily digested fats. Switching to this diet was hugely transformative for me, and if you look around a bit online, you'll find it's a rapidly growing movement that has produced similar results for hundreds of thousands of people. If your goals are stable vibrant energy, high cognitive performance and low body-fat - this diet produces results better than any other I have come across. Initially, it looks a little counterintuitive. Why does eating lots of fat produce high energy and low body fat? First, it's important to make a distinction between types of fat. There are a lot of undesirable types of fat out there - but even many types of fats commonly regarded as "healthy" turn out to be closer to "OK" than "beneficial". Secondly, understanding how our body precesses fats and carbohydrates differently is key to understanding why certain types of foods make you feel or look a certain way. We'll cover both in detail below. Sugar in your food generally requires little to no digesting or processing and will be in your bloodstream inside 60 minutes after eating. In response, blood sugar shoots up for a bit before coming back down rapidly a short while later. Other carbohydrates, referred to as complex carbohydrates, will be sugar in your bloodstream as well eventually. It takes your diges Continue reading >>

Chapter 4 Post-test Nutrition

Chapter 4 Post-test Nutrition

Protein can be converted to carbohydrate in the body People with phenylketonuria (PKU) should not consume? If we deprive ourselves of carbohydrates, we can become ketotic Yogurt is tolerated better than milk by lactase-deficient people because: lactase from bacteria in yogurt helps digest the lactose Of the two forms of starch, amylopectin has the following characteristics: The best type of fiber to eat for reducing constipation is: The human body uses fiber mainly as a source of energy. Sugars cause hyperactivity in children, which can lead to juvenile delinquency No desirable total sugar intake has been firmly established, but some people consume too much sugar. What compounds are formed by incomplete fat metabolism, which in turn can be due to inadequate consumption of carbohydrates? Some alternative sweeteners consist of amino acids instead of carbohydrates If you occasionally feel shaky or nervous after not eating for an extended period of time, it is likely that you have hypoglycemia The form of diabetes that often begins in late childhood and is characterized by inability of the pancreas to make insulin is called: Glucose is the preferred source of energy for which of the following? Insulin is the only hormone that controls blood glucose Common table sugar is more technically referred to as sucrose In calculating the fiber content of your diet, the best value to use is the: Aspartame contains as many kcal per gram as table sugar Sources of carbohydrates in the diet come from all of the following groups of foods except Which of the following is another name for glucose? Diabetes is a medical problem associated with low blood glucose. Meat contains a fair amount of carbohydrates due to the glycogen stores found in the animal from which it came. will eventually be Continue reading >>

The Macronutrients: Carbohydrates, Proteins And Fats

The Macronutrients: Carbohydrates, Proteins And Fats

BULLETINS HEALTH A-Z • Overview • Issues HOT TOPICS NEWSLETTERS The Macronutrients: Carbohydrates, Proteins And Fats Chester J. Zelasko, Ph.D. | August 2004 The foods we eat contain nutrients. Carbohydrate, protein, and fat are considered macronutrients because we need a substantial amount of all three everyday to keep our bodies operating smoothly. They provide us with energy but they also have other important functions in our bodies you may not realize. For each energy nutrient, we'll find out: What is the nutrient used for in our bodies besides energy? How is the energy nutrient stored in our body? What foods contain the energy nutrient? What happens if we eat too much of it? Carbohydrates Carbohydrates are the body's primary source of energy for most activities. Carbohydrates are found in simple forms, such as fruit or table sugar, or complex forms, like whole wheat breads, rice, or potatoes -- but in all cases they're made up of smaller units. These smaller units are mostly glucose and fructose. The sugar lactose is primarily found in dairy products like milk. All are combinations of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen in a perfect balance for use in the body. There are other minor sugars found in foods that are important for cellular communication. Use Carbohydrates have one prime directive: provide your body's cells with energy to carry on cell functions. Glucose is the preferred source of energy for the brain -- real brain food -- and for muscles during physical activity. Carbohydrates contain about 4 calories per gram. What’s a calorie? It is a unit of energy used to tell us how much potential energy is stored within food. Technically, it is the energy required to raise the temperature of 1 liter of water, 1 degree centigrade. If you can’t relate to that (as m Continue reading >>

Chapter 04: Carbohydrates

Chapter 04: Carbohydrates

1. Plants use carbon dioxide, water, and the sun's energy in the process of photosynthesis to synthesize a. fat. b. protein. c. carbohydrate. d. alcohol. ANS: C Plants synthesize carbohydrate via photosynthesis. Fat and protein are produced by other metabolic processes in the plants. Living plants do not usually produce alcohol, although stored fruit or grain may ferment and produce some alcohol. DIF: Cognitive Level: Knowledge REF: Page 61 TOP: Nursing Process: Assessment MSC: Client Needs: Health promotion and maintenance 2. Fructose, galactose, and glucose are examples of a. disaccharides. b. polysaccharides. c. monosaccharides. d. complex carbohydrates. ANS: C Fructose, galactose, and glucose each consist of a single unit of carbohydrate and are therefore monosaccharides. Disaccharides consist of two carbohydrate units; polysaccharides and complex carbohydrates consist of several carbohydrate units. DIF: Cognitive Level: Knowledge REF: Page 63 TOP: Nursing Process: Assessment MSC: Client Needs: Health promotion and maintenance 3. Sucrose, maltose, and lactose are examples of a. disaccharides. b. polysaccharides. c. monosaccharides. d. complex carbohydrates. ANS: A Sucrose, maltose, and lactose each consist of two units of carbohydrate and are therefore disaccharides. Monosaccharides consist of one carbohydrate unit; polysaccharides and complex carbohydrates consist of several carbohydrate units. DIF: Cognitive Level: Knowledge REF: Page 63 TOP: Nursing Process: Assessment MSC: Client Needs: Health promotion and maintenance 4. Glucose is a _____, often called _____ sugar. a. disaccharide; blood b. monosaccharide; blood c. disaccharide; milk d. monosaccharide; milk ANS: B Glucose is a monosaccharide and is the form of carbohydrate that travels in the blood, often call Continue reading >>

How To Fuel Muscles During Exercise Understanding The Importance Of Carbohydrates

How To Fuel Muscles During Exercise Understanding The Importance Of Carbohydrates

Just make sure that your carbohydrates come from REAL sources, and not from fake and refined products. Fatty acids are stored within muscle cells as triglycerides. Muscle triglycerides are stored in a lipid droplet that can be accessed by a different set of enzymes, providing a secondary fuel source during exercise. Finally, amino acids are stored within the muscle tissue as muscle protein. If a muscle cell were a car, the muscle protein is the metal frame of the car that provides structure and rigidity. Think of muscle protein as the infrastructure of the muscle tissue itself. Unlike glucose and fatty acids, there is no storage tank for amino acids in the muscle tissue. The muscle itself is the storage tank. The Choice of Fuel Depends on Exercise Intensity Even though all three muscle fuels are available for use during exercise, the muscle is making moment-by-moment decisions on which fuel to burn, depending mainly on the intensity and duration of exercise being performed. At low intensities, fatty acids are the main fuel source and only small amounts of glycogen are broken down. As the intensity of exercise increases, larger amounts of glycogen are broken down and burned for energy, making glucose the predominant fuel source. As you can see in the graph below, as the intensity of exercise increases, the dependence on carbohydrate goes up and the dependence on fatty acids goes down. You may notice that only carbohydrate and fat are fuel sources shown in the above graph. Thats because amino acids are the lowest priority fuel, given that it is the infrastructure of the muscle tissue itself. In order to preserve muscle mass, the muscle will burn glucose and fatty acids before resorting to amino acids. Even though amino acids from muscle protein are the last choice for fu Continue reading >>

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