diabetestalk.net

Will Diabetes Cause Memory Loss

Diabetes Mellitus And Cognitive Impairments

Diabetes Mellitus And Cognitive Impairments

Go to: OVERVIEW OF MEMORY AND COGNITION Cognition is defined as “the mental action or process of acquiring knowledge and understanding through thought, experience, and the senses”[5]. Memory is the retention, recording, and process of retrieving knowledge. All knowledge gained from experience such as known facts, remembered events, gained and applied skills would be considered as memory[6]. Memory can be categorized into declarative and non-declarative memory. Declarative memory mostly corresponds to the learning and recalling new facts, events, and materials. Non-declarative memory refers to the many forms of memories that are reflective or incidental[6]. The “brain working memory” is defined as the ability to keep record of many bits of information at the same time and the recall of this information immediately if needed for subsequent thoughts[7]. When working memory is damaged, a wide range of cognition impairments occur and the patient will not be able to appropriately use his/her own information for thinking in different situations[6]. The majority of advanced cortical functions arise from association cortex. The main association areas are: (1) the parieto-occipitotemporal association area; (2) the prefrontal association area; and (3) the limbic association area[7]. Our knowledge about the mechanisms of thinking and remembering is little. It seems that each thought arises from simultaneous activation of many parts of the different areas in the brain such as cerebral cortex, limbic system, thalamus and reticular formation of the brainstem. The memory is the result of some events in the synaptic transmission by changing its basic sensitivity[7]. Constant neural activity that arises from traveling nerve signals to a temporary memory trace can create a “shor Continue reading >>

Fda Warns Statin Users Of Memory Loss And Diabetes Risks

Fda Warns Statin Users Of Memory Loss And Diabetes Risks

The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) added new safety warnings to cholesterol-reducing statin drugs on Wednesday, noting increased risks of Type 2 diabetes and memory loss for patients who take the medications. The changes to the prescribing information apply to the class of statins, including many popularly prescribed drugs such as Lipitor (atorvastatin), Crestor (rosuvastatin), Zocor (simvastatin) and Vytorin (simvastatin/ezetimibe). The new warnings are based on results from the latest clinical trials and reports of adverse events from patients, physicians and drugmakers. The FDA said that statins may increase users’ risk of brain-related effects like memory loss and confusion. The reports have generally not been serious, however, and the symptoms go away once the drug is stopped, the agency said. Statins’ labels will now also warn patients and doctors that the drugs may cause a small increase in blood sugar levels and Type 2 diabetes — an effect that has been shown previously in studies. Type 2 diabetes can further increase the risk of heart disease. In addition, the FDA made a label change specific to Mevacor (lovastatin). Mevacor can interact with other drugs, increasing the risk for muscle pain and weakness, another side effect that has previously been associated with high-dose statin use. Other drugs may raise such risks by increasing the amount of statins in the blood, and the FDA warned that Mevacor should not be taken with protease inhibitors, which are used to treat HIV, certain antibiotics and some anti-fungal medications. At the same time, the statins’ labeling will no longer require the routine monitoring of patients’ liver enzymes, which was originally intended to alert doctors if the medications were becoming toxic and starting to damage the Continue reading >>

Breaking: Diabetes Drugs Linked To Alzheimers And Dementia

Breaking: Diabetes Drugs Linked To Alzheimers And Dementia

If you’re diabetic and you’re taking medication, you’re probably putting your brain at great risk. Their calling the new study from the Albert Einstein College of Medicine a “Diabetes Game-Changer." It proves that prolonged use of diabetes drugs puts you at risk for a deficiency which can cause neurological problems, including dementia, and even brain shrinkage. This study used data that was funded by the National Institute of Diabetes. This was a 5-year study that ran from 1996 until 2001. It followed more than 3,000 people who were “at risk” for diabetes. Participants were divided into three groups. Group #1 was assigned a special lifestyle change method. They were put on a very specific diet and performed light exercises. Group #2 was given the diabetes drug metformin. Group #3 was given a placebo. The purpose of this study was to see which group had the lowest rates of diabetes and took the longest to develop it. Group #1 beat the others by a landslide. The study authors were so astounded by their findings that the program morphed into a follow-up study, in which the original participants were followed for several more years. The researchers found that Group #2 (those taking metformin) were twice as likely as to have a B12 deficiency, and more likely to become anemic. More shocking yet, it was discovered that they were also more likely to develop neurological problems like Alzheimer’s and Dementia. Yet, for unknown reasons, the Diabetes-Institute-funded research didn’t follow up on the special diet procedure completed by Group #1. It’s everywhere, dangerous, and under-diagnosed While we don’t hear much about it, it’s common knowledge that B12 deficiency causes dementia. And data from a large study by Tufts University* suggests that low B12 leve Continue reading >>

8 Steps To Reverse Memory Loss

8 Steps To Reverse Memory Loss

Q: “My parents are getting older and I want to do everything I can to help them prevent Alzheimer’s, considering both my grandmothers had this disease, and I am worried about getting it too.” writes this week’s house call. “What can we do to prevent dementia?” A: The truth is, dementia is a very big problem that’s becoming bigger every day. Statistics are grim. 10 percent of 65-year-olds, 25 percent of 75-year-olds, and 50 percent of 85-year-olds will develop dementia or Alzheimer’s disease. And the fastest growing segment of our population is the 85-year-olds. Researchers predict Alzheimer’s will affect 106 million people by 2050. It’s now the seventh leading cause of death. Scientists now call Alzheimer’s disease “Type 3 diabetes.” What’s the link between Alzheimer’s and diabetes? Well, new research shows insulin resistance, or what I call diabesity (from eating too many carbs and sugar and not enough fat) is one of the major factors that starts the brain-damage cascade, which robs the memory of over half the people in their 80s, leading to a diagnosis of Alzheimer’s disease. But don’t think too much insulin affects only older folks’ memories. It doesn’t just suddenly occur once you’re older. Dementia actually begins when you’re younger and takes decades to develop and worsen. Here’s the bad news/good news. Eating sugar and refined carbs can cause pre-dementia and dementia. But cutting out the sugar and refined carbs and adding lots of fat can prevent, and even reverse, pre-dementia and early dementia. More recent studies show people with diabetes have a four-fold risk for developing Alzheimer’s. People with pre-diabetes or metabolic syndrome have an increased risk for having pre-dementia or mild cognitive impairment (MCI) Continue reading >>

Diabetes, Pre-diabetes And Memory Loss

Diabetes, Pre-diabetes And Memory Loss

People get diabetes when their blood glucose level, sometimes called blood sugar, is too high. Diabetes can lead to dangerous health problems, such as having a heart attack or stroke. The good news is that there are things you can do to take control of diabetes and prevent its problems. And, if you are worried about getting diabetes, there are things you can do to lower your risk. What Is Diabetes? Our bodies change the food we eat into glucose. Insulin helps glucose get into our cells where it can be used to make energy. If you have diabetes, your body may not make enough insulin, may not use insulin in the right way, or both. That may cause too much glucose in the blood. Your family doctor may refer you to a doctor who specializes in taking care of people with diabetes, called an endocrinologist. Types Of Diabetes There are two kinds of diabetes that can happen at any age. In type 1 diabetes, the body makes little or no insulin. This type of diabetes develops most often in children and young adults. In type 2 diabetes, the body makes insulin, but doesn’t use it the right way. It is the most common kind of diabetes. You may have heard it called adult-onset diabetes. Your chance of getting type 2 diabetes is higher if you are overweight, inactive, or have a family history of diabetes. Diabetes can affect many parts of your body. It’s important to keep type 2 diabetes under control. People with type 2 diabetes have a greater risk for Alzheimer’s disease. Pre-diabetes Many people have “pre-diabetes”; this means their glucose levels are higher than normal but not high enough to be called diabetes. Pre-diabetes is an important warning signal because people with pre-diabetes are at high risk for developing type 2 diabetes. People who are pre-diabetic are asked to w Continue reading >>

Memory Loss: Can It Be Cured? -- Majid Fotuhi, Md -- 6/26/03

Memory Loss: Can It Be Cured? -- Majid Fotuhi, Md -- 6/26/03

WebMD Live Events Transcript Memory loss is a frightening occurrence for anyone who finds the records of their lives fading away, whether it's minor forgetfulness or the devastating effects of Alzheimer's disease. We had a memorable discussion about preventing and treating memory loss with Majid Fotuhi, MD. The opinions expressed herein are the guest's alone and have not been reviewed by a WebMD physician. If you have questions about your health, you should consult your personal physician. This event is meant for informational purposes only. Moderator: Welcome to WebMD Live, Dr. Fotuhi. Is memory loss an inevitable part of aging? Fotuhi: No. People may have slower rate of learning and memorizing things, but they should not lose their memory. Some degree of forgetfulness is normal with aging, but people should maintain the ability to function in their jobs and remember names of their spouses, children, friends, and so on. The only thing they should not forget is the names of their close relatives and their friends. That would be abnormal. Moderator: How can one determine what is causing short-term memory loss? Fotuhi: The most common cause of memory loss is stress and anxiety. The second most common cause is depression. The third most common cause is medical issues. Only the 10th or 11th on the list would be Alzheimer's disease. Ninety percent of older adults who complain about memory loss do not have Alzheimer's disease. Most of them have depression, stress, anxiety, fatigue, and lack of sufficient amount of sleep or medical issues. Member question: What, if any, is the difference between dementia and Alzheimer's disease? Fotuhi: That is a very good question. Dementia means memory loss plus deficit in one or more area of cognition, such as getting lost, confusion of tim Continue reading >>

Can Diabetes Lead To Memory Loss?

Can Diabetes Lead To Memory Loss?

In 2012, 9.3 percent of people in the United States had diabetes. That means that about 29.1 million Americans had diabetes in 2012. This number is growing. Every year, doctors diagnose an estimated 1.4 million new cases in the United States. Diabetes is a disease that involves having higher-than-normal blood glucose levels. This is known as hyperglycemia. Hyperglycemia occurs when your body can’t produce or respond to insulin. Your pancreas produces the hormone insulin to regulate blood sugar levels. Because of the reduced insulin production or resistance to the hormone, blood sugar levels tend to be high. Type 1 diabetes This is also known as juvenile diabetes. An autoimmune process may cause type 1 diabetes. If you have type 1 diabetes, your body’s antibodies attack the insulin-producing cells in your pancreas. You need insulin to help glucose molecules enter the cells. Once glucose enters the cells, your body can use it to create energy. People with type 1 diabetes don’t produce adequate amounts of insulin. This leads to higher than normal levels of blood sugar. Insulin injections are a necessary part of life for people living with type 1 diabetes. As of 2012, approximately 1.25 million Americans had type 1 diabetes. Type 2 diabetes This is the most common form of diabetes worldwide. If you have type 2 diabetes, your body produces insulin, but it can’t use it in the way that it should. This resistance causes the pancreas to produce more insulin. The added insulin increases the hormone levels in the bloodstream. This can have long-term negative effects on the brain. Check out: Diabetes by the numbers: Facts, statistics, and you » Memory loss is a normal phenomenon of aging. There are differences between memory loss that occurs with age and the complex memory Continue reading >>

Diabetes And Memory Loss

Diabetes And Memory Loss

Cases linking diabetes and memory loss together are numerous. Many who suffer from memory loss is due to improperly managed diabetes. The cause of this memory loss is a short supply of glucose to the brain, whose original storage of glucose is not that much. Major symptoms of memory loss are like short-term memory loss (e.g. forgetting what you have just done), forgetfulness (e.g. where one forgets the names of those closest to him or her) and dementia (in most cases, Alzheimer’s disease). Let's find out more about how diabetes is connected with memory loss. How Does Diabetes Affect Memory Loss? 1. Effect on Nerves Before getting into the effects of diabetes on one’s nerves, let us first understand the basic definition of neurotransmission. Neurotransmission is simply the transmission of electrical or chemical signals between nerve cells. Neurotransmission requires one to have a high rate of metabolism in the brain and a regular supply of glucose. To learn and remember new information, one needs proper neurotransmission within the body. This is the only way that information gets stored in the brain and the only way one will be able to remember anything. Any improper transmission of signals between nerve cells will greatly inhibit one’s ability to learn and remember information. This scenario can happen to anyone to some extent—not just people affected by diabetes. Simply failing to consume an adequate amount of glucose can cause one to lose concentration on even the simplest things. This is why breakfast is so important. It “wakes one up”. Those, with gestational, type 1 or type 2 diabetes, can encounter this danger at any time of any day. hyperglycemia and hypoglycemia can lead to failure of hippocampus, which can make it hard to focus and can cause short-t Continue reading >>

Another Reason To Avoid Diabetes: Memory Loss

Another Reason To Avoid Diabetes: Memory Loss

Researchers have found people diagnosed with diabetes in their 50s are significantly more likely than others to suffer mental decline by their 70s. In this week’s Vital Signs, Dr. Angela Bentle, a geriatrics and internal medicine specialist with Methodist Charlton Medical Center, explains why this seems to occur in middle age than with younger people. From Dr. Bentle’s interview… Why this affects people in their 50s rather than younger: I think it’s a progression of a process that’s been going on in the diabetic patient. You have deterioration of kidney function, you have loss of vision in advanced cases. You have damage to the nerves in the feet, which causes ulcers and, sometimes, amputations. So it stands to reason if there’s nerve damage in other areas, that there would nerve damage or central nervous system damage, whether it’s through vasculature or the nerve cells themselves in the brain, and I think that’s a toxic effect of prolonged elevated blood sugar. How does diabetes affect memory loss? I think that, just like in other organs – the kidneys, the nervous system, the eyes, that it’s a toxic effect. You know elevated blood sugar with a lack of insulin or insulin resistance, the blood sugar isn’t getting where it needs to be to do what it needs to do, all of your cells need glucose, but the insulin or the defective insulin isn’t help the blood sugar to get there to be utilized. And it causes damage by floating around in the system. Elevated sugar in the bloodstream is toxic wherever it is, and it seems to affect other end organs, so why not the brain? It stands to reason that the brain will be affected. And yes for at least ten to 20 years, it’s been noted that there is dementia or cognitive decline associated with the prolonged diabet Continue reading >>

Memory Loss (amnesia)

Memory Loss (amnesia)

Memory loss can be caused by a number of factors, from short term causes such as low blood sugar or medication side effects to long term health issues such as dementia. Treatment for long term memory loss will depend on what is causing it. Evidence from research suggests that good control of diabetes can help prevent memory problems developing over the longer term. Memory loss tends to become more prevalent as we get older. The NHS notes that around four in 10 people over the age of 65, in the general population, have some form of memory difficulties. The NHS notes that around 4 in 10 people over the age of 65, in the general population, have some form of memory difficulties. How can diabetes affect memory loss? Memory loss in diabetes can be a short term problem brought on by too low or high blood glucose levels. During hypoglycemia, for example, you may struggle to remember words. This is not necessarily a sign of a long term problem. In most cases, raising sugar levels over 4 mmol/l should get your memory back to normal. If memory problems happen at other times and this significantly affects your life, speak to your GP. Diabetes can increase the risk of developing long-term memory problems if blood glucose levels are less well controlled. High blood glucose levels, over a number of years, can damage the nerves, including those of the brain, which can increase the risk of dementia. Research shows that good diabetes management can help prevent memory problems from developing or advancing. Symptoms of memory loss Symptoms of memory loss could include: Not being able to recall an important event in your life Forgetting what you have just done Forgetting where things in your home are Forgetting the names of people close to you Some of these can happen to all of us from ti Continue reading >>

Researchers Discover How Diabetes Affects Specific Brain Area Leading To Memory Loss

Researchers Discover How Diabetes Affects Specific Brain Area Leading To Memory Loss

Badly controlled diabetes are known to affect the brain causing memory and learning problems and even an increased incidence of dementia, although how this occurs is not clear. But now a study, by researchers from the Centre for Neuroscience and Cell Biology of the University of Coimbra in Portugal, in mice with type 2 diabetes has discovered how diabetes affects a brain area called hippocampus causing memory loss, and also how caffeine can prevents it. Curiously, the neurodegeneration that the researcher Rodrigo Cunha and his team see caused by diabetes, is the same that occurs at the first stages of several neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer's and Parkinson's, suggesting that caffeine (or drugs with similar mechanism) could help them too. Type 2 diabetes (which accounts for about 90% of all diabetic cases) is a full blown public health disaster - 285 million people already affected worldwide (6.4% of the world population) with numbers expected to almost double by 2030. And this without counting pre-diabetic individuals. The problem is that the disease is triggered by obesity, a sedentary lifestyle and bad eating habits (although there is also a genetic predisposition), all of which are increasingly widespread. All forms of diabetes are caused by high levels of sugar in the blood, but in type 2 this occurs because the body becomes increasingly resistant to insulin - the hormone that allows the cells to take the sugar from the blood to be use it as "fuel" - leading to toxic high levels of sugar in the blood that damage nerves and blood vessels and, with time, cause severe complications In the study out now in the journal PLoS , João Duarte, Rodrigo Cunha and colleagues take advantage of a new mouse model of diabetes type 2, which like humans develops the d Continue reading >>

Sweet Memories

Sweet Memories

Inadequately controlled diabetes is a major cause of blindness, kidney damage, heart disease, and loss of sensation leading to limb amputation. Few parts of the body seem to be immune from the ravages of chronically high blood sugar (glucose) that characterizes diabetes—including, it appears, the brain. Some studies suggest that older people with diabetes tend to suffer more from impairments in memory and thinking. Scientists have also uncovered some intriguing possible connections between diabetes and Alzheimer’s disease. Diabetes 101 Fundamentally, diabetes is an inability to make or use insulin normally. Insulin is the hormone that regulates the level of glucose in the blood and helps our bodies use the food we eat. Food must be converted into glucose before our cells can use it as fuel, but glucose can’t enter the cells without insulin. In lock-and-key fashion, insulin enters structures on the cell surface called receptors. Only when insulin “docks” with the receptors does the cell allow glucose to enter. Cells use glucose to produce energy. In type 1 diabetes, which typically develops by young adulthood, the pancreas stops making insulin altogether and the person must inject the hormone daily to survive. In type-2 diabetes, which typically strikes in middle age and is by far the most common form of the disease, cells gradually become “resistant” to insulin. Glucose cannot enter the cells as readily, so the amount of it in the blood rises. Left unchecked, chronically high blood sugar damages the blood vessels, kidneys, eyes, and nerves. You’ve probably heard about the current “epidemic” of diabetes (type 2), driven by rising rates of obesity and sedentary lifestyles. Media reports dramatize the trend with anecdotes about 14-year-old children who Continue reading >>

Diabetes Can Lead To Memory Loss

Diabetes Can Lead To Memory Loss

Home » News » Diabetes Can Lead To Memory Loss Type-2 diabetes can often lead to physical and mental dullness. Repeated hypoglycaemia can cause irreversible brain damage causing memory loss. Shares 1 Diabetes has already locked your sweets away, but according to a study people suffering from type 2 diabetes have another problem to look out for, they can also suffer from some mental disorders, specifically loss of memory retention. Researchers say that the onset of hypoglycaemia, a medical condition where the level of glucose in the blood falls below the normal. Dr P. Sudhakar Reddy, an endocrinologist, said, "Type-2 diabetes can often lead to physical and mental dullness. Repeated hypoglycaemia can cause irreversible brain damage causing memory loss." Memory loss has been linked with brain not functioning properly, and if the blood sugar falls below what is deemed necessary, the brain's performance will be hindered. Dr Sudhir Kumar, a neurologist, said, "Brain disorders occur in Type-2 diabetic patients when the brain doesn't get enough sugar to carry out its functions. Low blood sugar levels can make a person feel very disoriented and confused." Another study found that features in diabetes are similar to those found in the brain tissue of patients who have Alzheimer's Dr Sridevi Palidugu, an endocrinologist, says, "Cognitive dysfunction is very common following a stroke and the probability of a stroke is higher in Type-2 diabetic patients, as the blood supply to their brain is affected and with the peripheral nerves affected, it could lead to brain disorders." Dr Ravi Shankar Erukulapati, an endocrinologist, said, "Memory and other functions of the brain get affected by diabetes over a long duration. This can clearly be observed as many patients of Alzheimer's and d Continue reading >>

Metformin And Impaired Thinking

Metformin And Impaired Thinking

According to new research from Australia, the oral diabetes medicine metformin is linked to impaired brain function, but supplementation with vitamin B12 may reduce some of the cognitive effects. Metformin is the most widely used diabetes drug in the world, with over 61 million prescriptions for the medicine filled in the United States alone in 2012. To evaluate the effects of the drug on cognitive impairment in people with diabetes, researchers recruited 1,354 people from various locations in Australia. The researchers included people with Alzheimer disease and mild cognitive impairment, as well as those who were cognitively normal, but they did not include people with stroke or neurological conditions other than Alzheimer. The participants had an average age of 73.8 and almost 60% were female The study used an evaluation known as the mini-mental state exam to determine cognitive performance. According to the results, slightly more than half of the participants were not cognitively impaired, while 21.8% were minimally impaired, 17.7% were mildly impaired, and 10.1% were most impaired. In their analysis, the researchers found that people with Type 2 diabetes had worse cognitive performance than those without Type 2 and that, among those with diabetes, people taking metformin had worse cognitive performance than those not taking the medicine. Cognitive function scores were also found to be lower among those with vitamin B12 levels of less than 250 pmol/l. Because metformin is known to be associated with B12 deficiency, the investigators suggested that “any effect metformin has on cognitive performance may be at least partially mediated by altering serum vitamin B12 levels.” Limitations of the study include an insufficient amount of information about the duration of t Continue reading >>

5 Surprising Causes Of Memory Loss

5 Surprising Causes Of Memory Loss

You can't find your keys or you forget an appointment. For many people in middle age or older, simple acts of forgetfulness like these are scary because they raise the specter of Alzheimer's disease. But Alzheimer’s is not the only health issue that can lead to forgetfulness, which is often treatable if you know the cause, according to the National Institute on Aging. Memory loss can happen at any age and for a number of reasons. “Patients might experience memory loss and describe their symptoms similarly, but a doctor can tease apart what parts of the brain are affected,” says Seth Gale, MD, a neurologist at Brigham and Women’s Hospital in Boston. He points out things like polypharmacy (taking several medications), significant depression, and poor sleep that can lead to memory complaints. “When you drill down and find out what is actually happening with brain function, you can reassure someone. They have the capacity to learn and store information but because of their overloaded mental resources, they are having trouble,” says Dr. Gale. Talk with your doctor about concerns you may have about your memory, so the condition responsible for your symptoms can be addressed. Discussing your symptoms and taking various tests, possibly including an MRI, may help your doctor determine what is affecting your memory, Gale says. In some cases, one or more of the following issues could play a role. 1. Sleep Apnea This common but treatable sleep disorder causes breathing to stop briefly and frequently throughout the night. It is linked to memory loss and dementia, according to Constantine Lyketsos, MD, director of the Memory and Alzheimer's Treatment Center at Johns Hopkins Medicine and professor and chair of psychiatry at Johns Hopkins Bayview. You might have sleep apnea Continue reading >>

More in diabetes