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Dog Hypoglycemia Diet

Diet Recommendations For Dogs With Metastatic Insulinoma

Diet Recommendations For Dogs With Metastatic Insulinoma

My patient is “Ben,” a 10-year old, male Lab weighing 35 kg that presented with a 2-month history of having strange episodes, which included signs of disorientation and ataxia lasting from 10 minutes to 2 hours. The episodes were initially intermittent, but became much more frequent (2-3 times per day), so that the owner (finally) brought him in for an evaluation. On physical exam, the dog was clinically normal. On our routine chemistry profile, the serum glucose value was very low (28 mg/dl; 1.56 mmol/l). We collected another blood sample for paired serum insulin and glucose concentrations. These test results showed an extremely low serum glucose concentration (25 ng/dl; 1.39 mmol/l) with a high serum insulin value (439 pmol/l; reference interval, 36-287 pmol/l). An abdominal ultrasound showed a solitary 7-9 mm hypoechoic nodule on the pancreatic body between the pyloris and the proximal duodenal flexure. Unfortunately, multiple, small, very discrete solitary hypoechoic masses or nodules were also found throughout the liver, suggesting metastatic disease. Based upon the hypoglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, and ultrasound findings, my presumptive diagnosis is insulinoma with metastasis to the liver. His owners have declined surgical exploration or biopsy. We started Ben on oral prednisone (5 mg three times daily), and the owners have been feeding him small frequent meals. His improvement has been dramatic— no further episodes of disorientation or ataxia have been noted. I'm planning on keeping Ben on long-term, daily prednisone, but have some questions about the best diet to feed. My understanding is that these dogs do best when fed frequent meals with high complex carbohydrates and low simple carbohydrates. I’ve also read that puppy diets are best, whereas others ha Continue reading >>

Low Blood Sugar In Dogs

Low Blood Sugar In Dogs

Hypoglycemia in Dogs The medical term for critically low levels of sugar in the blood is hypoglycemia, and it is often linked to diabetes and an overdose of insulin. The blood sugar, or glucose, is a main energy of source in an animal's body, so a low amount will result in a severe decrease in energy levels, possibly to the point of loss of consciousness. There are conditions other than diabetes that can also cause blood sugar levels to drop to dangerous levels in dogs. In most animals, hypoglycemia is actually not a disease in and of itself, but is only an indication of another underlying health problem. The brain actually needs a steady supply of glucose in order to function properly, as it does not store and create glucose itself. When glucose levels drop to a dangerously low level, a condition of hypoglycemia takes place. This is a dangerous health condition and needs to be treated quickly and appropriately. If you suspect hypoglycemia, especially if your dog is disposed to this condition, you will need to treat the condition quickly before it becomes life threatening. Symptoms Loss of appetite (anorexia) Increased hunger Visual instability, such as blurred vision Disorientation and confusion – may show an apparent inability to complete basic routine tasks Weakness, low energy, loss of consciousness Anxiety, restlessness Tremor/shivering Heart palpitations These symptoms may not be specific to hypoglycemia, there can be other possible underlying medical causes. The best way to determine hypoglycemia if by having the blood sugar level measured while the symptoms are apparent. Causes There may be several causes for hypoglycemia, but the most common is the side effects caused by drugs that are being used to treat diabetes. Dogs with diabetes are given insulin to help Continue reading >>

Canine Hypoglycemia

Canine Hypoglycemia

Canine hypoglycemia is a dog blood glucose disorder, also known as exertional hypoglycemia, or sugar fits. The condition is due to having abnormally low levels of blood sugar. It is diagnosed after a blood test reading that shows blood glucose levels lower than 50 mg/dL vs. a normal level between 70 - 150 mg/dL. Smaller dogs who are hypoglycemic likely got the condition from some type of illness. The condition is rare in older dogs and larger breeds. Hypoglycemia in this case could be due to higher than usual levels of insulin production due to a pancreatic tumor. Dogs that are active such as working dogs, but have poor conditioning can begin to suffer from hypoglycemia. Puppies, Toy Breeds and Hypoglycemia in Dogs If you see the symptoms listed below such as weakness or listlessness then your puppy may be suffering from hypoglycemia. If you puppy or toy breed isn't eating then you can try feeding some Nutri-cal off your fingers. It is a malt paste filled with vitamins and sugar designed to be highly palatable to your dog. If the hypoglycemia persists, it could result in a medical emergency, particularly if you see severe symptoms such as seizure and collapse. Complicating Factors Sometimes there is more to hypoglycemia than just low blood sugar. While being extra small and extra young is enough to drop one's blood sugar, sometimes there is more to the story. Bacterial infection: Bacteria can be tremendous consumers of glucose (blood sugar). For this reason, hypoglycemic puppies frequently are given antibiotics. * Portosystemic (Liver) shunt This is a problem for the Yorkshire terrier in particular. In this congenital malformation of the liver circulation, blood travels from the GI tract to the general circulation by-passing the liver. The liver does not develop properl Continue reading >>

Preventing And Handling Diabetic Emergencies

Preventing And Handling Diabetic Emergencies

Caring for a pet with diabetes can be daunting. Fortunately, the key to successful diabetes management is simple: a consistent, established daily routine. A healthy diet is essential, and feeding your pet the same amount of food at the same time every day will help make blood sugar easiest to control. Your pet will usually also need twice-daily insulin injections, which should be given at the same time every day. (The easiest way to do this is to coordinate shots with mealtimes.) Routine daily exercise and regular at-home monitoring of urine and/or blood sugar round out a plan for good diabetic regulation. Even if you are following a consistent routine, a diabetic pet may occasionally experience an emergency. A number of different things can cause an emergency, but the most common is hypoglycemia, or low blood sugar. In this case, it is important that you be prepared in order to avoid a life-threatening situation. Hypoglycemia: Why It Happens Hypoglycemia most often results from accidental overdosage of insulin, but it can also occur if a pet is not eating well, misses a meal or vomits after eating, or if the type and amount of food he is being fed changes. Hypoglycemia may become a problem with very vigorous exercise; for this reason, regular daily controlled exercise is best. Hypoglycemia can also result if the body’s need for insulin changes. This scenario is particularly common in cats who often return to a non-diabetic state once an appropriate diet and insulin therapy start. Vet Tips Avoid “double-dosing” insulin. Only one person in a household should have the responsibility of giving insulin. A daily log should be kept of the time/amount of food and insulin that is given to avoid errors. Proper daily monitoring of blood and/or urine glucose can help identif Continue reading >>

Hypoglycemia - Low Blood Sugar

Hypoglycemia - Low Blood Sugar

What is Hypoglycemia (Low Blood Sugar)? 1. The brain requires glucose (blood sugar) for normal functioning, and unlike many other organs, the brain has a very limited ability to store glucose. As such, the brain is the organ that is most affected when blood sugar gets too low. 2. Low blood sugar can cause seizures 3. Puppies - especially small breed puppies - are particularly susceptible to low blood sugar because their liver is not able to store sufficient amounts of glycogen, as compared with older dogs. 4. Hypoglycemia can be a life-threatening - even fatal - condition, and is known to be a cause of canine seizures. The occurrence of symptoms depends on how far, and how fast, the blood sugar has dropped 5. Treating Hypoglycemia (Low Blood Sugar): During an attack of hypoglycemia your goal is to stay calm, to bring the blood glucose back to a safe level, to continue to observe your dog. You can contact your veterinarian if you feel you need to. These are general guidelines for treating hypoglycemia. Ask your veterinarian for information that is specific to your dog. Severe hypoglycemia: If your dog is severely hypoglycemic, especially if it is having seizures or unconscious, you must give Haggen-Dazs vanilla ice cream immediately. Carefully rub small amounts of ice cream on the inside of the cheeks and gums. Do not put a lot of liquid in the dog's mouth, and be sure the dog does not choke. Do not stick your fingers inside the teeth of a dog that is having seizures - you may get bitten. Then, call your veterinarian if you feel you need further guidance. If your dog continues to be unconscious your dog should be taken to the veterinary emergency room immediately. Moderate hypoglycemia: Haggen-Dazs plain vanilla ice cream should be given, either alone, or combined with f Continue reading >>

Natural Support For Hypoglycemia In Dogs

Natural Support For Hypoglycemia In Dogs

Hypoglycemia, or low blood sugar, can occur in dogs for a number of reasons, and the effects can be frightening to the pet owner who has never before witnessed a hypoglycemic episode. Repeated or prolonged attacks can ultimately result in devastating consequences. It's good to understand some of the most common triggers for hypoglycemia and how to prevent episodes. Be Vigilant With Toy Breed Puppies Toy breeds, such as Yorkshire terriers, Maltese and papillons, are especially prone to hypoglycemic attacks. This is due in part to the fact that they are full of energy and have higher metabolism than than will as adults as their little bodies are growing. Their diminutive size can compromise their ability to maintain their body temperature. Maintain normal blood sugar levels in your little one by offering foods that he can easily chew and swallow -- toy breeds' tiny teeth can make chewing larger kibble a difficult chore -- and providing several small meals throughout the day, as well as offering small amounts of a sugar-based vitamin gel supplement as a training reward. Most toy breed puppies outgrow the tendencies for hypoglycemia after 5 months of age as their bodies grow. Watch for Hypoglycemia in Hunting Dogs Hypoglycemia can strike hunting dogs in the field after extended periods of exertion and lack of food. Activity under such conditions forces your dog’s stressed body to deplete glycogen from the liver to use as an alternate energy source, which can lead to a drop in blood sugar. Before taking your retriever or spaniel on a hunting expedition, feed him a high-protein meal before leaving the house. Include a vitamin gel supplement or a small bottle of corn syrup in your hunter’s pack so you are prepared if your hunting buddy starts to exhibit signs of low blood Continue reading >>

Hypoglycemia In Dogs

Hypoglycemia In Dogs

Hypoglycemia refers to an abnormal decrease of glucose concentration in the blood, or more simply - low blood sugar levels. A normal blood glucose value for healthy, non-diabetic dogs is 3.3-6.1 mmol/L. Hypoglycemia occurs when excessive glucose consumption depletes the reserves of glucose in the body. Hypoglycemia can be a result of endocrine or hepatic disorders, a higher energy requirement for glucose, lack of glucose due to fasting, or toxicity. Hypoglycemia will leave dogs feeling weak and groggy. If left untreated, unconsciousness followed by death will result. Hypoglycemia is defined as a low blood sugar concentration. As sugar (in the form of glucose) is the primary energy source in the body, low blood sugar levels will ultimately affect organ and brain function. Symptoms of hypoglycemia will usually begin with low energy and a delayed response time, if left to progress further these symptoms will develop into more serious signs such as seizures and collapse. Potential symptoms include: Loss of appetite Lethargy (low energy) Slow response time Unusual behaviour Polyuria (increased urination) Polydipsia (increased thirst) Lack of coordination Partial paralysis of hindquarters Weakness Exercise intolerance Trembling Involuntary twitching Seizures Unconsciousness Hypoglycemia can be the result of underlying endocrine or hepatic disorders, sudden increase in the use of glucose by the body, inadequate amounts of glucose, or toxicity. Causes include: Abnormal growth of pancreatic cells Cancer in the liver or gastrointestinal system Inflammation of the liver Portosystemic shunt Glycogen-storage disease Excessive strenuous exercise Overuse of glucose in the body during pregnancy Reduced intake of glucose due to starvation or malnutrition Delayed time between meals in ki Continue reading >>

How To Treat Hypoglycemia In Cats And Dogs

How To Treat Hypoglycemia In Cats And Dogs

Hypoglycemia is a condition where your pet's glucose levels, better known as blood sugar drops dangerously low. Luckily, there are treatment levels out there if diagnosed in a timely manner. Learn more about hypoglycemia here. When your pet’s blood sugar drops below normal, it can spell serious trouble for their health. Blood sugar, or glucose, is the main source of energy for both the body and the brain. Without adequate amounts of glucose, your pet cannot function properly. In severe cases, hypoglycemia can cause loss of consciousness, coma, and even death. Fortunately, there are treatment options available, and the sooner you seek treatment for your pet, the more likely they are to recover. Read on to learn about the diagnosis and treatment of hypoglycemia in cats and dogs. Diagnosing Hypoglycemia in Cats and Dogs Contact your veterinarian if your pet ever exhibits symptoms of hypoglycemia. Your vet will perform a physical examination, take a full health history, and perform certain diagnostic tests. Most cases of hypoglycemia are easily diagnosed through routine blood work that reveals low glucose levels. The more challenging part of diagnosis is figuring out the source of the condition. Exploratory testing may include: Blood chemistry to assess liver, kidney, and pancreatic health Complete blood count to check for blood conditions Urinalysis to evaluate the kidneys and check for urinary tract infection or other diseases Thyroid test to see if there is a problem with thyroid hormone production X-ray or ultrasound to search for tumors, liver shunts, or liver abnormalities Treatment for Hypoglycemia in Cats and Dogs Treatment for hypoglycemia is usually a two-pronged attack: blood sugar levels must be raised immediately the underlying cause of the condition must be Continue reading >>

4 Signs Of An Impending Diabetic Pet Emergency

4 Signs Of An Impending Diabetic Pet Emergency

Caring for a diabetic pet can be challenging, but there are certain precautions pet owners can take to prevent a diabetic emergency like hypoglycemia. Preventing a health crisis in a dog or cat with diabetes involves employing a consistent daily routine involving diet, exercise, insulin therapy, and supplementation. It also involves avoiding any and all unnecessary vaccinations. Even the most diligent pet parent can find himself facing a diabetic emergency with a dog or cat. Hypoglycemia is the most common health crisis, and is usually the result of an inadvertent overdose of insulin. Symptoms of hypoglycemia can appear suddenly and include lethargy or restlessness, anxiety or other behavioral changes, muscle weakness or twitching, seizures, coma, and death. At-home treatment for a diabetic pet with hypoglycemia is determined by whether or not the animal is alert. Signs of other potential impending diabetic emergencies include ketones in the urine; straining to urinate or bloody urine; vomiting or diarrhea; or a complete loss of appetite or reduced appetite for several days. By Dr. Becker Caring for a diabetic pet can be quite complex and time consuming. It involves regular monitoring of blood glucose levels, making necessary dietary adjustments, giving insulin injections or oral medications, and keeping a careful eye on your pet at all times. Frequent veterinary visits are the norm for dogs and cats with diabetes, as are the costs associated with checkups, tests, medical procedures, and insulin therapy. And unlike humans with the disease, our pets can’t tell us how they’re feeling or help in their own treatment and recovery. Preventing Diabetic Emergencies The key to preventing diabetic emergencies with a pet involves implementing a consistent daily routine and sti Continue reading >>

Hypoglycemia In A Dog

Hypoglycemia In A Dog

A 6-year-old male, neutered shih tzu cross dog was presented to the referring veterinarian with a history of acute onset ataxia and anorexia of 2 d duration. On physical examination, the dog was depressed, ataxic, and disoriented, but otherwise normal with no neurologic deficits. Initial bloodwork revealed a marked fasting hypoglycemia of 1.6 mmol/L [reference interval (RI): 3.3–6.1 mmol/L]. Other abnormalities included mildly increased albumin (43 g/L; RI: 26–36 g/L), mildly increased amylase (1273 U/L; RI: 138–970 U/L) and lipase (683 U/L; RI: 0–600 U/L), and mildly decreased urea (1.78 mmol/L; RI: 2.14–8.56 mmol/L) and creatinine (44.2 μmol/L; RI: 61.9–114.9 μmol/L). Pre- and post-prandial bile acids were mildly increased (pre-prandial 16.0 μmol/L; RI: 0–15.0 μmol/L; post-prandial 28.5 μmol/L; RI: 0–22.0 μmol/L). The complete blood (cell) count (CBC) revealed only a mild stress lymphopenia. The urine specific gravity was 1.004, and the urinalysis data were unremarkable. Thoracic and abdominal radiographic findings were unremarkable. Hypoglycemia is defined as a blood glucose concentration of < 3.3 mmol/L (1). An initial finding of hypoglycemia should always be confirmed before beginning to work up the problem. Artifactual hypoglycemia is common when there has been a delay in the separation of serum from cells because erythrocytes and leukocytes continue to utilize glucose (in vitro glycolysis). The glucose concentration in whole blood may decrease by as much as 5% to 10% or 0.56 mmol/L per hour (1,2). Differential diagnoses for hypoglycemia in the dog are numerous (Table 1). In this dog, hepatic disease, sepsis, hypoadrenocorticism, beta-cell neoplasia, and extrapancreatic neoplasia were considered. Primary hepatic disease was considered unlikel Continue reading >>

Hypoglycemia

Hypoglycemia

Hypoglycemia is what every diabetic fears -- very low blood glucose. Since the brain requires glucose for fuel at every second, it's possible to induce coma, seizures,brain damage[1][2][3] and death by letting blood glucose drop too low. Because the brain is almost totally dependent on glucose to make use of oxygen[4], it is somewhat like having severe breathing problems. Though the causes and mechanisms are different, in both cases the brain does not have enough oxygen, and similar symptoms and problems can occur. It is caused by giving too much insulin for the body's current needs. The blood glucose level at which an animal (or person) is dangerously hypoglycemic is fuzzy, and depends on several factors.[5] The line is different for diabetics and non-diabetics, and differs between individuals and depending on exogenous insulin and what the individual is accustomed to. The most likely time for an acute hypoglycemia episode is when the insulin is working hardest, or at its peak; mild lows may cause lethargy and sleepiness[6]. An acute hypoglycemic episode can happen even if you are careful, since pets' insulin requirements sometimes change without warning. Pets and people can have hypoglycemic episodes because of increases to physical activity. What makes those with diabetes prone to hypoglycemia is that muscles require glucose for proper function. The more active muscles become, the more their need for glucose increases[7]. Conversely, there can also be hyperglycemic reactions from this; it depends on the individual/caregiver knowing him/herself and the pet's reactions. According to a 2000 JAVMA study, dogs receiving insulin injections only once daily at high doses[9] are more likely to have hypoglycemic episodes than those who receive insulin twice daily. The symptoms Continue reading >>

Feeding Schedule For Diabetic Dogs

Feeding Schedule For Diabetic Dogs

Go to site For Pet Owners Good glycemic control is dependent upon a controlled and consistent dietary intake. It is important to achieve and then maintain a normal body weight, because this is a strong indicator of good diabetic control. The dietary requirements of a diabetic dog are highly variable—diet must be individually tailored for each dog. Body weight is a major factor in diet selections. Obese dogs require reduced caloric intake, either through feeding a calorie-restricted diet or by feeding a reduced quantity of the normal diet. Increasing physical activity will also be beneficial in obese dogs. Conversely, underweight dogs may require calorie-rich diets such as pediatric or convalescent diets. Another important consideration is the presence of concurrent disease, for example, renal failure or pancreatitis. It may be that the dietary management for these associated problems is more critical than a specific "diabetic" diet. Dogs tend to gobble their food. Traditionally, the dog’s daily food intake should be divided into 2 meals. The first meal is given around the time of the morning insulin injection, and the second meal is given approximately 7.5 hours (6 to 10 hours) later, at the time of peak insulin activity. Fiber-rich diets have been shown to slow the postprandial glucose surge in dogs, which consequently improves glycemic control. Timing of meals Meals should be timed so that the absorption of glucose from the gastrointestinal tract coincides with the peak action of the administered insulin. This will minimize fluctuations in blood glucose concentrations and thus episodes of hyperglycemia and hypoglycemia. 1. Dogs administered insulin once daily The first meal (eg, 2/3 of the daily ration) is given prior to the morning insulin injection. This allows Continue reading >>

Best Dog Food Diet For Insulinoma

Best Dog Food Diet For Insulinoma

by Sandra S. My 10 year old terrier mix, Mac, was diagnosed with insulinoma in September 2012. I was just devastated. It's like living with an ax hanging over our heads. I researched the surgery option but decided not to put him through that as he is an excitable little guy with a great deal of separation anxiety when I'm not with him. Our vet is great and he is being treated now with prednisone 5 mg 1/2 in the am and 1/2 in the PM. I was told to feed him Science Diet LD, but he wouldn't go near it. They suggested then Science Diet ID which he tolerates. I boil organic chicken and mix some of it in the ID so he'll eat it. We still can't get his blood sugar past 39 and I KNOW this is not good. I understand the vet's reason for suggesting Science Diet and thinks its best. We've been with him for 25 years and I have total faith in him, but not the food. I am afraid to do the wrong thing if I choose an organic dog food by trying to read the label. His little treats I bake like 'cookies' with science diet DD. I really need a recommendation from a knowledgeable source as to what organic food I can try to help get his blood sugar up and perhaps what organic treats would be safe. I just read that I can give him a little Ensure to help with this that won't spike his sugar too high. I can see he has had one or two slight seizures (he suddenly sits and looks around the ceiling as if something was flying up there. When I call his name he doesn't answer... but in 30 seconds or so he turns around when I call his name, showing no further symptom of the episode. I know this disease won't end well, but I'm just desperate to find something that will help with the blood sugar. He can't stay at 39 for long without going downhill. Anything you can tell me that might help my little Mac would Continue reading >>

Hypoglycemia In Dogs

Hypoglycemia In Dogs

The material on this site is provided for educational and informational purposes only and must not be taken as “medical advice”. The information and directions in these writings and subsequent emails, individually and collectively, are in no way to be considered as a substitute for consultations with a duly licensed Veterinarian regarding diagnosis and/or treatment of disease and are not intended to diagnose or treat your dog. Please consult with your Veterinarian for this advice as well as for any Medical Emergency. Hypoglycemia is defined as an abnormally low level of the simple sugar, glucose, in an animal’s bloodstream. The body works hard to maintain balanced blood sugar because blood sugar develops when the body’s intricate blood-sugar balancing mechanisms malfunction for one reason or another. This can occur mainly because of poor commercially prepared diets. Although older and larger dogs rarely get hypoglycemia, small dogs are more susceptible and may get the condition because of degenerative liver disease. Glucose is the end product of carbohydrate digestion. Carbohydrates in food are an important and immediate source of energy for most animals. The main sources of dietary carbohydrates are the starches and sugars that come from plants and fruits. Protein does not produce glucose. Glucose is the primary source of energy for the cells and tissues of dogs. When there is more glucose in circulation (from dietary intake) than is needed for the dog’s energy demands, it is stored in liver and muscle cells in the form of glycogen, for future use. If the liver and muscle cells become saturated, glucose is converted into fat and stored as adipose tissue. Circulating blood sugar levels depend upon the amount of glucose that is: 1) taken in through a dog’s di Continue reading >>

Hypoglycemia Diet For Dogs

Hypoglycemia Diet For Dogs

Because hypoglycemia causes an unsafe drop in blood sugar, it is important to recognize and treat its underlying cause as soon as symptoms appear. If your veterinarian has diagnosed your dog or puppy with the disease, a combination of diet and medication may be required to regulate his condition. Here are a few nutrition guidelines to follow when planning meals for your hypoglycemic dog. Frequency Feed hypoglycemic dogs several (4 to 6) small meals over the course of a day in order to help regulate insulin absorption. Protein Diets that are high in protein will help provide hypoglycemic dogs with the necessary energy without overloading their pancreas. Fats Hypoglycemic dogs should eat a diet that is high in Omega-3 and other healthy fats. Carbohydrates Variety Dextrose Continue reading >>

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