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Diabetic Diarrhea Diet

Gastroparesis: A Complication Of Diabetes

Gastroparesis: A Complication Of Diabetes

"Gastro" means stomach and "paresis" means impairment or paralysis. Diabetic gastropathy is a term for the spectrum of neuromuscular abnormalities of the stomach caused by diabetes. The abnormalities include gastric-dysrhythmias, antral hypomotility, incoordination of antroduodenal contractions and gastroparesis. Quick Stomach Anatomy Lesson The stomach is a neuromusclar organ that receives the food we ingest, mixes the food with acid and pepsin, and empties the nutriment suspension into the small intestine for absorption. The proximal stomach or fundus relaxes in order to receive the swallowed food (that's called receptive relaxation). The body and antrum mix and empty the food via recurrent gastric peristalic waves. The peristaltic contractions are paced by neoelectrical events called pacesetter potentials or slow waves. When gastric motility is normal, the postprandial (after eating) period is associated with pleasant epigastric sensations. Gastric motility disorders or gastroparesis presents with unpleasant, but non-specific postprandial symptoms: upper abdominal bloating, distention, discomfort, early satiety, nausea, and vomiting. If the vomitus contains undigested food, then gastroparesis is very likely to be present. Fluctuating, difficult-to-predict glucose levels may also reflect the presence of gastroparesis. Diabetes and the GI Tract The motility of your GI tract, which we were just speaking of, is controlled by an outer sleeve of muscles that surrounds your GI tract. They are controlled by a complex nervous system. Diabetes can damage these nerves, and it is this neurological long-term complication of diabetes that can lead to gastrointestinal disorders. How do we know this is the case? First, many of the people with gastroparesis have long-standing diabete Continue reading >>

Diabetic Neuropathy (nerve Damage) - An Update

Diabetic Neuropathy (nerve Damage) - An Update

Nerve damage or diabetic neuropathy resulting from chronically high blood glucose can be one of the most frustrating and debilitating complications of diabetes because of the pain, discomfort and disability it can cause, and because available treatments are not uniformly successful. Some patients find some relief from this nerve damage or neuropathy by keeping blood sugars as closely controlled as possible, getting regular exercise and keeping their weight under control. Using non-narcotic pain relievers consistently throughout the day—rather than waiting until nighttime when symptoms can become more severe—also seems to help if pain is the major symptom. Surprisingly, clinicians have also found that certain antidepressants may be helpful and can take the edge off the pain of neuropathy. Although pain or numbness in the legs or feet may be the most common complaint from people diagnosed with neuropathy, it is not the only symptom of this complication. Neuropathy can cause a host of different types of symptoms, depending on whether nerves in the legs, gastrointestinal tract, or elsewhere in the body are affected. If you have any of these symptoms, neuropathy may be the culprit: inability to adequately empty the bladder of its contents, resulting in frequent infections; nausea, vomiting, abdominal fullness or bloating, diarrhea, or constipation; low blood pressure upon standing that causes fainting or dizziness; inability to lift the foot or new deformities of the foot, or foot ulcers; trouble achieving or maintaining an erection. Although physicians have found some medications and other treatments that help ease these symptoms in some people, prevention continues to be the key. "Hemoglobin A1C readings should ideally be at 7.0% or lower. Those that are consistently n Continue reading >>

Diabetes And The Gastrointestinal Tract

Diabetes And The Gastrointestinal Tract

Gastrointestinal (GI) disorders are common among all people, including those affected by diabetes. At some point in any patient's life, the chances that he or she will develop a GI tract problem, be it peptic ulcer disease, gallstones, irritable bowel syndrome, food poisoning, or some other malady, are extremely high. As many as 75% of patients visiting diabetes clinics will report significant GI symptoms. The entire GI tract can be affected by diabetes from the oral cavity and esophagus to the large bowel and anorectal region. Thus, the symptom complex that may be experienced can vary widely. Common complaints may include dysphagia, early satiety, reflux, constipation, abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea. Many patients go undiagnosed and under-treated because the GI tract has not been traditionally associated with diabetes and its complications. Both acute and chronic hyperglycemia can lead to specific GI complications. Diabetes is a systemic disease that may affect many organ systems, and the GI tract is no exception. As with other complications of diabetes, the duration of the disorder and poor glycemic control seem to be associated with more severe GI problems. Patients with a history of retinopathy, nephropathy, or neuropathy should be presumed to have GI abnormalities until proven otherwise, and this is best determined by asking a few simple questions. (See "Patient Information".) Many GI complications of diabetes seem to be related to dysfunction of the neurons supplying the enteric nervous system. Just as the nerves in the feet may be affected in peripheral neuropathy, involvement of the intestinal nerves may lead to enteric neuropathy. This is a type of autonomic or "involuntary" neuropathy and may lead to abnormalities in intestinal motility, sensat Continue reading >>

Diarrhea In Diabetes, Introduction And More:

Diarrhea In Diabetes, Introduction And More:

Information on: Diabetic Gastroparesis and more Read more about diabetic: esophagus / stomach / bowels The Diabetic Bowels: Issues and Challenges, Constipation/Diarrhea. Diarrhea: Introduction, Small bowel Bacterial Overgrowth / Treatments for diarrhea / General Bowel Tips Diarrhea in diabetes, Introduction and more: The passage of loose and frequent stools with a sense of urgency is not uncommon with diabetics. Little research has been done in this area. Chronic diarrhea does occur in the general population and needs investigation when it interferes with daily routines. Investigations into causes of diarrhea are similar to those covered above under constipation. Causes of diarrhea in diabetics are thought to be related to: Celiac disease (wheat or gluten intolerance) Small bowel bacterial overgrowth Ano-rectal disorders Inadequate breakdown of sugars (fructose, lactose and sorbitol) in the small intestine Constipation can be a cause of diarrhea: more liquid stool may escape around a hard stool impaction. Pancreatic insufficiency Problems of altered motility related to a malfunctioning gut nervous system as well as to excessive gut secretions brought on by diabetes are also thought to play a role in diabetic diarrhea. Celiac disease is a genetic inability to digest specific proteins found in grains. Poor digestion of the protein, or gluten, often causes problems of chronic diarrhea, weight loss and fatigue. Celiac disease is found in association with Type 1 diabetes. A simple blood test screens for celiac disease in Type 1 diabetics who have a history of diarrhea. A small bowel tissue biopsy taken during an endoscopic procedure of the upper gut is often used to confirm the diagnosis of celiac disease. A word about sorbitol and naturally occurring sugars Many people may Continue reading >>

Diabetes Mellitus

Diabetes Mellitus

VASCULAR PROPHYLAXIS Diabetic patients have a twofold to threefold increase in the rate of cerebrovascular accidents or myocardial infarctions, and have a worse outcome than nondiabetic people from either myocardial infarction or stroke.227 Aspirin should be used as secondary prophylaxis in all diabetic people with evidence of macrovascular disease, and it should be strongly considered as primary prevention in diabetic subjects with other risk factors for macrovascular disease, such as hypertension, cigarette smoking, dyslipidemia, obesity, and albuminuria (macro or micro).228 Because of the platelet defects associated with diabetes, it is recommended that the dose of aspirin should be 300 mg per day,228–230 although the American Diabetes Association’s position statement (advocates a dose of 81 to 325 mg enteric-coated aspirin per day. If the patient cannot tolerate aspirin, then clopidogrel231 can be used. The elderly diabetic person is at increased risk of atrial fibrillation (odds ratio: 1.4 for men and 1.6 for women)232 and at twofold increased risk of thromboembolism from atrial fibrillation.233,234 We can find no subgroup analysis of the major atrial fibrillation trials to examine the benefits of warfarin specifically in older diabetic subjects. It appears that the adverse event rate in diabetic people drops from 8.6 events per 100 patients per year to 2.8 events with warfarin use.234 It is important to check for retinal new vessels when diabetic subjects are placed on warfarin, although the Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study235 showed no excess vitreous or preretinal hemorrhages in subjects given aspirin for vascular prophylaxis. Despite our efforts, patients are still likely to suffer myocardial infarction. The Diabetes mellitus, Insulin Glucose infu Continue reading >>

How Are Diabetes And Diarrhea Connected? Causes, Diagnosis, And Treatment Of Diabetic Diarrhea

How Are Diabetes And Diarrhea Connected? Causes, Diagnosis, And Treatment Of Diabetic Diarrhea

Home » Diabetes » How are diabetes and diarrhea connected? Causes, diagnosis, and treatment of diabetic diarrhea Diabetes and diarrhea are two terms that are not often thought to be related, but they actually are. Diabetes is a metabolic condition that can lead to a host of detrimental health issues. One such problem is nerve damage, which can disrupt bowel functioning. Those afflicted by diabetes have diarrhea because of this complication. However, there are several other potential etiologies for why a diabetic may experience episodes of diarrhea, which include indigestion of artificial sweeteners, concomitant celiac disease, bacterial overgrowth, irritable bowel syndrome, or even diabetic medication side effects. Prevalence of diabetic diarrhea While the prevalence of diabetic diarrhea will depend on the area being evaluated, it is estimated that type 1 diabetics have a higher rate of associated diarrhea compared to type 2 diabetics, with rates of five percent and 0.4 percent respectively. Diabetic diarrhea tends to be associated with disease duration, A1c levels, being a male, and autonomic neuropathy. Diabetes and diarrhea: The connection Diabetes affects the body’s ability to produce or use a hormone called insulin. Produced by the pancreas, insulin is released when we consume food, allowing our bodies to absorb the sugar contained within it for energy. Diabetics find this process to be extremely difficult, either not producing any insulin at all or having cells resistant to its effects. It is estimated that about 22 percent of people with diabetes experience frequent diarrhea. However, the exact cause of this is unclear. There are two forms of diabetes: type 1 and type 2. They are also referred to as juvenile and adult-onset diabetes, respectively. It’s true Continue reading >>

Diabetic Diarrhea

Diabetic Diarrhea

A woman with type 1 diabetes of 47 years duration has retinopathy, microalbuminuria, peripheral neuropathy, gastroparesis and coronary artery disease. Glycemic control is much improved now that she switched to continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion pump therapy. Her last HbA1c was 7.1% without hypoglycemia. Most of her complications are stable and quiescent. However, last year she began experiencing severe explosive diarrhea. An extensive work-up including upper and lower endoscopy with biopsies, serum tissue transglutaminase IgA and IgG, assessment for fecal fat, testing for parasites and stool culture were all negative. Other than vitamin D deficiency, there was no evidence of malabsorption or other micronutrient deficiencies. She was hospitalized twice for intractable diarrhea and dehydration. Last winter, she tried to manage with scheduled-dose loperamide which resulted in severe fecal impaction and another hospitalization. The gastrointestinal complications of diabetes are some of the most challenging to manage. Diabetic diarrhea can be difficult to distinguish from the more common irritable bowel syndrome. It can alternate with constipation or periods of normal bowel function. Diarrhea can be nocturnal and can result in incontinence of stool. The causes include autonomic neuropathy with abnormal bowel motility, small bowel bacterial overgrowth, bile acid malabsorption and anorectal dysfunction. Celiac sprue and exocrine pancreatic insufficiency are more common in type 1 diabetes and should also be ruled out. There are several treatment options. Increasing daily fiber intake to at least 15-20 gm day can be helpful. However, fiber could result in bezoar formation in patients with constipation or gastroparesis. Bacterial overgrowth may be treated with three weeks o Continue reading >>

Diabetes And Ibs

Diabetes And Ibs

Many people who are diabetic also experience gastrointestinal symptoms similar to IBS, so it’s not surprising that they are connected! I’m so happy to have today’s guest dietitian write about a topic that I know some of you may be struggling with – managing co-existing conditions on top of your IBS. Today we are lucky to have April Saunders, RD share her expertise on managing diabetes alongside your IBS. Take it away, April! If you have “gut issues”, meaning diarrhea, constipation, cramping, abdominal pain or nausea, and you have diabetes, you are not alone. In fact, this relationship is more common than you – or your doctor – may realize. Incredibly, 10-20% of adults worldwide suffer from functional gastrointestinal (GI) problems. For people with diabetes, this problem is even more common, and a large proportion of people with diabetes (type 1 or 2) suffer from a poorly functioning gut. Up to 75% of people with diabetes have at least one gastrointestinal symptom. A connection between people with IBS and higher rates of prediabetes has been found too, suggesting that this relationship starts early on in the pathway to type 2 diabetes. IBS and Glycemic Control IBS and other gut disorders are closely linked to diabetes. In fact, even the severity of symptoms is closely linked to the glycemic control of the individual, meaning the worse the glycemic control, the worse the GI symptoms. These GI problems can include diarrhea, constipation, abdominal pain, and vomiting. The most common GI problem that can be responsible for causing diarrhea is Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS), and many complex links have been identified between gut problems and blood sugars. Why do diabetes and IBS often co-exist? High blood sugars make it hard for the stomach and small intestin Continue reading >>

What To Do If You Get Gastroenteritis:

What To Do If You Get Gastroenteritis:

Gastroenteritis causes diarrhea and vomiting, which can lead to dehydration and the loss of sodium and potassium (electrolytes). The disease puts a stress on your body and often causes an increase in blood glucose (sugar) levels. The two main culprits are stress hormones (cortisol, adrenaline) and lack of physical activity when you are ill. In rare cases, blood glucose (sugar) levels will fall. Measure your blood glucose (sugar) frequently; Continue to take your medication or insulin as usual (or as adjusted by your doctor while you are sick), even if your food intake is reduced because you’ve lost your appetite or are vomiting; Modify your diet: if you find it difficult to eat solid foods, try to eat the usual amount of carbohydrates in liquid form or, at the very least, satisfy your body’s minimum carbohydrate requirements of 150 g per day while you are ill. What are the signs of dehydration? Mild to Moderate Dehydration Severe Dehydration Dry, sticky mouth Extreme thirst Unusual sleepiness or tiredness Irritability and confusion Dry and cool skin Sunken eyes Headache Dry skin that doesn't bounce back when you pinch it Dizziness and lightheadedness Low blood pressure Rapid heartbeat and breathing Dark urine in smaller quantity Call a doctor or go to Emergency if: Signs of severe dehydration; Your blood glucose (sugar) levels are higher than 25 mmol / L accompanied by excessive drowsiness (type 2 diabetes), or 20 mmol / L with a moderate to high ketone level in your urine or blood (type 1 diabetes); You are vomiting continuously and unable to keep liquids down; Your fever stays above 38.5 ºC (101.3 ºF) for more than 48 hours; Diarrhea lasts more than 24 hours or occurs more than 5 times per day. How to avoid becoming dehydrated Here are some ways to avoid dehydra Continue reading >>

A Practical Approach To Gastrointestinal Complications Of Diabetes

A Practical Approach To Gastrointestinal Complications Of Diabetes

Introduction The gastrointestinal (GI) complications of diabetes have become increasingly prevalent as the rate of diabetes has increased [1]. The GI tract manifestations of diabetes include gastroparesis and enteropathy, and their symptoms are classically caused by abnormal GI motility, which is a consequence of diabetic autonomic neuropathy involving the GI tract [2]. Up to 75% of people with diabetes may experience GI symptoms, leading to both a significant decrement in patient quality of life and an increase in health care costs. The classic GI symptoms of diabetes include post-prandial fullness with nausea, bloating, abdominal pain, diarrhea, and/or constipation [1]. Gastroparesis is a well-recognized GI manifestation of diabetes and is more common in women. Delayed gastric emptying has been demonstrated in between 27% and 65% of patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) and in up to 30% of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) [3, 4]. Of note, obesity appears to independently predict symptoms of gastroparesis patients with T2DM with comorbid sensory motor neuropathy [5]. There are multiple clinical features which may be attributable to gastroparesis, includeing nausea and vomiting as well as early satiety, often combined with bloating and upper abdominal pain. Deteriorating glycemic control coupled with increased glucose variability consequent upon mismatched insulin action and nutrient absorption may also suggest underlying gastroparesis. Up to 53% of patients may experience weight loss, while as many as 24% of patients may actually gain weight [4]. Symptom presentation can be either acute or insidious, with a third of cases having chronic symptoms with periodic exacerbations, while a further third will experience chronic progressive symptoms [4]. The Continue reading >>

Diagnosis

Diagnosis

Print Besides conducting a physical exam and reviewing your medications, your doctor might order tests to determine what's causing your diarrhea. They include: Blood test. A complete blood count test can help determine what's causing your diarrhea. Stool test. Your doctor might recommend a stool test to determine whether a bacterium or parasite is causing your diarrhea. Flexible sigmoidoscopy or colonoscopy. Your doctor might recommend one of these procedures to look at the lining of your colon and provide biopsies if no cause is evident for persistent diarrhea. Both procedures involve using a thin, lighted tube with a lens on the end to look inside your colon. Treatment Most cases of diarrhea clear on their own within a couple of days without treatment. If you've tried lifestyle changes and home remedies for diarrhea without success, your doctor might recommend medications or other treatments. Antibiotics Antibiotics might help treat diarrhea caused by bacteria or parasites. If a virus is causing your diarrhea, antibiotics won't help. Treatment to replace fluids Your doctor likely will advise you to replace the fluids and salts. For most adults, that means drinking water, juice or broth. If drinking liquids upsets your stomach or causes diarrhea, your doctor might recommend getting fluids through a vein in your arm (intravenously). Water is a good way to replace fluids, but it doesn't contain the salts and electrolytes — minerals such as sodium and potassium — you need to maintain the electric currents that keep your heart beating. You can help maintain your electrolyte levels by drinking fruit juices for potassium or eating soups for sodium. Certain fruit juices, such as apple juice, might make diarrhea worse. For children, ask your doctor about using an oral rehy Continue reading >>

11 Home Remedies For Diarrhea

11 Home Remedies For Diarrhea

Sip clear broth or juice iStock/Thinkstock Apple juice and clear broth will help replace salts and minerals lost to diarrhea. But avoid citrus, pineapple, tomato, and other juices that you can’t see through, because their acids can irritate already inflamed intestines. Start with small sips, and work your way up to drinking a cup every half hour. Make fresh orange peel tea iStock/Thinkstock A traditional diarrhea remedy and general digestive aid, orange peels stimulate digestion. You need organic oranges for this brew; nonorganic orange skins may contain dyes and pesticides. Peel an orange and chop the peel finely. Place in a pot and cover with a pint of boiling water. Cover the pot tightly and steep until cool. Strain, sweeten with honey, and drink. Bind yourself with rice Plain white rice is known for it’s “binding effect” on bowels. Eat small portions of white rice, butter-free, until the diarrhea is under control. iStock/Thinkstock This tea, known for its gentle relaxation powers, can also calm bouts of diarrhea. It attacks the problem on two fronts, via compounds that ease intestinal spasms and combat inflammation. Reader's Digest Publication Many cultures swear by honey as a cure for diarrhea. Mix 4 tablespoons of honey into a cup of hot water. Let cool and drink. It’s very sweet, but effective. Sip some vinegar water iStock/Thinkstock If a bacterial infection is at the root of your diarrhea, apple cider vinegar could help contain the problem thanks to its antibiotic properties. What’s more, some folk remedy experts contend that apple cider vinegar contains pectin, which can help soothe intestinal spasms. iStock/Thinkstock Applesauce contains pectin, which helps to firm soft bowel movements. Try applesauce spread on a slice of dry toast for a filling s Continue reading >>

Diabetes And Pancreatic Cancer

Diabetes And Pancreatic Cancer

Approximately 25.8 million people in the United States, approximately 8.3% of the population, have diabetes. It is estimated that 18.8 million have been diagnosed, but unfortunately, 7.0 million people, or over one fourth, are unaware that they have the disease. What is diabetes? Diabetes is a disease in which the body does not make or properly use a pancreatic hormone called insulin. Insulin helps the body utilize glucose (sugar) efficiently. Normally, insulin allows glucose to enter cells to be used for energy. In the case of diabetes, either the body does not produce enough insulin or the amount that is produced is not fully effective. Instead of entering cells, the glucose remains in the blood resulting in high blood glucose levels. Diabetes can cause major health problems, such as high-blood pressure, blindness, kidney disease and neuropathy. Long-term high blood glucose levels can lead to cell damage and long-term complications. There are several types of diabetes. Type 1 diabetes results from the body’s inability to produce insulin and accounts for approximately 5% of those diagnosed with the disease. Type 2 diabetes results from the body’s failure to properly use insulin combined with insulin deficiency and accounts for most diagnosed cases of diabetes in the United States. Pre-diabetes occurs when a person’s blood glucose levels are higher than normal, but are not high enough to be diagnosed as type 2 diabetes. Approximately 79 million Americans are pre-diabetic. Other types of diabetes result from specific genetic conditions, surgery, medications, infections, pancreatic diseases and other illnesses. How does diabetes relate to pancreatic cancer? Diabetes may be either a risk factor or a symptom of pancreatic cancer. Pancreatic cancer is more likely to oc Continue reading >>

6 Emergency Complications Of Type 2 Diabetes

6 Emergency Complications Of Type 2 Diabetes

People with type 2 diabetes are at increased risk of many serious health problems, including heart attack, stroke, vision loss, and amputation. But by keeping your diabetes in check — that means maintaining good blood sugar control — and knowing how to recognize a problem and what to do about it should one occur, you can prevent many of these serious complications of diabetes. Heart Attack Heart disease and stroke are the top causes of death and disability in people with diabetes. Heart attack symptoms may appear suddenly or be subtle, with only mild pain and discomfort. If you experience any of the following heart attack warning signs, call 911 immediately: Chest discomfort that feels like pressure, squeezing, fullness, or pain in the center of your chest, lasting for a short time or going away and returning Pain elsewhere, including the back, jaw, stomach, or neck; or pain in one or both arms Shortness of breath Nausea or lightheadedness Stroke If you suddenly experience any of the following stroke symptoms, call 911 immediately. As with a heart attack, immediate treatment can be the difference between life and death. Stroke warning signs may include: Sudden numbness or weakness in the face, arm, or leg, especially if it occurs on one side of the body Feeling confused Difficulty walking and talking and lacking coordination Developing a severe headache for no apparent reason Nerve Damage People with diabetes are at increased risk of nerve damage, or diabetic neuropathy, due to uncontrolled high blood sugar. Nerve damage associated with type 2 diabetes can cause a loss of feeling in your feet, which makes you more vulnerable to injury and infection. You may get a blister or cut on your foot that you don't feel and, unless you check your feet regularly, an infection Continue reading >>

4 Signs Of An Impending Diabetic Pet Emergency

4 Signs Of An Impending Diabetic Pet Emergency

Caring for a diabetic pet can be challenging, but there are certain precautions pet owners can take to prevent a diabetic emergency like hypoglycemia. Preventing a health crisis in a dog or cat with diabetes involves employing a consistent daily routine involving diet, exercise, insulin therapy, and supplementation. It also involves avoiding any and all unnecessary vaccinations. Even the most diligent pet parent can find himself facing a diabetic emergency with a dog or cat. Hypoglycemia is the most common health crisis, and is usually the result of an inadvertent overdose of insulin. Symptoms of hypoglycemia can appear suddenly and include lethargy or restlessness, anxiety or other behavioral changes, muscle weakness or twitching, seizures, coma, and death. At-home treatment for a diabetic pet with hypoglycemia is determined by whether or not the animal is alert. Signs of other potential impending diabetic emergencies include ketones in the urine; straining to urinate or bloody urine; vomiting or diarrhea; or a complete loss of appetite or reduced appetite for several days. By Dr. Becker Caring for a diabetic pet can be quite complex and time consuming. It involves regular monitoring of blood glucose levels, making necessary dietary adjustments, giving insulin injections or oral medications, and keeping a careful eye on your pet at all times. Frequent veterinary visits are the norm for dogs and cats with diabetes, as are the costs associated with checkups, tests, medical procedures, and insulin therapy. And unlike humans with the disease, our pets can’t tell us how they’re feeling or help in their own treatment and recovery. Preventing Diabetic Emergencies The key to preventing diabetic emergencies with a pet involves implementing a consistent daily routine and sti Continue reading >>

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