diabetestalk.net

Does A Ketogenic Diet Cause Insulin Resistance

The Ketogenic Diet And Insulin Resistance

The Ketogenic Diet And Insulin Resistance

We recently touched on how you can use the ketogenic diet to control symptoms of diabetes such as elevated glucose and triglycerides. In this article, we examine research showing the impact that the ketogenic diet has on levels of the hormone insulin, a key regulator of blood sugar in the body. What is Insulin’s Role in the Body? Before we look at the research, we need to know our main players. Insulin is a protein-based hormone produced by beta-cells located in the pancreas. The pancreas, which is located under the stomach, also produces enzymes that aid with digestion. Insulin’s primary purpose is to regulate the metabolism of fats and carbohydrates. The digestive system breaks down carbohydrates, such as sugars and starches, into a molecule called glucose. This compound can be used by cells to produce energy through a process called cellular respiration. Insulin allows cells in the body absorb glucose, ultimately lowering levels of glucose in the blood stream. After a meal is consumed, blood glucose levels increase and the pancreas responds by releasing insulin into the blood. Insulin assists fat, liver, and muscle cells absorb glucose from the blood, resulting in lower levels of blood glucose. Insulin stimulates liver and muscle tissues to store excess glucose as a molecule called glycogen and also reduces glucose production by the liver. When blood sugar is low, the hormone glucagon (produced by alpha-cells in the pancreas) stimulate cells to break down glycogen into glucose that is subsequently released into the blood stream. In healthy people who do not have type II diabetes, these functions allow levels of blood glucose and insulin to stay in a normal range. What Is Insulin Resistance and Why Is It a Problem? Unfortunately, for many Americans and other peopl Continue reading >>

Does Long Term Ketosis Cause Insulin Resistance?

Does Long Term Ketosis Cause Insulin Resistance?

“It’s a snake.” “It’s a wall.” “It’s a rope.” “It’s a fan.” “It’s a tree.” “It’s insulin resistance.” I’ve always been fascinated by those describing a “new finding” in medicine. I am reminded of the story of 5 men who, never having seen an elephant before, were blindfolded and asked to describe what he discovered. However, each man was introduced to a different part of the elephant. Each of them had a dramatically different description of the elephant and each made a conclusion that was very different from the others. What is fascinating, is that we usually make our “blindfolded comparisons” to those things we have seen or about which we have some descriptive understanding. Observing and describing human physiology is much like examining an elephant while blindfolded for the first time. This week’s “blind-folded finding” is what has been interpreted by some as “insulin resistance” made worse by a ketogenic diet. Really? This perked my curiosity, because I’ve personally been following a low-carbohydrate/ketogenic diet for 10 years and have thousands of patients doing the same. To this day, I’ve never seen insulin resistance “get worse.” In fact, it gets better. Clinically, it seems to take about 18-24 months to improve, but, it usually gets better. THE QUESTION – I’ve had three people from around the world contact me this week and ask why, after being on a ketogenic diet and “in ketosis,” they suddenly get a notably large blood glucose spike when they cheat. By notably large, I mean that their blood sugars rise to over 200 mg/dl within 2 hours of a carbohydrate containing meal. Now, they admit to rapid glucose recovery within an hour or two, and their hemoglobin A1c levels are subjectively normal (l Continue reading >>

What Is The Ketogenic Diet And How Does It Compare To The Zone Diet?

What Is The Ketogenic Diet And How Does It Compare To The Zone Diet?

Over the past few months we’ve received a number of inquiries regarding Dr. Sears’ stance on the Ketogenic Diet and how it relates to the Zone in terms of health and weight loss. Is this just the next diet craze or is it as good for weight loss and health as it’s touted to be? What Is the Ketogenic Diet? The ketogenic diet is a high-fat, low carbohydrate diet consisting of approximately 75% fat, 20% protein and 5% carbohydrate. Compare this to the Zone which is moderate in these macronutrients and supplies 30% fat, 30% protein and 40% carbohydrate as total dietary calories. The Ketogenic Diet is based on getting the body into a state of ketosis (hence “keto”). Ketosis is a back-up metabolic system used to provide the brain with an energy source, called ketones, if glucose isn’t available or if blood levels fall too low. What’s the Buzz About? The popularity in the Ketogenic Diet stems from the quick weight loss it produces and its perceived health benefits. The diet is thought to increase the body’s ability to burn stored body fat and lower insulin levels. It’s important to note that the weight loss that stems from this diet isn’t necessarily fat loss, despite fat being the preferred/primary fuel on this eating plan. Weight Loss from the Ketogenic Is Not From Stored Body Fat In general, when we lose weight, it results from one of three factors: the loss of retained water, loss of muscle mass or loss of stored body fat. The ideal scenario would be to lose stored body fat. Ketogenic diets can promote an initial loss of retained water that comes with the depletion of glycogen (storage form of glucose). This is because stored glycogen retains significant levels of water. As the glycogen levels are reduced (due to limited carbohydrates in the diet), the r Continue reading >>

Is Your Low Carb Diet Backfiring?

Is Your Low Carb Diet Backfiring?

<< PREVIOUS ARTICLE NEXT ARTICLE >> When people want to lose weight – they often cut down on carbs. It can work like a charm – with the pounds melting off (at least initially). But is this a good approach for everyone for the long term? Are there some downsides? This article helps you to know if low carb might be right for you, and also when your low carb diet might be backfiring… Want to know what one of the most controversial and misunderstood areas of nutrition is? Carbohydrates. On the one hand, you have the Low Carb enthusiasts, who tout the myriad of benefits of less carbs and more fat – who tout the low carb diet as the secret to resetting the metabolism and getting out of insulin resistance. And there is a lot of evidence that they are right – the majority of the population is getting way too many carbs in their diets – especially simple carbs. A recent study supports the low carb approach – it found that doubling the intake of saturated fats did not affect the levels of fats in the blood. And conversely, the study found that an increased intake of carbohydrates increased the levels of fats in the blood. According to Dr. Dariush Mozaffarian, dean of the Friedman School of Nutrition Science & Policy at Tufts University in this article, dietary refined carbohydrate is the primary driver of circulating saturated fatty acids in the bloodstream. “White bread, rice, cereals, potatoes, and sugars — not saturated fat — are the real culprits in our food supply,” said Mozaffarian. So if you are one of the millions of Americans that is struggling with stubborn weight gain – you might find that cutting down on carbs like bread, crackers, and cereals, and dialing up on the fats – can improve insulin sensitivity, reduce hunger, and improve many metab Continue reading >>

A Low-carbohydrate High-fat Diet Increases Weight Gain And Does Not Improve Glucose Tolerance, Insulin Secretion Or Β-cell Mass In Nzo Mice

A Low-carbohydrate High-fat Diet Increases Weight Gain And Does Not Improve Glucose Tolerance, Insulin Secretion Or Β-cell Mass In Nzo Mice

Dietary guidelines for the past 20 years have recommended that dietary fat should be minimized. In contrast, recent studies have suggested that there could be some potential benefits for reducing carbohydrate intake in favor of increased fat. It has also been suggested that low-carbohydrate diets be recommended for people with type 2 diabetes. However, whether such diets can improve glycemic control will likely depend on their ability to improve β-cell function, which has not been studied. The objective of the study was to assess whether a low-carbohydrate and therefore high-fat diet (LCHFD) is beneficial for improving the endogenous insulin secretory response to glucose in prediabetic New Zealand Obese (NZO) mice. NZO mice were maintained on either standard rodent chow or an LCHFD from 6 to 15 weeks of age. Body weight, food intake and blood glucose were assessed weekly. Blood glucose and insulin levels were also assessed after fasting and re-feeding and during an oral glucose tolerance test. The capacity of pancreatic β-cells to secrete insulin was assessed in vivo with an intravenous glucose tolerance test. β-Cell mass was assessed in histological sections of pancreata collected at the end of the study. In NZO mice, an LCHFD reduced plasma triglycerides (P=0.001) but increased weight gain (P<0.0001), adipose tissue mass (P=0.0015), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (P=0.044) and exacerbated glucose intolerance (P=0.013). Although fasting insulin levels tended to be higher (P=0.08), insulin secretory function in LCHFD-fed mice was not improved (P=0.93) nor was β-cell mass (P=0.75). An LCHFD is unlikely to be of benefit for preventing the decline in β-cell function associated with the progression of hyperglycemia in type 2 diabetes. Low-carbohydrate high-fat di Continue reading >>

Dear Mark: Does Eating A Low Carb Diet Cause Insulin Resistance?

Dear Mark: Does Eating A Low Carb Diet Cause Insulin Resistance?

157 Comments Despite all the success you might have had with the Primal way of life, doubts can still nag at you. Maybe it’s something you read, or something someone said to you, or a disapproving glance or offhand comment from a person you otherwise respect, but it’s pretty common when you’re doing something, like giving up grains, avoiding processed food, or eating animal fat, that challenges deeply-and-widely held beliefs about health and wellness. It doesn’t really even matter that you’re losing weight or seem to be thriving; you may still have questions. That’s healthy and smart, and it’s totally natural. A question I’ve been getting of late is the effect of reducing carb intake on insulin sensitivity. It’s often bandied about that going low carb is good for folks with insulin resistance, but it’s also said that low carb can worsen insulin resistance. Are both true and, if so, how do they all jibe together? That’s what the reader was wondering with this week’s question: Hi Mark, I’ve been Primal for a few months now and love it. Lowering my carbs and upping my animal fat helped me lose weight and gain tons of energy (not too shabby for a middle-aged guy!). However, I’m a little worried. I’ve heard that low carb diets can increase insulin resistance. Even though I’ve done well and feel great, should I be worried about insulin resistance? Do I need to increase my carb intake? I always thought low carb Primal was supposed to improve insulin function. Vince Going Primal usually does improve insulin sensitivity, both directly and in a roundabout way. It improves directly because you lose weight, you reduce your intake of inflammatory foods, you lower systemic inflammation (by getting some sun, smart exercise, omega-3s, and reducing or dea Continue reading >>

Can A Ketogenic Diet Cause Hypogycemia And Insulin Resistance?

Can A Ketogenic Diet Cause Hypogycemia And Insulin Resistance?

What are the consequences attached to being on a ketogenic diet long term? Is the Atkins Diet, Keto Diet, Nutritional Ketosis (LCHF) and other diets that restrict carbohydrates safe, or are there unforeseen consequences that might pop up from keeping your carbohydrate level very low? Can a long-term ketogenic diet actually cause insulin resistance and hypoglycemia? I was reading over at Lowcarber forum a couple of days ago, and ran into something interesting in the Atkins' section. Someone over there was asking if a long-term ketogenic diet had the capacity to cause insulin resistance and hypoglycemia. Her concern was due to an interview that Jimmy Moore had with Dr. Keith Berkowitz of the Center for Balanced Health. Now, I'm not completely sure where this interview transcript came from because I only have dial-up and can't listen to Jimmy's podcasts. I'm just assuming that's what this is, a transcript from a podcast. The transcript is definitely an interview Jimmy had with Dr. Berkowitz a little while ago. If you want to read that interview, so you'll understand what I'm talking about in this post, it can be found here; just scroll down to post #8. It's not very long. My Gut Reaction to the Comments Like many low-carb forums, the response to the interview posted over there was frustrating. Dieters who would rather believe in and defend low-carb magic over science or biology tend to ignore what's really going on. In this case, most of the comments were useless. A lot of things that Dr. Atkins wrote in 1972 have not held up to the science, but that doesn't mean that a low-carb diet is not a useful tool to combat obesity and assist you in getting down to a healthier weight. [I reread the interview this morning, November 2016, in order to update this post and found it inte Continue reading >>

Keto Diet Mastery: Your Comprehensive Guide To The Ketogenic Diet

Keto Diet Mastery: Your Comprehensive Guide To The Ketogenic Diet

What if you could train your body to burn fat more efficiently and speed up your metabolism without restricting calories? If you’re struggling to lose those last 5 pounds or wondering why the muffin top just won’t budge (despite eating clean and exercising), you may find the answers you’re looking for in this keto diet master guide. What Is the Keto Diet? The ketogenic (aka: “keto”) diet is a high-fat, low-carb diet that puts your body in a natural fat-burning metabolic state called ketosis (1). This is done by heavily restricting carbs and focusing on high fat, moderate protein meals (in some cases protein may be also be heavily restricted). According to PubMed, the classical ketogenic diet contains a 4:1 ratio of fat to proteins and carbs. In other words, the principle of the keto diet is to “eat fat to burn fat”. Now, the keto diet is often grouped with other high-fat, low-carb diets such as the Paleo or Atkins diets. But the reason these diets boast fat burning benefits in the first place is because they promote ketosis. Therefore, the ketogenic diet isn’t so much a “diet”, but more so the basis of these diets, and the biochemical reaction that occurs when you train your body to burn fat for fuel instead of carbs. While the ketogenic diet has become popular for weight loss, studies have also shown numerous other health benefits of following a keto diet. For example, studies have shown it may help reverse type 2 diabetes and reduce symptoms of Alzheimer’s disease, depression, and autism (2)(3). In fact, the keto diet was first used in the 1920s not as a weight loss diet, but a natural treatment to prevent seizures in epilepsy patients (4). With that said, let’s look closer at how the ketogenic diet can work for dramatic weight loss, and other Continue reading >>

Physiological Insulin Resistance

Physiological Insulin Resistance

Back in mid summer 2007 there was this thread on the Bernstein forum. Mark, posting as iwilsmar, asked about his gradual yet progressively rising fasting blood glucose (FBG) level over a 10 year period of paleolithic LC eating. Always eating less than 30g carbohydrate per day. Initially on LC his blood glucose was 83mg/dl but it has crept up, year by year, until now his FBG is up to 115mg/dl. Post prandial values are normal. He wanted to know if he was developing diabetes. I've been thinking about this for some time as my own FBG is usually five point something mmol/l whole blood. Converting my whole blood values to Mark's USA plasma values, this works out at about 100-120mg/dl. Normal to prediabetic in modern parlance. However my HbA1c is only 4.4%, well toward the lower end of normality and healthy. That's always assuming that I don't have some horrible problem resulting in very rapid red blood cell turnover. I don't think so... I spend rather a lot of my life in mild ketosis, despite the 50g of carbs I eat per day. So I can run a moderate ketonuric urine sample with a random post-chocolate blood glucose value of 6.5mmol/l. What is happening? Well, the first thing is that LC eating rapidly induces insulin resistance. This is a completely and utterly normal physiological response to carbohydrate restriction. Carbohydrate restriction drops insulin levels. Low insulin levels activate hormone sensitive lipase. Fatty tissue breaks down and releases non esterified fatty acids. These are mostly taken up by muscle cells as fuel and automatically induce insulin resistance in those muscles. There are a couple of nice summaries by Brand Miller (from back in the days when she used her brain for thinking) here and here and Wolever has some grasp of the problem too. This is patentl Continue reading >>

When Low Carb Isn't Working

When Low Carb Isn't Working

The diet books make it sound easy. Cut the carbs, lose the weight, normalize your blood sugar, feel great. For many people, it works that way. But for many more it doesn't. When I reviewed the research that went into my book, Diet 101: The Truth About Low Carb Diets I was surprised to learn just how poorly low carb dieters fared in the research studies that I had always seen cited in the low carb community as proving the diet superior to others. Partly this is because few diets of any kind work well for more than a few months, and looked at in that time frame, the low carb diet often surpasses others in it's effectiveness. But once most people get past the first six months of of their low carb diets, peer reviewed research and the posts of hundreds of people who visit online low carb discussion boards make it very clear that many if not most people see their weight loss stall out completely. This doesn't have to be the case. There are a few, very interesting studies, that show that weight loss can continue on low carb diets, though at a much slower pace than dieters grew accustomed to during the first heady months of their diets. Here are some common problems low carb dieters encounter, along with some suggestions as to how to deal with them. You'll find more in Diet 101. Not losing weight is the most common form of "not working" that low carb dieters encounter. There are plenty of lists of "What to Do When you Stall" posted elsewhere on the web, in diet books, and even on this site, so I won't repeat them. Check them out. If you haven't worked your way through the usual solutions, which include cutting back on calories, cutting out bogus "low carb" foods full of hidden carbohydrate, and eliminating certain other foods that tend to stall people, you can't really say tha Continue reading >>

Lchf For Type 1 Diabetes

Lchf For Type 1 Diabetes

I spend a great deal of time in my clinic dealing with the problems of type 2 diabetes. But occasionally, people ask about type 1 diabetes (T1D) as well. The reason why it is so rare for me is that I treat adult patients where T2D outnumbers T1D by at least 9:1. I was looking at a fascinating study that my friend, Ivor Cummins (The Fat Emperor) had alerted me to a few months ago. Dr. Richard Bernstein is a fascinating character. He had developed T1D as a child of twelve and began to have complications by his 30s. He eventually went to medical school in order to learn better how to treat his own disease. Eventually he decided that the proper treatment was a low carb diet. This was in direct contradiction to the prevailing wisdom of the time (1990s), which included treating patients with insulin and a diet high in carbs. Dr. Bernstein opened up a controversial clinic to treat T1D with a low carb diet and also wrote several best selling books discussing the same topic. Over the years, it has proven to be a safe treatment for T1D. While there are few long-term studies, Dr. Bernstein himself is living proof of the low carb T1D paradigm. In many ways, T1D and T2D are exact opposites of each other. T1D typically affects children who are usually quite skinny. T2D typically affects adults who are usually quite obese. This is not absolute, and we are seeing much more T2D in children as their weights have increased. There are also cases of normal or even underweight patients with T2D. But in general, that is the case. T1D is the severe deficiency of insulin where as T2D is the severe excess of insulin. Nevertheless, people often treat both types of diabetes in the same manner. Both are treated with medications or insulin to keep blood glucose in acceptable levels. Wait, you might Continue reading >>

48 Reversing Insulin Resistance, The Problem With High Fat Diets, Intermittent Fasting For More Years & Less Fat

48 Reversing Insulin Resistance, The Problem With High Fat Diets, Intermittent Fasting For More Years & Less Fat

Could A Whole Food, Low Fat, Plant Based Diet Be Right For You? Can you reverse insulin resistance? Is your diet causing insulin resistance? Does the research behind high fat diets support their benefit for long term health? Where ELSE fat gets stored besides fat cells that you didn’t realize and what the damage this build up can cause. I am honored today to have Dr Cryus Khambatta PhD Nutritional Biochemistry a nutrition and fitness coach with a very effective approach for reversing insulin resistance. We dive into many controversial topics about todays latest diet approaches and how they could backfire in the long term, Intermittent fasting and exactly how to execute it for a beginner, the only fats your really need if your main goal is longevity, the actual range of protein you should eat if extending your years on this planet is a goal an much much more. I learned a lot and I know you will too. Enjoy Do You Have A BURNING Question You Want Me To Answer? Go here p.s. If you like the episode it would make my DECADE if you subscribe and leave a short review in Itunes! Thanks! – Luis Shownotes: Shocking Symptoms of Type 1 Diabetes, unbelievable thirst, no energy, extreme muscular cramps [04:43] What is insulin? A hormone worth its weight in gold [09:13] The most potent signal for insulin signaling [10:15] Going against ALL of todays main stream media, Cyrus’s approach.[14:45] The problem with high fat diets..and what you didn’t know [16:45] Insulin Resistance… the true underlying issue [17:20] Too much fat? Abnormal storage of fats in muscle tissue [18:30] How you can LOSE your insulin sensitivity with too much fat in your diet [19:00] High fat diets and your blood vessels…potential risks [22:30] The Ketogenic diet a recipe for disaster [24:40] Are ketogenic Continue reading >>

Why Low-carb Diets Aren’t The Answer

Why Low-carb Diets Aren’t The Answer

What raises blood sugar? The simple answer is carbohydrates. So why not just yank them out of your diet like weeds in your garden? Why not quash blood sugar by swearing off bread, pasta, rice, and cereal? Been there, done that. The low-carb craze is on the downswing, and that’s a good thing because over the long haul, very low carb diets simply aren’t good for you, as you’ll discover in this chapter. That doesn’t mean it’s not smart to cut back on carbs—but don’t go crazy. When low-carb diets first became popular, they seemed to be a breath of fresh air after the low-fat (and high-carb) diets that preceded them. Remember low-fat cookies, lowfat snack cakes, and low-fat everything else? With low-carb diets, suddenly people could load up on bacon and still lose weight as long as they were willing to eat hamburgers without buns and pretty much give up sandwiches and spaghetti. People were amazed at how effective these diets could be. Weight loss could happen very quickly, sometimes within days. And amazingly, it often seemed to come with added health benefits, including lower cholesterol, blood pressure, and triglycerides (blood fats linked to heart attacks.) The most extreme kind of low-carb diet was pioneered by the late Robert Atkins, M.D., whose first book, Dr. Atkins’ Diet Revolution, came out in 1972. It promised quick and long-lasting weight loss and prevention of chronic disease, all while allowing high-fat steak and ice cream. Since then, other, more moderate low-carb diets have allowed small amounts of carbohydrate-rich foods, but they still cut out most grains as well as starchy vegetables and even fruit. The Downsides of These Diets The Atkins diet and the many other low-carb diets that followed in its footsteps have turned out to be less effect Continue reading >>

Ketogenic Diet And Insulin Resistance

Ketogenic Diet And Insulin Resistance

What is Insulin? Insulin is a fat storing blood sugar regulating master hormone that is involved in multiple body functions beyond its metabolic role. A few examples include triglyceride and fat synthesis, electrolyte balance of sodium and potassium, feeding behaviors and cognitive and emotional brain function. What is Insulin Resistance? Insulin resistance (IR), might also known as syndrome X or metabolic syndrome, is a cluster of symptoms (weight gain, cravings and increased appetite, skin tags, gum disease, low energy) and health risk factors (abnormal, not necessarily high, blood sugar, high triglycerides and cholesterol, polycystic ovarian syndrome, high blood pressure) all resulting from abnormal insulin function. What is important to know is that just like diabetes, with IR there may be no symptoms at all. Insulin resistance is an early-stage in Type 2 diabetes but not everyone with IR will develop diabetes. Fifty percent of those with essential hypertension are insulin resistant. (1). How Many People Are Affected by Insulin Resistance? IR is more common than you think, in the United States, an estimated 60 to 70 million individuals are affected by insulin resistance, that’s 1 out of 4 people. More than 40% of individuals older than 50 years may be at risk for insulin resistance; however, it can affect anyone at any age (2) especially overweight children and adolescents regardless of race. You can connect with this link to see a table of the prevalence of insulin resistance by country. Causes of Insulin Resistance There are several causes of insulin resistance: Genetics and family history of diabetes, pre-diabetes Ethnic origin (African American, Alaska Native, American Indian, Asian American, Hispanic/Latino, or Pacific Islander American) Age Hormone malfuncti Continue reading >>

Ketogenic Diet: Insulin, Sugar And Inflammation

Ketogenic Diet: Insulin, Sugar And Inflammation

You can view the first part of this series here: The Ketogenic Diet Part 1: What is Keto? Have you ever wondered about the link between sugar and inflammation? Do you know what you can do to reduce inflammation in the body? Let’s explore the relationship between insulin, sugar and inflammation, and weight gain, beginning with what we put in our mouth. How does sugar cause inflammation? After you eat excess carbohydrates (sugar) and/or too much protein, your blood glucose stays at a higher level longer because the glucose can’t make it into the cells of the muscles. This toxic glucose is like tar in the bloodstream, clogging arteries, binding with proteins to form damaging AGEs (advanced glycation end-products), and causing inflammation in the body. What happens when you have high levels of inflammation in the body? High inflammation is triggered by glucose, which sets off a chain reaction in your body. High levels of glucose causes triglycerides to go up, increasing your risk for coronary artery disease. Then, sugars (and starches) get stored as fat. Because the cells of the musculature basically have a crust over top of them (called glycation), the cells aren’t taking glycogen in from the bloodstream, and are therefore considered “resistant.” Additionally, you can’t even metabolize stored fat since insulin stops the production of the fat-burning enzyme lipase! You can exercise all you want, but if you continue to eat oatmeal before your workouts, you will never be a fat-burner: you will remain a sugar-burner and you will continue to become insulin resistant. If the above information isn’t bad enough, I have more bad news: when you’re insulin resistant, the pancreas begins to mistakenly believe, “if a little insulin isn’t working, I’ll just produce Continue reading >>

More in diabetic diet