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Does Dietary Fat Cause Insulin Resistance

Dietary Fats, Carbohydrates And Diabetes

Dietary Fats, Carbohydrates And Diabetes

Nutrition-wise blog Eating fewer carbohydrates may not be the answer to diabetes prevention and management. A balance of healthy fats and fewer refined grains and added sugars may reduce risk. It's becoming clearer that among the macronutrients — carbohydrates, protein and fat — some impart more health benefit than others. For example, whole grains are superior to refined grains. There is still much to figure out in the amounts or balance of nutrient that is optimal in disease prevention and treatment. While there is increasingly strong evidence that replacing saturated fat with unsaturated fats provides cardiovascular benefits, there is controversy around amounts and types of carbohydrates and fats for blood glucose management in the prevention or management of diabetes. Researchers at Tufts University analyzed results of 102 trials, which included 4,660 adults, to evaluate how saturated fat, mono- and polyunsaturated fats and carbohydrates affected key risk factors for type 2 diabetes. Specifically, the researchers assessed how these macronutrients affected blood sugar and insulin levels, as well as insulin sensitivity and production. A common practice in diabetes management is to significantly reduce all carbohydrates. This often leads to consumption of more animal protein and fat, especially saturated fat. This study suggests it is not reduction in carbohydrates alone that improves outcomes. Rather it is the inclusion of healthy fats, such as those from fish, nuts, seeds and oils, eaten in place of refined grains, added sugars and animal fats that may offer the greatest reduction in risk. Per the study analysis, a 5 percent increase in calories from healthy fats (and similar reduction in calories from refined carbohydrate and saturated fat) resulted in improved Continue reading >>

Diet And Diabetes: Why Saturated Fats Are The Real Enemy

Diet And Diabetes: Why Saturated Fats Are The Real Enemy

This is the seventh article in our “Controversies” series and the third piece focusing on the subject of fats. Today, we are going to explore the very important relationship between saturated fat intake and the onset of diabetes. As we mentioned in The Ultimate Guide to Saturated Fats, “Once we control for weight, alcohol, smoking, exercise and family history, the incidence of diabetes is significantly associated with the proportion of saturated fat in our blood.” Today we will take a deep dive to fully understand why there is such a strong link between diabetes and saturated fat consumption. We will also discuss how a plant-based diet may protect you from (or even reverse!) the disease. What Is Insulin Resistance? Insulin resistance is a hallmark of both prediabetes and type 2 diabetes. So what is insulin resistance exactly (and why is it important)? Let me explain. Insulin is what permits glucose (sugar) in the blood to enter our (muscle) cells. In essence, insulin ‘unlocks’ the door, allowing the glucose to come in. If there is no insulin at all (the case of type 1 diabetes), the blood sugar ‘hangs out’ in the bloodstream because it cannot get inside. That causes the blood sugar levels to rise. But what happens if the insulin is there but is simply not working properly? In that case, the lock to the cell door is ‘blocked.’ This is what is called insulin resistance. So what causes insulin resistance in the first place? Insulin resistance is caused by fat. Fat build-up inside (muscle) cells creates toxic fatty breakdown products and free radicals that ‘block’ the insulin-signaling process, close the ‘glucose gate,’ and make blood sugar levels rise. And this cycle can happen really fast. In fact, insulin resistance can occur in 180 short minu Continue reading >>

The Role Of Fatty Acids In Insulin Resistance

The Role Of Fatty Acids In Insulin Resistance

Abstract Insulin resistance is a multi-faceted disruption of the communication between insulin and the interior of a target cell. The underlying cause of insulin resistance appears to be inflammation that can either be increased or decreased by the fatty acid composition of the diet. However, the molecular basis for insulin resistance can be quite different in various organs. This review deals with various types of inflammatory inputs mediated by fatty acids, which affect the extent of insulin resistance in various organs. Keywords Insulin resistanceInflammationFatty acidsPalmitic acidOmega-3 fatty acidsHypothalamusAdipose tissueLiverMuscleEndotoxemia Introduction The human body has developed an extraordinary number of systems to maintain stable blood glucose and to avoid broad swings in its level. These systems include hormones that are directly or indirectly generated by the diet. These hormones sense dietary nutrients and send appropriate neural signals to the brain (specifically the hypothalamus) to orchestrate fuel usage for either oxidation into energy or long-term storage. The central hormone involved in this metabolic communication system is insulin. However, increased inflammation can disturb these complex communication systems eventually leading to metabolic defects (obesity, metabolic syndrome, and diabetes). Insulin is the primary regulator of carbohydrate, fat, and protein metabolism [1–3]. It inhibits lipolysis of stored fat in the adipose tissue and gluconeogenesis in the liver, it stimulates the translocation of the GLUT-4 protein to bring glucose into the muscle cells along with gene expression of proteins required for the optimal cellular function, cellular repair, and growth, and it indicates the metabolic availability of various fuels to the brain. Continue reading >>

Does Eating Fat Raise Insulin?

Does Eating Fat Raise Insulin?

Insulin, a hormone secreted by the pancreas after you eat a meal, causes cells throughout the body -- primarily the liver, muscles and fat tissue -- to absorb glucose. Carbohydrate foods, which are broken down into sugar, cause the most rapid rise in blood sugar and therefore, insulin. However, the fats in your diet influence insulin levels through a complex range of effects on insulin production and the way cells respond to this hormone. Certain dietary fats, such as trans fats and some saturated fats, may alter the structures of cell membranes to inhibit insulin binding and lead to increased insulin levels, according to Leszek Szablewski, author of the book "Glucose Homeostasis and Insulin Resistance." Fats also affect cell membrane permeability, or the ability of cells to absorb nutrients, which is a factor that can influence glucose absorption. Polyunsaturated fats may have a beneficial affect by activating genes that control carbohydrate, fat and protein metabolism to improve insulin sensitivity, while other types of fats have the opposite effect. Omega-6 and Omega-3 Effects The omega-6 polyunsaturated fat linoleic acid, an essential fatty acid found in safflower, sunflower, corn and soybean oils lowers insulin levels by improving insulin sensitivity, according to a study published in the 2009 issue of the journal "Lipid Research." By contrast, omega-3 essential fatty acids, found in flaxseed, fish and canola oil and widely touted for their heart and other health benefits, do not improve insulin sensitivity. To obtain the benefits of both of these essential fatty acids, replace saturated animal fats from meats and poultry with polyunsaturated fats from vegetable oils, fish, nuts and seeds. Oleic Acid Oleic acid -- a monounsaturated fat found in olive oil that also Continue reading >>

Ectopic Fat And Insulin Resistance: Pathophysiology And Effect Of Diet And Lifestyle Interventions

Ectopic Fat And Insulin Resistance: Pathophysiology And Effect Of Diet And Lifestyle Interventions

International Journal of Endocrinology Volume 2012 (2012), Article ID 983814, 18 pages 1Departments of Endocrinology & Metabolism and General Internal Medicine, Leiden University Medical Center, P.O. Box 9600, 2300 RC Leiden, The Netherlands 2Walaeus Library, Leiden University Medical Center, P.O. Box 9600, 2300 RC Leiden, The Netherlands 3Department of Radiology, Leiden University Medical Center, P.O. Box 9600, 2300 RC Leiden, The Netherlands Academic Editor: Andreas Höflich Copyright © 2012 M. Snel et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. Abstract The storage of triglyceride (TG) droplets in nonadipose tissues is called ectopic fat storage. Ectopic fat is associated with insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Not the triglycerides per se but the accumulation of intermediates of lipid metabolism in organs, such as the liver, skeletal muscle, and heart seem to disrupt metabolic processes and impair organ function. We describe the mechanisms of ectopic fat depositions in the liver, skeletal muscle, and in and around the heart and the consequences for each organs function. In addition, we systematically reviewed the literature for the effects of diet-induced weight loss and exercise on ectopic fat depositions. 1. Introduction The amount of people with obesity has increased dramatically over the past decades to an estimated number of 400 million adults worldwide with a projected 700 million in 2015 [1]. Obesity predisposes to the development of insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), and cardiovascular disease (CVD) [2–7]. However, about 30% of obese men and Continue reading >>

Saturated Fats, Diabetes And Carb/sugar Consumption

Saturated Fats, Diabetes And Carb/sugar Consumption

I received this detailed response to a recent video on my YouTube Channel about the documentary, What The Health. My response follows as a helpful guide, just in case you face a similar crisis with a friend or loved one down the road too. The YouTube video in question in this case is also at the bottom of the post if you’d like to watch it. The Argument TheAltruismActivist: Hello Paul. Addressing your concern about the recommendations and research on diabetes, I believe that you are not looking deep enough into the issue. Just because eating a sugary meal raises one’s blood sugar does not mean that sugar is the cause and main culprit of diabetes. Looking into it a step deeper, you must consider why the body is insulin-resistant (which causes the high, uncontrolled blood sugar). There is much proof that dietary saturated fat is a significant inducer of insulin resistance. Pouring sugar into an insulin-resistant person’s body will surely exacerbate the diabetic issues, but the sugar intake is not the cause. Dietary saturated fat is. That is how Dr. Walter Kempner, many decades ago, cured type 2 diabetics with a diet composed of white rice, white sugar, fruit, and fruit juice. That is not a healthy diet, but it proves that sugar is not the issue while dietary saturated fat is. Switching anyone from a standard Western diet to a cleaner diet like yours will improve their diabetes, but that doesn’t mean further benefits can’t be obtained from digging deeper into the root cause of insulin resistance. Let me know your thoughts and response! Study various diets Hello! After reading your comments carefully, here are my thoughts about diabetes. For starters, if you study Nutrition and Physical Degeneration by Weston A. Price, he didn’t find diabetes or any such chronic Continue reading >>

7 Days Of Overeating And Inactivity Causes Insulin Resistance

7 Days Of Overeating And Inactivity Causes Insulin Resistance

Obesity is one of the most common consequences of the Western lifestyle. Unsurprisingly, obesity is not only a matter of weight. It is also associated with a variety of health problems. The most common health problems associated with obesity are collectively known as metabolic syndrome. Insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes are among the main components of this syndrome, but how they are linked with obesity is not clearly understood. Article Reviewed A team of scientists at Temple University, Philadelphia, set out to investigate how overeating and obesity may be linked with insulin resistance. Boden et al. Excessive Caloric Intake Acutely Causes Oxidative Stress, GLUT4 carbonylation, and insulin resistance in healthy men. Science Translational Medicine 2015. Materials and Methods Six healthy, middle-aged men volunteered to participate in the study. Half of them were normal weight, while the rest were slightly overweight. None of them had a family history of diabetes or other endocrine disorders, and they were not taking any drugs. They spent one week at a hospital, where they were overfed and confined to their rooms to minimize physical activity. Their diet consisted of approximately 6000 kcal per day, a whopping 200–250% increase in their normal calorie intake. It was a typical US diet, standardized to 50% carbohydrate, 35% fat and 15% protein. Various blood analyses were done every day, while other measurements, such as fat biopsies, were only performed at the beginning and end of the study. Body weight and composition were also measured. Results By the end of the study, the participants had gained an average 3.5 kg, all in the form of fat mass. On day two, insulin levels rose quickly with signs of increased insulin resistance, gradually becoming worse as the study Continue reading >>

How Insulin Really Works: It Causes Fat Storage…but Doesn’t Make You Fat

How Insulin Really Works: It Causes Fat Storage…but Doesn’t Make You Fat

Many people believe that insulin is to blame for the obesity epidemic. When you understand how it actually works, you’ll know why this is a lie. Insulin has been taking quite a beating these days. If we’re to listen to some “experts,” it’s an evil hormone whose sole goal is making us fat, type 2 diabetics. Furthermore, we’re told that carbohydrates also are in on the conspiracy. By eating carbs, we open the insulin floodgates and wreak havoc in our bodies. How true are these claims, though? Does it really make sense that our bodies would come with an insidious mechanism to punish carbohydrate intake? Let’s find out. What is Insulin, Anyway? Insulin is a hormone, which means it’s a substance the body produces to affect the functions of organs or tissues, and it’s made and released into the blood by the pancreas. Insulin’s job is a very important one: when you eat food, it’s broken down into basic nutrients (protein breaks down into amino acids; dietary fats into fatty acids; and carbohydrates into glucose), which make their way into the bloodstream. These nutrients must then be moved from the blood into muscle and fat cells for use or storage, and that’s where insulin comes into play: it helps shuttle the nutrients into cells by “telling” the cells to open up and absorb them. So, whenever you eat food, your pancreas releases insulin into the blood. As the nutrients are slowly absorbed into cells, insulin levels drop, until finally all the nutrients are absorbed, and insulin levels then remain steady at a low, “baseline” level. This cycle occurs every time you eat food: amino acids, fatty acids, and/or glucose find their way into your blood, and they’re joined by additional insulin, which ushers them into cells. Once the job is done, insu Continue reading >>

Macronutrients, Dieting And Health

Macronutrients, Dieting And Health

by Ben Best Dieting is distinguished from diet by an emphasis on a temporary change in eating patterns to achieve short-term goals. If good health is the most important goal, dieting is likely to be counterproductive. This monograph is concerned with the long-term health benefits of fat loss rather than losing weight temporarily to look good for a special occasion. Loss of weight due to a loss of water or lean tissue rather than fat can be harmful to health. Tobacco smoking as a means of curbing appetite is detrimental to health. The most effective dieting change is one that permanently reduces the rate of calorie consumption. But even people who will exert a great deal of effort to exercise for weight-loss often refuse to apply effort to reduce eating — or to eat less tasty foods that are low in calories, but high in fiber. Instead, most diet & dieting strategies emphasize shifts in relative consumption of the macronutrients: fat, carbohydrate and protein. But for every one of these macronutrients it is a mistake not to pay attention to subcategories. It makes a great deal of difference what type of fat, carbohydrate or protein is being increased or decreased in the diet. Another important distinction is the health objective of the diet: to lose fat, to reduce cardiovascular disease, to prevent diabetes, etc. These objectives are very related, but still distinct. (return to contents) Dietary fat is very readily absorbed and is readily converted to body fat. It is easy to eat large amounts of fat calories before satiation occurs. The impetus behind low fat diets received a boost in 1961 when the Framingham Heart Study reported correlation between blood cholesterol and heart disease. Saturated fat increases blood LDL cholesterol without affecting HDL cholesterol. Butte Continue reading >>

Insulin Resistance And Fat Loss

Insulin Resistance And Fat Loss

Question: Your books and work are amazing. Unless I misunderstood the point in UD2 Lyle speaks about weight loss and that insulin resistance can be beneficial. Could you explain more to me about your viewpoint on this as I dietician I always consider and read about it being unhelpful. I’m very interested in a new viewpoint. Answer: While I think I have addressed this on the site previously but since it’s somewhat counterintuitive and goes against what everyone believes (and is a little bit more complicated than what is written in my books or above), it’s worth going over again. As usual, I’ll need to provide some background. How Hormones Work A hormone is any substance in the body that causes something to happen elsewhere. Technically you can divide up neurotransmitters (which work locally) and hormones (which work elsewhere/all over the body) but this is unnecessary detail. So a hormone is released from some gland or another (i.e. thyroid from the thyroid gland, insulin from the pancreas), binds to a receptor somewhere and makes stuff happen (a technical term). The almost universal analogy for how hormones work is the lock and key analogy. The hormone is the key and its specific receptor is the lock. So the lock fits into the key and makes stuff happen (still a technical term). Every hormone has its own specific receptor (just as a key fits into one lock) but there can be something called cross-reactivity where one hormone kind of fits into a different hormone. Don’t worry about this. So insulin has an insulin receptor. When insulin binds to that receptor, stuff happens (see a trend here). And that insulin receptor is found all over the body, in the brain, in skeletal muscle, in the liver, and in fat cells. The last three are the key things to worry about her Continue reading >>

Diet Tips To Improve Insulin Resistance

Diet Tips To Improve Insulin Resistance

Insulin is a hormone that helps the body absorb glucose, keeping blood sugar levels in balance. Insulin resistance makes it harder for glucose to be absorbed. This causes problems for muscles, fat, and the liver, as they need glucose (sugar). Over time, insulin resistance can cause high blood sugar levels and damage cells. Insulin resistance can lead to type 2 diabetes. People with insulin resistance are often diagnosed with prediabetes. They may need extra checks to make sure they don't develop diabetes. Diet and other lifestyle choices can increase the risks related to insulin resistance. Making diet changes can reduce insulin insensitivity. This reduces the risk of type 2 diabetes and the health problems that go with it. Contents of this article: Understanding insulin resistance Glucose is a vital source of energy for the body. However, many of the body's cells can't absorb glucose on their own. The pancreas secretes insulin into the bloodstream. It joins up with glucose, and travels to the body's cells, where it attaches to insulin receptors. Insulin allows the cells to absorb glucose, making sure that: blood sugar levels remain at a safe level muscle, fat, liver, and other cells are able to get energy Insulin resistance makes cells less sensitive to insulin. This means the body has to produce more insulin to keep blood sugar levels healthy. If the pancreas is unable to keep up with the increased demand for insulin, blood sugar levels go up. When this happens, cells can't use all of the excess glucose in the blood. This leads to type 2 diabetes. Diet tips Following a healthful diet plan, such as the Mediterranean Diet, can improve insulin sensitivity. This diet recommends eating lots of seasonal plant-based foods, having fruit as a dessert, and olive oil as the main Continue reading >>

The Fat Of The Matter: How Dietary Fat Effects Blood Glucose

The Fat Of The Matter: How Dietary Fat Effects Blood Glucose

Pizza. A hot fudge sundae. Movie theater popcorn. Cheesesteaks wit (hey, I’m a Philly guy). What do they all have in common? More than being mighty tasty, they’re also loaded with fat. Fat doesn’t usually receive a whole lot of attention from those on intensive insulin programs; carbs seem to get all the glory. And deservedly so: Carbs cause a rapid rise in blood glucose, while fat seems to have little effect. Or does it? You may have noticed that your blood glucose level rises overnight after a restaurant meal. Or perhaps it climbs excessively in the evening after having a big piece of birthday cake during the day. The culprit is most likely the fat content of these types of meals and snacks, not the carbohydrates. It has long been known that adding fat to a meal will slow down the digestion/absorption of carbohydrates. This is due to a slowdown in gastric emptying – the rate at which food passes from the stomach into the intestines, where the nutrients (such as glucose) are absorbed into the bloodstream. This is why the carbohydrates in high-fat meals tend to take longer to raise the blood glucose level. But the difference is generally an hour or two: Whereas a low-fat meal will raise the blood glucose level quickly (usually within an hour), a high-fat meal may take two to four hours to produce a blood sugar peak. So what about after the carbohydrates are finished doing their thing? That’s when the fat itself begins to exert its effects. The process goes something like this: You eat a high-fat meal or snack (this is the fun part). In a few hours, the fat begins to digest; this continues for several hours. The level of fat in the bloodstream (triglycerides) rises. High triglycerides in the bloodstream cause the liver to become resistant to insulin. When the l Continue reading >>

Does Fat Cause Insulin Resistance?

Does Fat Cause Insulin Resistance?

For decades now, we have been told that fatness (or “obesity”) is a major cause of diabetes. Health “experts” have warned about this, but they could never say how being overweight could cause insulin resistance (IR). Without IR, you can’t have Type 2 diabetes, so the whole “blame fat” theory has been suspect. Well, now they have a plausible explanation. Obesity may cause inflammation, causing IR, leading to diabetes. But is this theory true? Does adipose (fat) tissue really create inflammation? Or do both obesity and inflammation come from some other cause? Get ready for some science as I try to explore these questions. In a new report in the Journal of Leukocyte Biology, two Japanese scientists report that “obesity is associated with a state of chronic, low-grade inflammation.” They explain that as fat cells get larger, they seem to attract immune cells called macrophages. These cells produce inflammatory chemicals called cytokines that help cause insulin resistance. Chief among these chemicals are interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor-alpha. In animal models, insulin resistance doesn’t occur until after macrophages invade the fat cells. So the question remains, which comes first, the inflammation or the fatness? What draws the immune cells into adipose tissue? Remember that most overweight people never develop diabetes. And some overweight people have much more inflammation than others. (The same is true of thin people, of course.) Why do some develop this fat-related inflammation and some don’t? Some think that weight itself provokes inflammation. According to French scientists writing in the journal European Cytokine Network, weight loss is associated with reduced “macrophage infiltration” and reduced inflammation. Also, another chemical, Continue reading >>

The Ketogenic Diet And Insulin Resistance

The Ketogenic Diet And Insulin Resistance

We recently touched on how you can use the ketogenic diet to control symptoms of diabetes such as elevated glucose and triglycerides. In this article, we examine research showing the impact that the ketogenic diet has on levels of the hormone insulin, a key regulator of blood sugar in the body. What is Insulin’s Role in the Body? Before we look at the research, we need to know our main players. Insulin is a protein-based hormone produced by beta-cells located in the pancreas. The pancreas, which is located under the stomach, also produces enzymes that aid with digestion. Insulin’s primary purpose is to regulate the metabolism of fats and carbohydrates. The digestive system breaks down carbohydrates, such as sugars and starches, into a molecule called glucose. This compound can be used by cells to produce energy through a process called cellular respiration. Insulin allows cells in the body absorb glucose, ultimately lowering levels of glucose in the blood stream. After a meal is consumed, blood glucose levels increase and the pancreas responds by releasing insulin into the blood. Insulin assists fat, liver, and muscle cells absorb glucose from the blood, resulting in lower levels of blood glucose. Insulin stimulates liver and muscle tissues to store excess glucose as a molecule called glycogen and also reduces glucose production by the liver. When blood sugar is low, the hormone glucagon (produced by alpha-cells in the pancreas) stimulate cells to break down glycogen into glucose that is subsequently released into the blood stream. In healthy people who do not have type II diabetes, these functions allow levels of blood glucose and insulin to stay in a normal range. What Is Insulin Resistance and Why Is It a Problem? Unfortunately, for many Americans and other peopl Continue reading >>

Insulin Resistance

Insulin Resistance

Tweet Insulin resistance is the name given to when cells of the body don’t respond properly to the hormone insulin. Insulin resistance is the driving factor that leads to type 2 diabetes, gestational diabetes and prediabetes. Insulin resistance is closely associated with obesity; however, it is possible to be insulin resistant without being overweight or obese. Modern research has shown that insulin resistance can be combatted by treatment methods that reduce how much insulin the body is producing or taking via insulin injections or insulin pumps. Reducing insulin resistance can be achieved by following low-carbohydrate and ketogenic diets. What is insulin resistance? The role of insulin is to allow cells of the body to take in glucose to be used as fuel or stored as body fat. [282] It also means that glucose is more likely to build up in the blood and this can lead to too high blood sugar levels. When the body becomes resistant to insulin, it tries to cope by producing more insulin. People with insulin resistance are often producing too more insulin than healthy people. Producing too much insulin is known as hyperinsulinemia. Symptoms of insulin resistance Initially, insulin resistance presents no symptoms. The symptoms only start to appear once it leads to secondary effects such as higher blood sugar levels. When this happens, the symptoms may include: Lethargy (tiredness) Hunger Difficulty concentrating (brain fog) Other signs that often appear in people with insulin resistance include: Weight gain around the middle (belly fat) High blood pressure High cholesterol levels If insulin resistance develops into prediabetes or type 2 diabetes, the symptoms will include increased blood glucose levels and more of the classic symptoms of type 2 diabetes. Causes of insulin r Continue reading >>

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