The Vegan Diet How-to Guide For Diabetes
Introduction Diet changes are the cornerstone to treating type 2 diabetes. Current diet recommendations require restricting portion sizes, measuring and weighing foods, and limiting the total amount of carbohydrate. However, evidence suggests that a different dietary approach may be more effective and easier to follow. The evidence favoring a new approach came first from comparisons of various populations around the world. People whose diets were based mainly on plant-derived foods—that is, rice, noodles, beans, and vegetables—were less likely to develop diabetes, compared with people whose diets are fattier or centered on meatier dishes. For example, among people following traditional Japanese diets, diabetes was rare. Studies show that when people moved from Japan to the U.S. and adopted a Western diet, they were much more likely to develop diabetes. These studies suggested that meaty, fatty diets cause the body to be more resistant to insulin’s actions. Clinical research studies have shown that adopting a low-fat, plant-derived diet does indeed improve insulin sensitivity, help with weight loss, and reduce blood sugar and cholesterol. Part of the value of a low-fat, plant-based diet is that it is very low in saturated fat—that is, the kind of fat that is found especially in meats, dairy products, and tropical oils (coconut, palm, or palm kernel oil). To cut fat effectively, you’ll want to do two things: The first step is to avoid animal-derived products. Needless to say, this eliminates all animal fats. It does something else, too: It eliminates animal protein. While we need protein, we do not need animal-derived protein. Animal proteins accelerate kidney damage in people who have already lost some kidney function. They also increase the loss of calcium fro Continue reading >>
Insulin Resistance: A Vicious Circle Of Excess Fat
Every day I see patients I talk about insulin resistance and how it leads to diabetes. I have based my conversations, on what I thought was the best data. Now that I read Insulin Resistance: A Vicious Circle Of Excess Fat, by Phil Wood DVM, MS, PhD I realize that I am going to have to change a few of my statements as there are some facts you won’t want to miss. Insulin Resistance: A Vicious Circle Of Excess Fat Phillip Wood DVM, MS, PhD Insulin resistance is a common feature in patients who are obese or who have metabolic syndrome or type 2 diabetes. Insulin-resistant patients require higher than normal amounts of insulin to maintain normal blood glucose concentrations. The development of insulin resistance is complex, and many of its mechanisms are poorly understood. However, a common denominator in insulin-resistant patients is excess fatty acids (1), and insulin sensitivity is increased by any activity that reduces fatty acids in the tissues of the body. Such activities include increasing exercise with or without weight loss, reducing visceral adiposity with weight loss, or taking drugs that reduce fatty acids (thiazolidinediones, commonly known as “glitazones,” fibrates or metformin). The bottom line is that clearing the body of excess fat increases insulin sensitivity and, thus, decreases symptoms associated with insulin resistance. Often, insulin resistance is thought of as a focal process restricting the uptake of glucose as accomplished by muscle and mediated by insulin. It is true that muscle is a major location for insulin-mediated glucose uptake; however, uptake of glucose by muscle is only one of many metabolic processes that are disrupted by insulin resistance. I want to focus on three of those processes to demonstrate the vicious circle of insulin re Continue reading >>
36 How To Become Insulin Resistant (the Paleo Way) 2
My channel viewers are well familiar with the famous old experiment that placed two men, Vilhjalmur Stefansson and Karsten Andersson, on a diet entirely composed of meat for a whole year. This is a low carber favorite because a superficial reading of the summary from this experiment stated that the meaty dieters got through their year just fine. I think very few low carbers have read this other paper about that crazy experiment. By the end of their year of meat and fat, Andersson had sugar in his urine. (NOTE: Glycosuria was measured following a test meal.) Sugar in the urine is an indicator of uncontrolled diabetes. This should cause sugar-obsessed low carbers to do some soul searching because these men consumed only meat. There wasn't a single speck of flour or sugar in their diets that could be scapegoated for this. Even worse for the low carbers, Andersson's urine returned to normal after he resumed eating carbs. This graph shows you what happened to Andersson's blood sugar. The top line represents his blood sugar (in response to an oral glucose challenge) while eating only meat. The bottom line shows his lower blood sugar (in response to the same challenge) after he resumed eating carbs. One of the journal accounts of this experiment, which you won't find online, also described the glucose intolerance induced by all that meat and fat. They had a “high sustained level of blood sugar” after a glucose tolerance test, this says. This makes sense in the context of other research on protein, fat, and carbohydrate metabolism. This very interesting study from 2011 by Martin Weickert and colleagues compared diets that were formulated to match each other except with regard to protein content. One test diet was high-carb, the other high-protein. Weickert found that the hi Continue reading >>
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No two individuals are alike, and at Arivale, we analyze important data sets from your DNA, biomarkers, and lifestyle to identify a dietary plan that will best serve you and your goals. One of the dietary strategies an Arivale Coach might recommend is a low-fat, or perhaps specifically a low-saturated-fat, diet. Our members are sometimes surprised about this, saying, “Why would you recommend a low-fat diet? That doesn’t sound very cutting edge.” Low-fat diets—typically considered to be less than 30 percent of calories from fat—have diminished in popularity over the last 20 years, but there may be good scientific reason to question this trend. What the research says. Many decades of research studies—ranging from population studies to clinical trials—have shown that reducing dietary fat, particularly saturated fat, can help reduce risk for cardiovascular disease, Type 2 diabetes and insulin resistance, inflammation, obesity, and a number of other conditions. For example, studies show individuals who adopt a low-fat diet for only a few weeks significantly improve insulin resistance, a risk factor for Type 2 diabetes.1,2 Another study of a population with one of the highest diabetes risks in the world—Pima Indians—found those living in Arizona eating a high-fat, low-fiber diet had much higher diabetes rates than genetically identical Pima populations living in the Mexican desert eating a high-carbohydrate, high-fiber diet.3 In terms of cardiovascular disease, while there are many studies of benefits of reducing total and/or saturated fat, Dr. Dean Ornish’s study demonstrating a low-fat diet actually reverses coronary artery atherosclerosis is perhaps the most profound—as few non-drug interventions have been shown to have this strong an effect.4 More re Continue reading >>
What Causes Insulin Resistance?
Studies dating back nearly a century noted a striking finding: If you take young, healthy people and split them up into two groups—half on a fat-rich diet and half on a carbohydrate-rich diet—we find that within just two days, glucose intolerance skyrockets in the fat group. The group that had been shoveling fat in ended up with twice the blood sugar. As the amount of fat in the diet goes up, so does one’s blood sugar. Why would eating fat lead to higher blood sugar levels? It would take scientists nearly seven decades to unravel this mystery, but it would end up holding the key to our current understanding of the cause of type 2 diabetes. The reason athletes carb-load before a race is to build up the fuel supply within their muscles. We break down the starch into glucose in our digestive tract, it circulates as blood glucose (blood sugar) and is taken up by our muscles to be stored and burnt for energy. Blood sugar, though, is like a vampire. It needs an invitation to come into our cells. That invitation is insulin. Insulin is the key that unlocks the door that lets glucose in the blood enter muscle cells. When insulin attaches to the insulin receptor on the cell, it activates an enzyme, which activates another enzyme, which activates two more enzymes, which finally activates glucose transport (as diagrammed in the below video). What if there was no insulin? Blood sugar would be stuck in the bloodstream banging on the door to our muscles, unable to get inside. With nowhere to go, sugar levels would rise and rise. That’s what happens in type 1 diabetes: the cells in the pancreas that make insulin get destroyed, and without insulin, sugar in the blood can’t get out of the blood into the muscles, and so blood sugar rises. But there’s a second way we could end Continue reading >>
I Don't Think The Type Of Fat Matters, And There Is Not Evidence That Even Saturated Fat Causes Insulin Resistance -- Nutritionfacts Is A Vegan Propaganda Site.
@ all three of you, I agree that Dr. Greger is a little too on the "plant based" side of things. Dr. Greger recently said that he has been "plant based" since 1990. But I found a video from 2008 where he is overweight. If he has been plant based for at that point, 18 years, why was he overweight? He's now lean but it is still weird. Now, believe me, I am not happy about the possibility that saturated fat can cause diabetes. We all know PUFA is bad but saturated fat? Please, no. I would love to keep eating plenty of ice cream, cream cheese and sour cream on my potatoes, fatty cuts of beef, butter on everything, bacon (though high pufa), I would love to keep eating those foods. But if those foods are going to make me a diabetic then I have no choice but to limit them. I'm not willing to just keeping eating them, and then one day having to take diabetes drugs and/or injections. You see, I'm not dogmatic. I'm not going to just accept that saturated fat is completely okay to eat large amounts of with no consequences. My experience has shown me otherwise as well. It was cheese, whole milk, and added cream to coffee and other things that caused me to gain fat. Bobby Fatkins, IIRC, your fasting glucose was on the high side. And you other two, if you're not willing to post your fasting glucose then simply just saying "this is veg propaganda" doesn't address the actual claims, and you provide nothing, while claiming to eat high amounts of sat. fat. I'm trying to move away from being like that, because thats all I used to be when I had my blinders on. Be objective. Continue reading >>
Do Saturated Fats And Trans Fats Cause Type-2 Diabetes?
Question: I am having a very difficult time defending the benefits of a diet rich in saturated fat. I attend Bastyr University, a naturopathic medical school, and through all my nutriton classes, saturated fat has been deemed unhealthy and detrimental to one’s health. For instance, my Diet and Nutrient Therapy class professor cites a 2002 article in the British Journal of Nutrition, “Acute effects of a meal fatty acid composition on insulin sensitivity in healthy post-menopausal women”1 as showing that saturated fat reduces insulin sensitivity, thereby contributing to type-2 diabetes. He also cited a 2002 study in Diabetologia, “Substituting dietary saturated fat with polyunsaturated fat changes abdominal fat distribution and improves insulin sensitivy.”2 I would be very interested in your comments on these studies and your views on saturated fat and diabetes. Answer: Insulin insensitivity has been postulated to be the underlying factor for type-2 diabetes; that is, a condition in which the receptors for insulin on the cell membranes do not work very well. In type-2 diabetes, the pancreas secretes insulin, but since the receptors don’t work, the bloodstream contains chronic high levels of insulin and glucose, while little gets into the cell where it is needed. In the first study cited by your professor, four groups of subjects were fed a breakfast of rice krispies, banana, skimmed milk, “Nesquik” (presumably a chocolate drink) and something called “Marvel,” along with 40 grams of fat. The first group got mostly saturated fat from palm oil, the second group got mostly monounsaturated fat from olive oil, the third group got mostly omega-6 fatty acids from safflower oil and the fourth group got mostly omega-3 fatty acids from a combination of safflower Continue reading >>
Insulin Resistance By Rita Carey Rubin, MS, RD, CDE Today’s Dietitian Vol. 15 No. 7 P. 42 Suggested CDR Learning Codes: 5190, 5400, 5410, 5420; Level 2 Take this course and earn 2 CEUs on our Continuing Education Learning Library Research suggests a nutrient-rich diet plus exercise may prevent and even reverse it. Insulin resistance is a state of reduced cellular responsiveness to normal circulating concentrations of insulin in the blood. Much is unknown about the condition’s etiology, but research has shown insulin resistance appears to play a role in the pathophysiology of prediabetes, type 2 diabetes, and cardiovascular disease (CVD). While much remains to be discovered about the exact causes of the condition, research has investigated and pinpointed several likely risk factors, including a sedentary lifestyle, central obesity, genetics and, most likely, diet. To support dietitians in helping clients and patients address and possibly even reverse insulin resistance, this continuing education article reviews the current theory and research regarding the condition’s etiology and major risk factors as well as the role it may play in the development of type 2 diabetes and CVD. History Research leading to the discovery of what’s known today as insulin resistance dates back to the late 1950s, when research scientists Solomon Berson and Rosalyn Yalow developed the radioimmunoassay, a technique used to measure circulating levels of hormones and other substances in the blood. In later research using this technique, Berson and Yalow found that people with type 2 diabetes exhibited higher-than-average levels of circulating insulin than did individuals with normal glucose tolerance.1 This finding led to the first speculation that patients with type 2 diabetes may not ade Continue reading >>
Dietary Fatty Acids And Insulin Resistance
Abstract High-fat diets have been associated with insulin resistance, a risk factor for both Type II diabetes and heart disease. The effect of dietary fat on insulin varies depending on the type of fatty acid consumed. Saturated fatty acids have been consistently associated with insulin resistance. On the other hand, medium and long-chain fatty acid intakes are associated with insulin sensitivity, as are high intakes of ϕ3 fatty acids. Trans fatty acids appear to potentiate insulin secretion, at least in the short-term, to a greater degree than cis fatty acids. This may reflect chronic alterations in insulin sensitivity, although this remains to be tested. In summary, although it must be emphasized that all diets high in fat cause insulin resistance relative to high-carbohydrate diets, it appears that dietary saturated, short-chain and ϕ6 fatty acids have the most deleterious effects on insulin action. Continue reading >>
Is Fat Killing You, Or Is Sugar?
In the early nineteen-sixties, when cholesterol was declared an enemy of health, my parents quickly enlisted in the war on fat. Onion rolls slathered with butter, herring in thick cream sauce, brisket of beef with a side of stuffed derma, and other staples of our family cuisine disappeared from our table. Margarine dethroned butter, vinegar replaced cream sauce, poached fish substituted for brisket. I recall experiencing something like withdrawal, daydreaming about past feasts as my stomach grumbled. My father’s blood-cholesterol level—not to mention that of his siblings and friends—became a regular topic of conversation at the dinner table. Yet, despite the restrictive diet, his number scarcely budged, and a few years later, in his mid-fifties, he had a heart attack and died. The dangers of fat haunted me after his death. When, in my forties, my cholesterol level rose to 242—200 is considered the upper limit of what’s healthy—I embarked on a regimen that restricted fatty foods (and also cut down on carbohydrates). Six months later, having shed ten pounds, I rechecked my level. It was unchanged; genes have a way of signalling their power. But as soon as my doctor put me on just a tiny dose of a statin medication my cholesterol plummeted more than eighty points. In recent decades, fat has been making a comeback. Researchers have questioned whether dietary fat is necessarily dangerous, and have shown that not all fats are created equal. People now look for ways of boosting the “good cholesterol” in their blood and extol the benefits of Mediterranean diets, with their emphasis on olive oil and fatty nuts. In some quarters, blame for obesity and heart disease has shifted from fat to carbohydrates. The Atkins diet and, more recently, the paleo diet have popul Continue reading >>
Does Butter Raise Insulin And Make You Fat? The Low-carb Experts Respond To This Claim
One of the attractions of a healthy low-carb diet for many people is the ability to consume butter again. For years we’ve been told by groups like the American Heart Association that saturated fats like butter will raise your cholesterol (which is true–HDL “good” cholesterol goes WAY UP when you consume butter!) and that we should be choosing “better” alternatives like margarine and olive oil instead. We’ve all heard the heart health argument, but recently a cardiologist blogger in the low-carb community brought up a rather intriguing theory that perhaps the reason some low-carbers begin to struggle on their low-carb lifestyle is because of what he describes as “butter’s unusual ability to provoke insulin responses.” Respected blogger and physician Dr. William Davis from “The Heart Scan Blog” has been putting out quality information and nutrition and health over the past four years and we owe him a great debt of gratitude for the amazing work he has been doing to promote the message of less carbohydrate in the diet as a means for keeping our hearts healthy. He’s championed the CT scan for measuring plaque buildup in your coronary arteries as well as making sure you are getting adequate Vitamin D3 levels in your body and proper thyroid function. He literally is a one-man machine of information that is worth paying attention to. That’s what made his March 19, 2010 column entitled “Butter and Insulin” so perplexing to me when I read it. Dr. Davis cites this September 2008 study published in the American Journal of Clinical Nutrition as his evidence for believing there is up to a triple insulin response in those people who consume butter in their diet. And, of course, we all know that the higher the insulin levels in the body, the faster you Continue reading >>
Dietary Fats, Carbohydrates And Diabetes
Nutrition-wise blog Eating fewer carbohydrates may not be the answer to diabetes prevention and management. A balance of healthy fats and fewer refined grains and added sugars may reduce risk. It's becoming clearer that among the macronutrients — carbohydrates, protein and fat — some impart more health benefit than others. For example, whole grains are superior to refined grains. There is still much to figure out in the amounts or balance of nutrient that is optimal in disease prevention and treatment. While there is increasingly strong evidence that replacing saturated fat with unsaturated fats provides cardiovascular benefits, there is controversy around amounts and types of carbohydrates and fats for blood glucose management in the prevention or management of diabetes. Researchers at Tufts University analyzed results of 102 trials, which included 4,660 adults, to evaluate how saturated fat, mono- and polyunsaturated fats and carbohydrates affected key risk factors for type 2 diabetes. Specifically, the researchers assessed how these macronutrients affected blood sugar and insulin levels, as well as insulin sensitivity and production. A common practice in diabetes management is to significantly reduce all carbohydrates. This often leads to consumption of more animal protein and fat, especially saturated fat. This study suggests it is not reduction in carbohydrates alone that improves outcomes. Rather it is the inclusion of healthy fats, such as those from fish, nuts, seeds and oils, eaten in place of refined grains, added sugars and animal fats that may offer the greatest reduction in risk. Per the study analysis, a 5 percent increase in calories from healthy fats (and similar reduction in calories from refined carbohydrate and saturated fat) resulted in improved Continue reading >>
A Practical Guide To Carb Tolerance And Insulin Sensitivity
One of the biggest reasons why people go Paleo is the metabolic benefits. Most people find Paleo to be very therapeutic for a whole cluster of carb-related problems: high blood sugar (or the rollercoaster of highs and lows), insulin resistance, and all the related issues. These issues can make weight loss difficult or impossible, but on the flip side, addressing them through diet can make it easier and more pleasant than you ever thought could happen! On the other hand, though, there are a lot of myths and half-truths floating around about diet, exercise, and carb metabolism. So here’s a quick review of what it all means, and the evidence supporting various different complementary strategies for improving your carb tolerance (preview: it’s so much more than dietary carbs). Note: This article is not written for diabetics. Diabetes is a very complicated disease and strategies that are right for other people might not be appropriate. If you have diabetes, see a doctor! What Is “Carb Tolerance”/Insulin Sensitivity? (If you already know how insulin and glucose work, this section has nothing new for you; just skip down to the next one) Very simply put, insulin sensitivity (or “carb tolerance” in everyday language) is a healthy hormonal state that allows your body to digest and store carbohydrates without a problem. In healthy people, here’s how it works: You eat something with carbs (let’s say a potato, but it could be anything). Your digestive system breaks down the starch in that potato into glucose. Glucose is a simple sugar – this is the form of carbohydrate that you’ll either use for energy or store as fat. Your blood sugar temporarily rises as the glucose enters the bloodstream. This is not a big problem, because… Insulin (produced in the pancreas) Continue reading >>
What Causes Insulin Resistance? Lipid Overload
Over the past year I have interacted with hundreds of people with diabetes, and have come to learn one very important lesson that has changed my view of diabetes altogether. This realization came to me early on in my career as a nutrition and fitness coach for people with diabetes, and continues to hold true. While insulin resistance is a condition that is most commonly associated with type 2 diabetes, an increasing body of evidence is now shedding light on the fact that insulin resistance is a common thread that underlies many health conditions previously unassociated with blood sugar, including (but not limited to) heart disease, diabetes, atherosclerosis, the metabolic syndrome, obesity and cancer. What that means is simple: insulin resistance significantly increases your risk for the development of a collection of health conditions that can significantly reduce your quality of life and decrease your life expectancy. Watch this video for a synopsis of the causes of insulin resistance: What is insulin and why should you care? Insulin is a hormone which is released by the pancreas in response to rising blood glucose. When you consume carbohydrates, the glucose that enters the bloodstream knocks on the door of the beta cells in the pancreas as a signal to make insulin. Insulin serves as the key that unlocks the door to allow glucose to enter body tissues. Insulin tells your cells “Yoo hoo! Pick up this glucose. It’s all over the place.” Without insulin, cells in the liver, muscle, and fat have a difficult time vacuuming up glucose from the blood. These tissues are capable to vacuuming up only a small percentage (5-10%) of the glucose in circulation without the help of insulin. When insulin is present, the amount of glucose that can be transported into tissues sign Continue reading >>
Saturated Fat And Insulin Sensitivity
Insulin sensitivity is a measure of the tissue response to insulin. Typically, it refers to insulin's ability to cause tissues to absorb glucose from the blood. A loss of insulin sensitivity, also called insulin resistance, is a core part of the metabolic disorder that affects many people in industrial nations. It is commonly asserted in journal articles and on the internet that saturated fat reduces insulin sensitivity. The idea is that saturated fat reduces the body's ability to handle glucose effectively, placing people on the road to diabetes, obesity and heart disease. Perhaps this particular claim deserves a closer look. The Evidence I found a review article from 2008 that addressed this question (1). I like this review because it only includes high-quality trials that used reliable methods of determining insulin sensitivity*. On to the meat of it. There were 5 studies in which non-diabetic people were fed diets rich in saturated fat, and compared with a group eating a diet rich in monounsaturated (like olive oil) or polyunsaturated (like corn oil) fat. They ranged in duration from one week to 3 months. Four of the five studies found that fat quality did not affect insulin sensitivity, including one of the 3-month studies. The fifth study, which is the one that's most commonly cited, requires some discussion. This was the KANWU study (2). Over the course of three months, investigators fed 163 volunteers a diet rich in either saturated fat or monounsaturated fat. The SAFA diet included butter and a table margarine containing a relatively high proportion of SAFAs. The MUFA diet included a spread and a margarine containing high proportions of oleic acid derived from high-oleic sunflower oil and negligible amounts of trans fatty acids and n-3 fatty acids and olive oil Continue reading >>