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Why Would A Non Diabetic Have Ketones In Their Urine?

Diabetes, Exercise And Competitive Sports

Diabetes, Exercise And Competitive Sports

Sports Science Exchange 90 VOLUME 16 (2003) NUMBER 3 Diabetes, Exercise and Competitive Sports Peter A. Farrell, Ph.D. Department of Exercise and Sport Science East Carolina University Greenville, NC 27858 KEY POINTS People with diabetes mellitus—rapidly approaching one-third of the US population—either cannot produce insulin (Type 1 DM) or the insulin they produce is ineffective in stimulating the uptake of blood sugar (glucose) into the body’s cells (Type 2 DM). Accordingly, if diabetes is untreated, blood sugar rises to dangerously high levels that can eventually cause blindness, nerve damage, and other complications. Blood sugar can be controlled by the appropriate administration of insulin and other drugs and/or by the manipulation of dietary carbohydrate and exercise. During exercise, the contracting muscles produce their own insulin-like effect, causing the rapid uptake of glucose from the blood. In people without diabetes, the body naturally reduces its production of insulin to compensate; otherwise, blood glucose would fall precipitously. (A low blood glucose concentration is known as hypoglycemia.) Those with Type 1 DM (and those with Type 2 DM who use insulin to control their blood sugar) must adjust their pre-exercise insulin dosage and their carbohydrate intake before, during, and after exercise to avoid becoming hypoglycemic. Regular exercise training is usually beneficial for those with diabetes because exercise can reverse many of the adverse metabolic effects of the disease, including the likelihood of becoming obese. Although precautions must be taken, athletes with uncomplicated diabetes (no other serious diseases) have become champions at elite levels in a wide variety of sports. INTRODUCTION Regular exercise is highly recommended for many peop Continue reading >>

Normal Blood Sugars In Pregnancy

Normal Blood Sugars In Pregnancy

I have until now avoided discussing the issue of what normal blood sugars should be in pregnancy because it looked like gynecologists were being more aggressive with blood sugar control during pregnancy then other doctors. Blood sugar control is particularly important in pregnancy because a fetus that is exposed to continually high blood sugars will experience significant changes in the way that its genes express which will affect its blood sugar metabolism for the rest of its life. High blood sugar will also make babies very large, which poses problems when it is time for delivery, some life-threatening. Blood sugars are lower in pregnant women because there is a higher blood volume during pregnancy, but it is starting to look like the targets gynecologists have been recommending, which would have been excellent for non-diabetic women are considerably higher than normal. This was made clear by a new meta-study that analyzed a series of studies of the blood sugars of a wide range of normal pregnant women using Continuous Glucose Monitoring, home testing, and hospital lab results. It makes it clear that the current targets for pregnancy are probably too high. Here is the full text version of the meta-study: Patterns of Glycemia in Normal Pregnancy: Should the current therapeutic targets be challenged? Teri L. Hernandez, et al. Diabetes Care July 2011 vol. 34 no. 7 1660-1668. It concludes that the following appear to be truly normal blood sugars for pregnant women: AVERAGE BLOOD SUGARS IN NORMAL PREGNANT WOMEN Fasting: 70.9 ± 7.8 mg/dl (3.94 mmol/L ± .43) One Hour Post Meal: 108.9 ± 12.9 mg/dl (6.05 ± .72 mmol/L) Two Hours Post Meal: 99.3 ±10.2 mg/dl (5.52 ± .57 mmol/L ) A commentary published in this month's Diabetes Care gives more insight into the importance of t Continue reading >>

Diabetes: Short Term Problems

Diabetes: Short Term Problems

Complications Diabetes can cause other health problems. Sometimes these problems are referred to as complications (COM-pli-KAY-shuns). Short-term problems can happen at any time when you have diabetes. Long-term problems may develop when you have diabetes for a long time. In case of emergency, you should always wear a form of medical identification (ID). Examples are ID bracelets and necklaces. To reduce your risk of getting other health problems from diabetes, you need good control of your blood glucose (sugar). Good control means keeping blood glucose at certain levels. To learn more about good control and healthy blood glucose numbers, see the UPMC patient education page Diabetes: Your Management Plan. This patient education sheet tells you about short-term problems, what to do for them, and how to prevent them: Low blood glucose High blood glucose with ketones High blood glucose without ketones Low Blood Glucose Low blood glucose is also called hypoglycemia (HI-po-glice-EE-me-uh). Blood glucose numbers under 70 mean you have low blood glucose. Several things can cause low blood glucose: Too much insulin Too much sulfonylurea (SULL-fon-ilyour-EE-uh) medicine Not enough food Too much exercise Symptoms of low blood glucose include: Hunger Feeling nervous Heavy sweating Weakness Shaking (tremors) Confusion Seizures Coma If you get low blood glucose If you get low blood glucose and you are awake and able to swallow, eat or drink something with sugar. Here is a list of some suggested foods: 4 ounces of fruit juice 4 to 6 ounces of sugary (non-diet) soft drink 3 to 4 glucose tablets (or 1 tube of glucose gel) 1 cup of skim milk 6 to 7 hard candies (not sugar-free), such as Lifesavers Wait for 10 to 15 minutes. Test your blood glucose again. If your blood glucose is above 7 Continue reading >>

Reasons For Ketones In Urine

Reasons For Ketones In Urine

What are ketones? Everybody has ketones. The body produces ketones when there is not enough insulin that will convert sugar into energy. Ketones are chemicals produced by the liver from fatty acids. The liver then sends ketones into the bloodstream, so the tissues and muscles can utilize them as fuel. People without diabetes don't have an issue with this process. However, people with diabetes can have too much buildup of ketones in the blood, which can be life-threatening. If you have type 1 diabetes, you might need a ketone test. In type 1 diabetes, a person's immune system attacks the pancreas, which produces insulin. Without enough insulin, the levels of blood sugar rise. Individuals who have type 2 diabetes can also experience high ketone levels, but not as common as with those who have type 1 diabetes. Signs to Test for Ketones Your doctor will probably ask for a ketone test when you have the following conditions: A blood sugar of more than 250 mg/dl for two consecutive days Excessive thirst Vomiting You have an illness You have an injury You are pregnant Tests for Ketones Ketones are tested through a urine analysis. You can purchase a ketone test kit at your local drugstore and test your urine at home. A ketone test can also be done in your doctor's clinic. To test for ketones in your urine, you have to pee in a sterile container to get a urine sample. After collecting the urine sample, do the following steps: Dip the test strip into the urine sample. You can also hold the strip under your urine stream. Gently shake off excess urine from the test strip. You will notice that the test strip will change in color. the directions will tell you how long that takes. Follow the instructions and check the strip color against the provided chart in your test kit. The corresp Continue reading >>

Diabetic Ketoacidosis

Diabetic Ketoacidosis

Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is a serious problem that can occur in people with diabetes if their body starts to run out of insulin. This causes harmful substances called ketones to build up in the body, which can be life-threatening if not spotted and treated quickly. DKA mainly affects people with type 1 diabetes, but can sometimes occur in people with type 2 diabetes. If you have diabetes, it's important to be aware of the risk and know what to do if DKA occurs. Symptoms of diabetic ketoacidosis Signs of DKA include: needing to pee more than usual being sick breath that smells fruity (like pear drop sweets or nail varnish) deep or fast breathing feeling very tired or sleepy passing out DKA can also cause high blood sugar (hyperglycaemia) and a high level of ketones in your blood or urine, which you can check for using home-testing kits. Symptoms usually develop over 24 hours, but can come on faster. Check your blood sugar and ketone levels Check your blood sugar level if you have symptoms of DKA. If your blood sugar is 11mmol/L or over and you have a blood or urine ketone testing kit, check your ketone level. If you do a blood ketone test: lower than 0.6mmol/L is a normal reading 0.6 to 1.5mmol/L means you're at a slightly increased risk of DKA and should test again in a couple of hours 1.6 to 2.9mmol/L means you're at an increased risk of DKA and should contact your diabetes team or GP as soon as possible 3mmol/L or over means you have a very high risk of DKA and should get medical help immediately If you do a urine ketone test, a result of more than 2+ means there's a high chance you have DKA. When to get medical help Go to your nearest accident and emergency (A&E) department straight away if you think you have DKA, especially if you have a high level of ketones in Continue reading >>

Consequences Of Diabetes

Consequences Of Diabetes

Long term complications…. If you have Type 1 or Type 2 Diabetes you are at risk of developing serious health complications if your diabetes is not controlled. These include premature cardiovascular disease, kidney disease, foot problems and amputation, blindness and depression. Diabetes can also affect your relationships and lifestyle. Some of these complications are discussed below Cardiovascular disease If you have diabetes, you are 2 to 3 times more likely to develop cardiovascular disease (which includes heart attack, heart failure, angina, stroke) compared to someone who is non diabetic (37). Furthermore, as the duration of diabetes increases, so does the risk of fatal heart disease (38). This means that adolescents, who acquire Diabetes at a young age, are at high lifetime risk of heart disease. Blindness Poor control of blood glucose levels over extended periods of time is strongly associated with diabetic retinopathy. This is damage to the small blood vessels in the back of the eye (retina) and can ultimately lead to blindness (39). Amputation Amputations of the lower extremities (toes, feet, legs) are a severe consequence of diabetes, and can occur as a result of continuous high blood glucose levels. If you have diabetes, you are 20 times more likely to have an amputation (40), and up to 100 people a week have a leg amputated in the UK (41). Kidney disease Being obese and having Type 2 Diabetes predisposes you to developing chronic kidney disease: Diabetes is one of the biggest causes of end stage renal disease, or kidney failure (42), often requiring dialysis or transplantation. High blood glucose levels can damage the small blood vessels in the kidney disrupting their ability to filter urine efficiently. This can lead to protein in the urine, and as kidney Continue reading >>

Diabetes In Cats

Diabetes In Cats

Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a disorder of carbohydrate, fat and protein metabolism. It is caused by the body’s inability to either produce or properly utilise the hormone insulin. This results in excessive amounts of glucose in the blood stream (hyperglycaemia) and the urine (glycosuria). Clinical signs can vary a lot depending on the individual, the severity of the condition and how long the animal has had the condition. Most common signs of diabetes in cats are: Drinking excessively (Polydipsia) Increased appetite (Polyphagia) More frequent urination or increase in the volume of urine produced (Polyurea) Weight loss – Usually muscle first (“my cat feels boney”) then fat. These are the most notable signs seen at home. Due to the high blood glucose level the kidneys can no longer prevent its loss into the urine. This loss of glucose in the urine takes water with it. This means there is more urine to get rid of (Polyurea). The water loss from the kidneys would rapidly cause the cat to become dehydrated if it did not drink more to compensate for this extra loss. So this leads an increase in the cats drinking (Polydipsia). The body thinks there is not enough energy so it causes the appetite to increase (Polyphagia). Despite this increase in appetite the glucose can’t get into the cells so the body starts to break down its own resources muscle and then fat leading to the weight loss. Usually despite these quite dramatic clinical signs the cat may well be bright and happy in it self. Also if your cat drinks and toilets outside this can go unnoticed. Other clinical signs Coat – This can become oily/greasy looking with excessive dandruff Liver enlargement – This may be mentioned by us at examination Jaundice – This is a yellow colouration to skin or white part of Continue reading >>

Diabetic Ketoacidosis

Diabetic Ketoacidosis

Diabetic Ketoacidosis Definition Diabetic ketoacidosis is a dangerous complication of diabetes mellitus in which the chemical balance of the body becomes far too acidic. Description Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) always results from a severe insulin deficiency. Insulin is the hormone secreted by the body to lower the blood sugar levels when they become too high. Diabetes mellitus is the disease resulting from the inability of the body to produce or respond properly to insulin, required by the body to convert glucose to energy. In childhood diabetes, DKA complications represent the leading cause of death, mostly due to the accumulation of abnormally large amounts of fluid in the brain (cerebral edema). DKA combines three major features: hyperglycemia, meaning excessively high blood sugar kevels; hyperketonemia, meaning an overproduction of ketones by the body; and acidosis, meaning that the blood has become too acidic. Insulin deficiency is responsible for all three conditions: the body glucose goes largely unused since most cells are unable to transport glucose into the cell without the presence of insulin; this condition makes the body use stored fat as an alternative source instead of the unavailable glucose for energy, a process that produces acidic ketones, which build up because they require insulin to be broken down. The presence of excess ketones in the bloodstream in turn causes the blood to become more acidic than the body tissues, which creates a toxic condition. Causes and symptoms DKA is most commonly seen in individuals with type I diabetes, under 19 years of age and is usually caused by the interruption of their insulin treatment or by acute infection or trauma. A small number of people with type II diabetes also experience ketoacidosis, but this is rare give Continue reading >>

What Causes High Ketones In A Canine?

What Causes High Ketones In A Canine?

A dog with a high level of ketones in his urine suffers from a condition known as ketonuria, usually resulting from a buildup of these substances in the dog's blood. A ketone is a type of acid, which, if allowed to accumulate in the blood, can lead to ketoacidosis, a potentially fatal condition. The main health conditions that can cause high ketone levels in a canine are starvation and diabetes. A dog's body breaks down the food that he eats into sugars, also called glucose, that the cells of the body use for energy. The dog's pancreas then produces the hormone insulin to regulate the amount of glucose that the body will absorb. If the insulin to regulate the glucose is insufficient, typically due to chronic diabetes mellitus, the body breaks down alternate sources of fuel for its cells; a dog's body that is starved of nutrition will do the same. One of these sources is the fat stored in the dog's body. When the body breaks down this fat, it produces as a by-product toxic acids known as a ketones. These ketones then build up in the dog's blood and also his urine, leading to ketoacidosis. Always consult an experienced veterinarian regarding the health and treatment of your pet. A dog suffering from high ketone levels in his blood and urine exhibits symptoms of weight loss, vomiting, increased thirst, decreased appetite, increased urination, lethargy, low body temperature and yellowing of the skin and gums, according to PetMD. The dog's breath may also have a sweet, fruity smell due to the presence of acetone caused by ketoacidosis, says VetInfo. To properly diagnose high ketone levels and ketoacidosis in your dog, a veterinarian will take blood tests and a urinalysis, which will also check your dog's blood glucose levels. Depending on the dog's physical condition, hospit Continue reading >>

What Causes Ketones In Urine If Your Not Diabetic

What Causes Ketones In Urine If Your Not Diabetic

Hello again, If not diabetic, ketones can be seen if eating a carbohydrate free diet or if sick (vomiting/not eating). There can also be false positives for ketones on a dipstick--these include a high specific gravity (if the urine is very concentrated), an acidic urine can also cause a false positive and certain medications (such as levodopa). Feel free to ask any follow up questions you may have, Dr Abby If you are satisfied with my help, please remember to click accept. Thank you! It may simply be a false positive. Make sure you are drinking plenty of fluids (dehydration can cause your specific gravity to be high). I would not worry at this point about the ketones. Eat some carbohydrates, drink lots of fluids and recheck it tomorrow. Dr Abby Continue reading >>

Why Are There Ketones In My Urine?

Why Are There Ketones In My Urine?

When ketones show up in your urine, it's a sign that your diabetes may be getting out of control. Ketones are acids that your body produces when it is not getting enough fuel to function properly. Your body gets fuel by a process that starts with turning the food you eat into sugar (glucose) in your bloodstream. Your pancreas then produces a hormone called insulin, which helps move the glucose from your blood into your cells to be used for fuel. With diabetes, your body either doesn't produce enough insulin or doesn't respond normally to the insulin you do have, so it can't use glucose efficiently. The glucose is just flushed out of your body in your urine. Since you can't use glucose for fuel, it starts using fat instead -- and the fat-burning process produces the acids known as ketones. Ketones in the urine show that fat is being burned for fuel by your body. This typically occurs when you do not have enough insulin in your body to metabolize sugar as fuel or when you are fasting. Thus, spilling ketones into your urine means either that your body is dangerously low on insulin or that your diet is working. When ketones build up due to a lack of insulin, the condition is called "ketoacidosis," and it can be dangerous. Ketoacidosis is more common in type 1 diabetes, occurring when people are first diagnosed with diabetes, when they stop taking insulin for some reason, or when they are ill. Most people with ketoacidosis develop symptoms that make them consult a doctor, such as stomach pain, nausea or vomiting, rapid breathing, frequent urination, extreme thirst, or fatigue. If you are on a diet that does not provide enough calories to your body, then your body burns fat for energy. This is the effect you want from your diet, because burning fat will cause you to lose weig Continue reading >>

High And Low Blood Sugar Issues

High And Low Blood Sugar Issues

Blood sugar concentrations or blood glucose levels are the amount of sugar or glucose present in your blood stream. Your body naturally regulates blood sugar (glucose) levels as a part your body”s metabolic processes. Glucose or sugar is the primary energy mechanism for cells and blood lipids. Glucose or blood sugar is transported from your intestines or liver to the cells in your body via the bloodstream. The absorption of glucose is promoted by insulin or the hormone produced in the pancreas. If your sugar levels are not balanced you may have high or low blood sugar issues. Low sugar issues are hypoglycemia and high blood sugar indicates that you have hyperglycemia or hyperglycemia symptoms. High or low blood sugar levels cause different problems. Low blood sugar levels can cause dementia, comas or death. High blood sugar is a major cause of damage to your body”s internal organs. Low Blood Sugar Low blood sugar or hypoglycemia indicates the level of glucose in your blood has dramatically dropped below what your body need to function. When your blood sugar drops below 70 milligrams per deciliter symptom will develop. You may feel tired and anxious or weak and shaky. Your heart rate may be rapid and you feel as if you are having a heart attack. Eating something sugary will bring your sugar levels back to normal almost immediately and symptoms will subside. Sugar levels that are below 40 mg/dL cause you to have behavior changes. You may feel very irritable and become weak and confused. You may not realize you need to eat to raise your blood sugar levels. Blood sugar levels below 20 mg/dL will most certainly cause a loss of consciousness or perhaps you will experience seizures. You will need medical care immediately. Hypoglycemia symptoms happen very quickly. If you a Continue reading >>

Ketone Testing: About Your Child's Test

Ketone Testing: About Your Child's Test

What is it? A ketone test checks for ketones in your child's blood or urine. Ketones are made when the body breaks down fat for energy instead of using sugar. This can happen when children with diabetes are ill or don't get enough insulin. Newer home blood sugar meters can measure ketone levels in the blood. You can also use home urine tests to measure ketones. Why is this test done? Measuring your child's ketones is recommended whenever your child has symptoms of illness, such as nausea, vomiting, or belly pain. These symptoms are similar to symptoms of high blood sugar and may mean that your child has diabetic ketoacidosis. This condition is very serious and needs immediate treatment. How can you prepare for the test? In general, your child doesn't need to prepare before having this test. Your doctor may give you some specific instructions. What happens during the test? Blood test in a doctor's office or hospital: A health professional takes a sample of your child's blood. Blood test at home: Some home blood sugar meters can also measure blood ketones. You use the same finger-prick method that you use to measure your child's blood sugar. Home urine test: Collect a sample of urine in a clean container. Follow the manufacturer's directions on the bottle of test strips or tablets. What else should you know about the test? With the home urine test, if either the test strip changes colour or the urine changes colour when the tablet is dropped into the sample, ketones are present in your child's urine sample. The test results are read as negative to 1+ to 4+, or small to large. Blood ketone tests using a meter display the result on the monitor. Your doctor can tell you what ketone range is high for your child (for example 0.6 mmol/L or higher). Your doctor may recommend tha Continue reading >>

International Journal Of Diabetes Research 2012, 1(2): 24-27 Doi: 10.5923/j.diabetes.20120102.01

International Journal Of Diabetes Research 2012, 1(2): 24-27 Doi: 10.5923/j.diabetes.20120102.01

Diagnosis of Diabetes Mellitus Ngugi M P1,*, Njagi J M2, Kibiti C M3, Ngeranwa J J N1, Njagi E N M1 1Department of Biochemistry and Biotechnology, Kenyatta University, Nairobi, P.O Box 43844-00100, Kenya 2Department of Environmental Health, Kenyatta University, Nairobi, P.O Box 43844-00100, Kenya 3Department of Pure and Applied Sciences, Mombasa Polytechnic University College, Mombasa, P.O Box 90420-80100, Kenya Abstract Diabetes mellitus is suspected based on symptoms. Urine and blood tests can be used to confirm a diagnosis of diabetes based on the amount of glucose in the urine and blood. Urine tests can also detect ketones and protein in the urine, which may help diagnose diabetes and assess how well the kidneys are functioning. These tests can also be used to monitor the disease once the patient is under treatment. This paper reviews the different diagnostic tests for diabetes mellitus. Keywords Diabetes Mellitus, Ketones, Urine Tests, Blood Tests 1. Introduction Diabetes Mellitus is a metabolic disturbance characterised by hyperglycaemia and a relative lack, or complete absence of insulin[1]. It is a disease, which by virtue of its compli- cations may affect all organ systems in the body. Prevention, timely diagnosis, and treatment are important in patients with diabetes mellitus. Many of the complications associated with diabetes, such as nephropathy, retinopathy, neuropathy, cardiovascular disease, stroke, and death, can be delayed or prevented with appropriate treatment of elevated blood pressure, lipids, and blood glucose[2,3]. The body usually is able to keep glucose concentrations stable. The normal fasting blood sugar is usually between 3.5-6.7mmol/l. After a meal it would rarely exceed 8mmol/l. Normally there is no glucose in urine since the normal thresho Continue reading >>

Can Infection Raise Blood Sugar Levels In Nondiabetics?

Can Infection Raise Blood Sugar Levels In Nondiabetics?

Even if you do not have diabetes, you can experience drops and spikes in blood sugar levels for many reasons. If your blood sugar level gets too high or too low, you might develop many symptoms and/or health problems. Stress, poor diet, illness and infections can all cause your blood sugar level to change, and if you notice the warning signs, it is important to talk to your physician about the best treatment approach. Video of the Day After a meal, your body breaks food down into glucose either for immediate use, or else it's stored for later use. The hormone insulin, as well as other chemicals, regulate how much glucose is in your system. If the level of glucose in your bloodstream gets too high, many complications can result. A general goal for everyone is to keep your blood sugar levels no higher than 100 mg/dL, says MedlinePlus. A blood sugar level higher than this can indicate not just diabetes, but also some forms of cancer, Cushing syndrome, an imbalance of various hormones, thyroid disorders or it might be the body's reaction to stress, trauma or an infection. Infections and Blood Glucose Levels When your body is under mental or physical stress, such as when fighting off an infection, hormones such as cortisol are released to help your body cope. The hormones that are released to fight off the infection might have the side effect of raising your blood sugar levels, so your body has the energy it needs to get better. This effect can happen to both diabetics and nondiabetics. If you have an infection and are concerned about your blood sugar levels, it is important to know the warning signs of nondiabetic hyperglycemia, which are the same symptoms that occur in diabetics: hunger, sweating, shakiness, dizziness, lightheadedness, thirst, sleepiness, confusion, diffic Continue reading >>

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