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Dog Hypoglycemia Diet

Diabetes Mellitus - Insulin Treatment In Dogs

Diabetes Mellitus - Insulin Treatment In Dogs

By Ernest Ward, DVM & Robin Downing, DVM, DAAPM, DACVSMR, CVPP Emergency Situations, Medical Conditions This handout provides detailed information on insulin administration. For more information about diabetes mellitus, see the fact sheets "Diabetes Mellitus - General Information", and "Diabetes Mellitus - Principles of Treatment". What is diabetes mellitus? In dogs, diabetes mellitus is caused by the failure of the pancreas to produce enough insulin to regulate blood sugar. This is Insulin Dependent Diabetes Mellitus (also called Type 1 Diabetes). This type of diabetes usually results from destruction of most or all of the beta-cells that produce insulin in the pancreas. As the name implies, dogs with this type of diabetes require insulin injections to stabilize blood sugar levels. What do I need to know about insulin treatment for diabetes mellitus? In diabetic dogs, the main treatment for regulating blood glucose is giving insulin by injection. Dogs with diabetes mellitus typically require two daily insulin injections as well as a dietary change. Although the dog can go a day or so without insulin and not have a crisis, this should not be a regular occurrence; treatment should be looked upon as part of the dog's daily routine. This means that you, as the dog's owner, must make both a financial commitment and a personal commitment to treat your dog. If are out of town or go on vacation, your dog must receive proper treatment in your absence. Initially, your dog may be hospitalized for a few days to deal with any immediate crisis and to begin the insulin regulation process. For instance, if your dog is so sick that he has quit eating and drinking for several days, he may be experiencing “diabetic ketoacidosis,” which may require a several days of intensive care. On Continue reading >>

How To Prevent Hypoglycemia In Dogs

How To Prevent Hypoglycemia In Dogs

Expert Reviewed Blood sugar acts as the main energy source for your dog, and hypoglycemia is a condition where your dog has low blood sugar levels. This can occur when a diabetic dog is given too much insulin, or the dog has a health problem, or your dog needs to eat more. If your dog's blood sugar drops, it can cause lethargy and even loss of consciousness. Learn how to prevent this condition to protect your dog. 1 Feed small dogs often. Toy breeds and puppies require more glucose than larger dogs, so they are more susceptible to hypoglycemia. To avoid this, feed your small dog often.[1] Feed your dog a meal high in quality protein[2], high in fat, with complex carbs, like white rice.[3][4] Make sure to keep small dogs warm if they are underweight or don’t eat. 2 Limit stress for puppies. Puppies under three months old can get hypoglycemia because they haven’t developed enough to regulate their blood sugar. Because of this, stress can bring on hypoglycemia. Limit stressors, such as poor nutrition, cold environments, and intestinal parasites.[5] 3 Feed your dog more before high levels of activity. If your dog is going to be engaging in high levels of activity, such as hunting, then you need to feed him beforehand. Give him food a few hours before the activity. The food should be high in protein and fat.[6] Intense exercise when a dog hasn’t eaten can cause hypoglycemia. Don't strenuously exercise a dog who has just eaten a meal, as this can cause bloating. Wait at least 90 minutes after feeding before exercising your dog. 4 Monitor dogs with conditions related to hypoglycemia. Hypoglycemia is associated with certain conditions. If your dog has diabetes mellitus, she may develop hypoglycemia if she does not eat and is then given a dose of insulin, or is given too l Continue reading >>

Treatment And Prognosis For Hypoglycemia In Dogs

Treatment And Prognosis For Hypoglycemia In Dogs

Treatment Options The main goals of treating hypoglycemia are to identify and eliminate the underlying cause of the dog’s low blood sugar. If the dog is having seizures at home, the veterinarian may recommend that the owner rub Karo syrup, corn syrup, sugar, fruit juices or honey on its gums, followed by a small meal once the dog is stable and no longer seizing. Dogs with observable signs of hypoglycemia usually will be treated in the veterinary clinic on an inpatient basis, at least initially. If the dog can eat, it will be fed frequent small meals in an attempt to raise its blood sugar levels directly. If the animal cannot eat on its own, the veterinarian probably will administer intravenous fluids, with the addition of up to 50% dextrose as a sugar component, in small amounts slowly over time. Surgery may be necessary if a pancreatic beta cell tumor (insulinoma) or a portosystemic shunt is identified. Many dogs with hypoglycemia caused by overuse of glucose, such as hunting dogs, toy breeds and newborn puppies, may be able to recover simply by increasing the frequency of their meals and enriching the nutritional composition of their diets with added fat, protein and complex carbohydrates. Simple sugars should be avoided as part of the diet in most cases. Warning: 3 Foods to Avoid These 3 Foods Should Come with a Warning Label Nucific When dogs are hypoglycemic due to an underlying disorder, such as liver disease or low levels of adrenal gland hormones, that disorder must be treated directly in order to resolve the low blood sugar levels. If the underlying disorder cannot be corrected or cured, the dog may need to be on long-term therapy designed to keep its blood glucose levels elevated, probably for life. This often is the case when dogs have pancreatic or liver c Continue reading >>

What Is Hypoglycemia?

What Is Hypoglycemia?

Hypoglycemia is a dangerous condition in which your blood sugar drops perilously low. Low blood sugar will most often make you feel shaky and weak. In extreme cases, you could lose consciousness and slip into a coma. People develop hypoglycemia for different reasons, but those with diabetes run the greatest risk of developing the condition. Glucose and Hypoglycemia Your body uses glucose as its main fuel source. Glucose is derived from food, and it's delivered to cells through the bloodstream. The body uses different hormones to regulate the amount of glucose in your blood. Glucagon, cortisol, and epinephrine are some hormones that help regulate glucose. Your body uses another hormone called insulin to help your cells absorb glucose and burn it for fuel. If your blood sugar level drops below a certain point, your body can develop various symptoms and sensations. For people with diabetes, this typically happens when blood sugar drops below 70 milligrams per deciliter (mg/dL), although the exact level may vary from person to person. Causes of Hypoglycemia Low blood sugar often happens in people with diabetes who are using insulin or other medicines that increase insulin production or its actions. Too much insulin can make your blood glucose drop too low. Low blood sugar can happen if: Your body's supply of glucose is used up too quickly. Glucose is released into your bloodstream too slowly. There's too much insulin in your bloodstream. Hypoglycemia Symptoms Although no two people will have the exact same symptoms of low blood sugar, there are some common signs to watch out for: Sudden, intense hunger Dizziness or light-headedness Excessive sweating (often sudden and without regard to temperature) Shaking or tremors Sudden feelings of anxiety Irritability, mood swings, and Continue reading >>

Pets With Diabetes: Hypoglycemia

Pets With Diabetes: Hypoglycemia

Signs Treatment Asymptomatic Hypo Be Prepared (how to carry a sugar supply) Exercise and hypo. Nigel Goes Hypo Hypo Humor References The most serious side effect of too much insulin is hypoglycemia, or low blood glucose. Hypoglycemia can be a life-threatening, even fatal condition. Classic signs of hypoglycemia lethargy (lack of energy) weakness head tilting "drunkedness" - wobbling when walking, unbalanced hunger restlessness shivering ataxia - usually lack of muscular coordination, but maybe changes in head and neck movements disorientation stupor convulsions or seizures coma The occurrence of signs depends on how far the bg drops and on how fast the blood glucose drops. Owners of diabetic cats have also reported observing these signs sleepiness unable to wake the cat easily when it is sleeping. vomiting glassy eyes - it may look like it is staring into space laying, sleeping, or curled up in an unusual location of the house meowing, crying, yowling, or vocalizing in a way that is unusual for your cat some cats get aggressive drooling coughing Owners of diabetic dogs have also reported observing these signs sweating - check the nose and the paw pads. lip smacking or licking getting physically "stuck" in a place where the pet normally could get itself out (for example, behind a partially closed door that a pet would usually nudge open.) Some animals are asymptomatic at very low bg values. This means they do not show any of the usual signs of hypoglycemia even though their bg is very low. Read experiences of three pets who have had episodes of asymptomatic hypoglycemia. Be Prepared Always have corn syrup or sugar available. Corn syrup works well because it is a very pure sugar, and it is liquid. In the U.S. "Karo" is a brand name of corn syrup and you'll often see this Continue reading >>

Hypoglycemia Symptoms To Look Out For & Ways To Naturally Treat Them

Hypoglycemia Symptoms To Look Out For & Ways To Naturally Treat Them

Uncontrolled glucose levels are one of the most common health problems in the world. Hypoglycemia symptoms frequently affect people with prediabetes or diabetes but are also linked with other health problems, including high blood pressure, high cholesterol and even arthritis. And although it’s rarely mentioned, hypoglycemia has been called “an under-appreciated problem” that’s the most common and serious side effect of glucose-lowering diabetes drugs. (1) Those who are at risk for both hypoglycemia and hyperglycemia are not only people who are ill, overweight or inactive — anyone who consumes a poor diet and has trouble with normal glucose metabolism can develop symptoms. The standard American diet, which tends to be very high in things like refined grains and sugar but low in nutrients like healthy fats and fiber, contributes to hypoglycemia and related diseases. What are some clues you might be experiencing hypoglycemia symptoms, and what kind of things can you do to help manage them? Symptoms of hypoglycemia are often confused with other health conditions and can include sudden hunger, irritability, headaches, brain fog and shakiness. By managing your intake of empty calories, improving your diet, and paying attention to how meal timing and exercise affects you, you can help control low blood sugar symptoms and prevent them from returning. What Is Hypoglycemia? Hypoglycemia is a condition caused by low blood sugar levels, also sometimes referred to as low glucose. Glucose is mostly found in carbohydrate foods and those containing sugar and is considered to be one of the most important sources of energy for the body. (2) Here’s an overview of how glucose works once it enters the body and the process of how our hormones regulate blood sugar levels: When we Continue reading >>

Low Blood Sugar In Dogs

Low Blood Sugar In Dogs

Hypoglycemia in Dogs The medical term for critically low levels of sugar in the blood is hypoglycemia, and it is often linked to diabetes and an overdose of insulin. The blood sugar, or glucose, is a main energy of source in an animal's body, so a low amount will result in a severe decrease in energy levels, possibly to the point of loss of consciousness. There are conditions other than diabetes that can also cause blood sugar levels to drop to dangerous levels in dogs. In most animals, hypoglycemia is actually not a disease in and of itself, but is only an indication of another underlying health problem. The brain actually needs a steady supply of glucose in order to function properly, as it does not store and create glucose itself. When glucose levels drop to a dangerously low level, a condition of hypoglycemia takes place. This is a dangerous health condition and needs to be treated quickly and appropriately. If you suspect hypoglycemia, especially if your dog is disposed to this condition, you will need to treat the condition quickly before it becomes life threatening. Symptoms Loss of appetite (anorexia) Increased hunger Visual instability, such as blurred vision Disorientation and confusion – may show an apparent inability to complete basic routine tasks Weakness, low energy, loss of consciousness Anxiety, restlessness Tremor/shivering Heart palpitations These symptoms may not be specific to hypoglycemia, there can be other possible underlying medical causes. The best way to determine hypoglycemia if by having the blood sugar level measured while the symptoms are apparent. Causes There may be several causes for hypoglycemia, but the most common is the side effects caused by drugs that are being used to treat diabetes. Dogs with diabetes are given insulin to help Continue reading >>

Hunting Dog Hypoglycemia

Hunting Dog Hypoglycemia

It has been my privilege, through field trialing, to come to know Dr. Charles A. Hjerpe, DVM. If it has been done with bird dogs, Charlie has probably done it during his long lifetime. Charlie is a little modest in his introduction - he is Professor Emeritus of Veterinary Medicine at the University of California School of Veterinary Medicine at Davis. A couple of months ago, Charlie sent me a copy of a longer article that he had written about Hunting Dog Hypoglycemia. Great information, including some little known information about nutrition and fitness, but a little too long for a blog post. At my request, Charlie boiled it down to the following article. A big thank you to Charlie for this very valuable contribution... Some Personal Observations, Opinions, Hypotheses, and a Little Science Concerning Hunting Dog Hypoglycemia (HDH) by Dr. C.A. Hjerpe, DVM - Davis, California A. INTRODUCTION: Before discussing my personal observations of and opinions concerning hypoglycemia in hunting dogs, I will first offer some disclaimers, present my credentials and provide some definitions. First, I wish to emphasize that I am not and have never been a small animal specialist, and my personal observations and opinions are based on recollections that are not backed up with detailed, written records, and should not be regarded as “research”. I graduated from Cornell University’s New York State College of Veterinary Medicine in 1958, worked in private, mixed species veterinary practices for 5 years, and was a professor of large animal medicine at the School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California, Davis, for 31 years, until retiring in 1994. During the last 14 years of my academic career, I also served as Director of the UCD Veterinary Medical Teaching Hospital. During th Continue reading >>

Diabetic Dog: Tips To Manage His Diet

Diabetic Dog: Tips To Manage His Diet

So, your dog has diabetes. Take a deep breath. With good care, your companion can lead a long, healthy life. Like humans, when dogs have diabetes, staying trim is key. If your dog is overweight, losing some pounds can help his cells better use insulin, a hormone that keeps blood sugar levels in check. That makes it easier for his body to turn food into fuel. The goal for any pooch with diabetes is to keep blood sugar (or glucose) levels as close to normal as possible. This helps your dog feel good and makes it less likely he'll get diabetes-related complications, such as vision-clouding cataracts and urinary tract infections. Your veterinarian will determine how many calories your dog needs every day, based on his weight and activity level. Once you know that number, it's important to keep a close eye on what he eats and how much. Researchers are still exploring what diet is best for dogs with diabetes. Most vets recommend a high-fiber, low-fat diet. Fiber slows the entrance of glucose into the bloodstream and helps your dog feel full. Low-fat foods have fewer calories. Together, the diet can help your dog eat less and lose weight. But make sure your pooch drinks plenty of water. Fiber takes water from the body, and that can cause constipation and other problems. Most dogs do fine with food you can buy at the store. But your vet may recommend prescription dog food or a homemade diet developed by a veterinary nutritionist. Your vet can tell you the best way to go about changing your dog's food. Even the best diet won’t help if your dog doesn’t eat it, though -- and you can't give insulin to a dog on an empty stomach. It can make him very sick. If your dog isn't eating as much, it could be because he doesn't like the food. It could also mean he has another problem, or Continue reading >>

What Is Hypoglycemia?

What Is Hypoglycemia?

Hypoglycemia (Low Blood Sugar) Hypoglycemia in a diabetic is often referred to as insulin reaction. In diabetes mellitus, hypoglycemia is the condition of having a glucose (blood sugar) level that is too low to effectively fuel the body's blood cells usually resulting from to much insulin circulating in the bloodstream. A good range of blood sugar in an animal is approximately 70 to 150 mg/dl (milligrams of glucose per deciliter of blood). Blood sugar levels under 70 are too low and are considered dangerous in a diabetic pet because unfortunately our pets can't talk and say I am feeling woozy and then proceed to the fridge and get a glass of orange juice like a human diabetic could. When blood glucose levels drop below 60 mg/dl, some animals will exhibit symptoms of shakiness, unsteady walking, trembling lip, etc. At this stage administration of karo syrup, pancake syrup or some fast acting carbohydrate and you should see a quick recovery. Below 20 mg/dl, the brain is seriously impaired and the animal will often lose consciousness, but unfortunately some animals display no visible signs of hypoglycemia. Permanent brain changes and death can result if emergency treatment for advanced hypoglycaemia is not given. An insulin reaction is an emergency, and it needs prompt attention and the immediate administration of glucose. Administer karo syrup, icing, pancake syrup, etc some quick form of glucose immediately. If the pet cannot swallow; administer by rubbing it on the gums in the mouth and it will be absorbed. What causes hypoglycemia? too much medication (error in dosage) a missed meal a delayed meal vomiting of the meal too little food eaten as compared to the amount of insulin given strenuous exercise(chasing a squirrel around the yard for an hour) taking certain medica Continue reading >>

Hypoglycemia - Low Blood Sugar In Dogs

Hypoglycemia - Low Blood Sugar In Dogs

Hypoglycemia Q: Dear Dr. Richards, Thank you very much for the information on stroke and vestibular syndrome. I have another question. (My Vet is still on vacation.) Is it possible that my Yorkie's stroke-like symptoms could be caused by hypoglycemia or an electrolyte imbalance? (She suffered a week long bout of vomiting and diarrhea prior to her symptoms.) After this was suggested to me, I started giving her a little sugar in her food and water. She does seem to be feeling better and walking more normally. Although, she still seems to be a little disoriented. If hypoglycemia is possible, what is the proper way to treat this? Again, thank you very much, Debra A: Debra- It is possible for disorientation, weakness and even seizures to occur with hypoglycemia. Small breeds are more likely to become hypoglycemic from illnesses than larger breeds but most older dogs do not have much problems with this whether they are large or small. Older dogs do have problems with insulin producing tumors of the pancreas sometimes, though. This is probably the most common cause of hypoglycemia in older dogs. A temporary fix is to feed several small meals a day rather than one or two large ones. That would help until your vet got back. Then the best thing to do would be a general lab panel or blood glucose test (but I'd run the whole panel most of the time) and check for hypoglycemia. If it is present then checking another sample is a good idea. Then checking the insulin/glucose ratio on a blood sample would be a more definitive test for excess insulin. Insulinomas can be treated surgically or medically but surgery has a chance of curing the dog and medical treatment doesn't. Good luck with this. Peripheral vestibular syndrome clears up in most cases spontaneously so response to therapy for Continue reading >>

Hypoglycemia

Hypoglycemia

Hypoglycemia is what every diabetic fears -- very low blood glucose. Since the brain requires glucose for fuel at every second, it's possible to induce coma, seizures,brain damage[1][2][3] and death by letting blood glucose drop too low. Because the brain is almost totally dependent on glucose to make use of oxygen[4], it is somewhat like having severe breathing problems. Though the causes and mechanisms are different, in both cases the brain does not have enough oxygen, and similar symptoms and problems can occur. It is caused by giving too much insulin for the body's current needs. The blood glucose level at which an animal (or person) is dangerously hypoglycemic is fuzzy, and depends on several factors.[5] The line is different for diabetics and non-diabetics, and differs between individuals and depending on exogenous insulin and what the individual is accustomed to. The most likely time for an acute hypoglycemia episode is when the insulin is working hardest, or at its peak; mild lows may cause lethargy and sleepiness[6]. An acute hypoglycemic episode can happen even if you are careful, since pets' insulin requirements sometimes change without warning. Pets and people can have hypoglycemic episodes because of increases to physical activity. What makes those with diabetes prone to hypoglycemia is that muscles require glucose for proper function. The more active muscles become, the more their need for glucose increases[7]. Conversely, there can also be hyperglycemic reactions from this; it depends on the individual/caregiver knowing him/herself and the pet's reactions. According to a 2000 JAVMA study, dogs receiving insulin injections only once daily at high doses[9] are more likely to have hypoglycemic episodes than those who receive insulin twice daily. The symptoms Continue reading >>

How To Prevent Hunting Dog Hypoglycemia

How To Prevent Hunting Dog Hypoglycemia

Hypoglycemia is a condition that occurs in hunting dogs when their glucose levels fall under 50. Glucose is what gives hunting dogs the energy they exert. Glucose is crucial in a hunting a hunting dog’s body for the work that he has to do. When these levels fall it can lead to a dog that is disorientated, weak and suffering from tremors. If it is not treated quickly it can lead to the collapse and coma in a hunting dog and eventually death. As serious as this ailment is that affects some hunting dogs there are ways to prevent hunting dog hypoglycemia and continue to have a happy and healthy dog. Conditioning Perhaps the most important thing you can do with a hunting dog suffering from hypoglycemia is exercise. Your dog should be kept well conditioned before taking him hunting. You can do this by walking or running your dog several times a day and go through a few of the routines that will take place when hunting. Conditioning your dog for hunting will prepare your dog to handle the job of hunting when you are ready. Do not take a dog that is a couch potato at home into hunting without preparation. Diet Another preventative for hypoglycemia is to keep your dog on a well balanced diet that is high in carbohydrates. Make sure he is getting the right amount of fats in his diet and feed your hunting dog more often. He needs these added carbohydrates to sustain the amount of energy he uses while hunting. When you are actually hunting make sure you take the time out several times during the day to give your dog a snack. Any dog that is prone to hypoglycemia will benefit from this small burst of energy food and it may prevent his glucose from dropping at all. Emergency kits If you know your hunting dog is prone to hypoglycemia always have a first aid kit with you that holds g Continue reading >>

Hypoglycemia In Dogs

Hypoglycemia In Dogs

Click on the appropriate tab to view more information: Possible Causes of Hypoglycemia in Dogs Blood sugar levels are regulated by a complex interaction of hormones and other bodily processes. Canine hypoglycemia can be caused by abnormal hormonal functions or by the inability of the dog's body to store sufficient amount of blood glucose. These abnormalities in turn can be the result of any of the following: Insulinoma The pancreas produces insulin which causes blood sugar levels to decrease. Insulinomas are tumors formed by cells that produce insulin in the pancreas. Insulinomas can cause an increase in insulin production, resulting in low blood sugar levels. Insulin overdose If an excessive amount of insulin is administered to a dog with diabetes, the dog will suffer from hypoglycemia. Toy Breed Hypoglycemia Some toy breeds (such as Chihuahuas, Yorkshire Terriers, Maltese, Toy Poodles and Pomeranian) are prone to hypoglycemia due to a metabolic disorder. If you have a toy breed dog, it is better to feed her 3 small meals a day to avoid hypoglycemia. Puppy Hypoglycemia Puppies, especially toy breed puppies less than 5 months of age, are predisposed to developing hypoglycemia because they are less able to store and mobilize glucose the way that adult dogs do. Also, toy breed puppies have more brain mass per body weight compared to other breeds and therefore need more glucose for brain function. In puppies, certain situations can bring on a hypoglycemic attack. For example, when the puppy misses a meal, becomes chilled, or is suffering from exhaustion, or anxiety. Sometimes when a puppy gets older, she will outgrow this condition since canine hypoglycemia mostly affects puppies 5 to 16 weeks of age. However, if the dog is high strung, or has a lot of nervous energy, she Continue reading >>

Diet Recommendations For Dogs With Metastatic Insulinoma

Diet Recommendations For Dogs With Metastatic Insulinoma

My patient is “Ben,” a 10-year old, male Lab weighing 35 kg that presented with a 2-month history of having strange episodes, which included signs of disorientation and ataxia lasting from 10 minutes to 2 hours. The episodes were initially intermittent, but became much more frequent (2-3 times per day), so that the owner (finally) brought him in for an evaluation. On physical exam, the dog was clinically normal. On our routine chemistry profile, the serum glucose value was very low (28 mg/dl; 1.56 mmol/l). We collected another blood sample for paired serum insulin and glucose concentrations. These test results showed an extremely low serum glucose concentration (25 ng/dl; 1.39 mmol/l) with a high serum insulin value (439 pmol/l; reference interval, 36-287 pmol/l). An abdominal ultrasound showed a solitary 7-9 mm hypoechoic nodule on the pancreatic body between the pyloris and the proximal duodenal flexure. Unfortunately, multiple, small, very discrete solitary hypoechoic masses or nodules were also found throughout the liver, suggesting metastatic disease. Based upon the hypoglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, and ultrasound findings, my presumptive diagnosis is insulinoma with metastasis to the liver. His owners have declined surgical exploration or biopsy. We started Ben on oral prednisone (5 mg three times daily), and the owners have been feeding him small frequent meals. His improvement has been dramatic— no further episodes of disorientation or ataxia have been noted. I'm planning on keeping Ben on long-term, daily prednisone, but have some questions about the best diet to feed. My understanding is that these dogs do best when fed frequent meals with high complex carbohydrates and low simple carbohydrates. I’ve also read that puppy diets are best, whereas others ha Continue reading >>

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