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Why Is Type 1 Diabetes Genetic?

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The Genetic Basis of Kidney Cancer: Targeting the Metabolic Basis of Disease Air date: Wednesday, November 20, 2013, 3:00:00 PM Runtime: 01:05:55 Description: NIH Wednesday Afternoon Lecture Annual Astute Clinican Lecture Dr. Linehan has had a long-standing interest in identification of the genetic basis of cancer of the kidney. Kidney cancer is not a single disease. It is made up of a number of different types of cancer, each of which has a different histology, a different clinical course, which respond differently to therapy and are caused by different genes. Studies of the kidney cancer gene pathways have revealed that kidney cancer is fundamentally a metabolic disease. These findings have provided the foundation for the development of targeted therapeutic approaches for patients with advanced forms of this disease. The annual Astute Clinician lecture within the NIH Director's Wednesday Afternoon Lecture Series (WALS) highlights exciting clinical observations that have served as a focus for research. This series has been made possible through the generous gift of the late Dr. Robert W. Miller, Scientist Emeritus, National Cancer Institute and his wife, Haruko (Holly) Miller. For

Genetic Basis For Type 1 Diabetes | British Medical Bulletin | Oxford Academic

Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is characterized by autoimmune destruction of insulin-producing -cells in the pancreas resulting from the action of environmental factors on genetically predisposed individuals. The increasing incidence over recent decades remains unexplained, but the capacity of identifying infants at highest genetic risk has become an increasing requirement for potential therapeutic intervention trials. Literature searches on T1D and genes were carried out, and key papers since the 1970s were highlighted for inclusion in this review. Early genetic studies identified the most important region for genetic susceptibility to T1Dthe human leukocyte antigen genes on chromosome 6; later shown to contribute approximately half of the genetic determination of T1D. The other half is made up of multiple genes, each having a limited individual impact on genetic susceptibility. Historically, there have been many controversial genetic associations with T1D, mostly caused by underpowered casecontrol studies but these are now decreasing in frequency. The functional effect of each gene associated with T1D must be investigated to determine its usefulness both in risk assessment and as a poten Continue reading >>

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  1. derrick013

    sugarfree red bull and coffee

    what harm does it do to us

  2. lionrampant

    None in moderation. Although there was a study somewhere recently (cannot remember where I saw it) that said even black coffee can raise blood sugar levels. Odd. :?

  3. timo2

    hello derrick013,
    The taurine in red bull can lower your blood sugar levels by improving your body's sensitivity to insulin. Taurine will also lower your blood sugar by mimicking the action of insulin.
    The caffeine in coffee(and red bull) will cause your blood sugars to rise.
    Regards,
    timo.

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Genetic Basis For Type 1 Diabetes | British Medical Bulletin | Oxford Academic

Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is characterized by autoimmune destruction of insulin-producing -cells in the pancreas resulting from the action of environmental factors on genetically predisposed individuals. The increasing incidence over recent decades remains unexplained, but the capacity of identifying infants at highest genetic risk has become an increasing requirement for potential therapeutic intervention trials. Literature searches on T1D and genes were carried out, and key papers since the 1970s were highlighted for inclusion in this review. Early genetic studies identified the most important region for genetic susceptibility to T1Dthe human leukocyte antigen genes on chromosome 6; later shown to contribute approximately half of the genetic determination of T1D. The other half is made up of multiple genes, each having a limited individual impact on genetic susceptibility. Historically, there have been many controversial genetic associations with T1D, mostly caused by underpowered casecontrol studies but these are now decreasing in frequency. The functional effect of each gene associated with T1D must be investigated to determine its usefulness both in risk assessment and as a poten Continue reading >>

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  1. ninamarie8253

    Reactive Hypoglycemia? Or no?

    Hello all! I am a healthy mostly vegan young woman trying to figure out what went wrong with me about 3 years ago after developing Lyme Disease (which caused me to develop Dysautonomia and Small Intestinal Bacterial Overgrowth).
    When I wake up, I often feel weak/shaky until I eat something. I cannot go more than a few hours upon waking without eating something or I feel like fainting. Then about 2-4 hours after eating, I am hungry again, and the longer I wait the more symptomy I get with shakiness, confusion, hunger, anxiety, tunnel vision, weakness, tachycardia, irregular heartbeats, lightheadedness, etc. After having 2 meals in the day, I feel a bit better and can go 6 hours until dinner time, but there is no way I can ever fast or skip a meal because I will feel like I'm in a panic doom about to faint. I have even gone to the hospital, shaking uncontrollably with severe panic, sweating, tachycardia and lightheadedness, but all of my blood results looked fine and they sent me home.
    I have taken my fasting blood glucose when rising and it is always 85-99. I just had my doctor do some tests after a 14hour fast and my glucose was 97, A1c was 5.3 (reference range 4.8-5.6) and eAG (estimated average glucose) 105mg/dl.
    However, my Insulin levels were low at 0.6 uIU/mL (reference range 2.6-24.9).
    Does this seem right? I have All of the symptoms for reactive hypoglycemia, but none of the evidence for it..
    I do notice that when I have more gas (from SIBO) I seem to feel more symptomy and get hungry quicker, and when I burp I feel a bit better. But still nothing but food fixes it, besides tums..sometimes taking a tums helps stall the hunger an hour or so. And I have checked for h-pylori and candida, no evidence of that. Just evidence of hydrogen bacteria overgrowth in the small intestines towards the colon and lyme disease that seemed to cause all of this to start (although even as a teenager I got emotional and symptomatic trying to do a fruit fast, so idk).
    What do the low insulin levels mean?
    Thank you guys for your wisdom and help.
    -Nina Marie

  2. AnnC

    Have you discussed this with your doctor following your blood tests, and if so, what did she/he consider was the problem, and what treatment recommendations were made?

  3. Willow593

    Welcome.
    What does your doctor say about what you have described? Can the hydrogen bacteria overgrowth be treated? Is it being treated? Sorry for all the questions.

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http://ehow2.co/diabetes-treatment - Visit the link and discover more about symptoms and treatment of diabetes type 1 in men and women. Diabetes Type 1 - Diabetes Type 1 Life Expectancy - Type 1 Diabetes - Living With Diabetes Type 1 Diabetes Type 1 Diabetes Type 1 diabetes is an autoimmune condition, which means your immune system attacks healthy body tissue by mistake. In this case, it attacks the cells in your pancreas. Your damaged pancreas is then unable to produce insulin, so that glucose cannot be moved out of your bloodstream and into your cells. Complications of Diabetes Type 1 Diabetes is the most common cause of vision loss and blindness in people of working age. Everyone with diabetes aged 12 or over should be invited to have their eyes screened once a year for diabetic retinopathy. Diabetes is the reason for many cases of kidney failure and lower limb amputation. People with diabetes are up to five times more likely to have cardiovascular disease, such as a stroke, than those without diabetes. Diabetes Type 1 Treatment If you have type 1 diabetes, you'll need to eat a healthy, balanced diet. Loose weight, if you're overweight, and maintaining a healthy weight. Stopping

About Type 1 Diabetes

Type 1 diabetes is less common than type 2 diabetes. In the past, type 1 diabetes was called juvenile diabetes, juvenile-onset diabetes, or insulin-dependent diabetes. Today we realize those terms aren't accurate. People can develop type 1 as adults, children can develop type 2, and people with type 2 might need to take insulin shots. Type 1 diabetes is known as an autoimmune disease. It happens because a person's immune system destroys the body's beta cells, which make insulin and release it into the blood stream. These cells are located in an organ called the pancreas. When the immune system destroys the beta cells, the body stops being able to make insulin. Signs of type 1 diabetes start to show up when half or more of the beta cells have been destroyed. People who have type 1 diabetes will begin to take insulin shots right away, to replace the insulin their bodies no longer make. Type 1 diabetes is inherited, which means a group of genes that can lead to type 1 diabetes is passed down from mothers and fathers to their children. A person with a parent, brother, or sister with type 1 diabetes has a greater chance of also developing type 1 diabetes. Genes play an important role i Continue reading >>

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  1. Rafique

    There are two types of diabetes mellitus.
    a. Type 1 diabetes mellitus b. Type 2 diabetes melliuts
    Is either of them a sex linked disease? Can either one be inherited? My book says, "this disease is transmitted as a recessive genetic characteristic." What does this mean?

  2. MCM

    Is either of them a sex linked disease? Can either one be inherited? My book says, "this disease is transmitted as a recessive genetic characteristic." What does this mean?
    Neither are sex-linked. Type 1 can be directly inherited (in a non-Mendelian fashion), but Type 2 genetic factors mostly increase risks. "Recessive genetic traits" are traits that only express themselves when ONLY the recessive alleles are present in the organism (a dominant allele, if present, will 'overpower' recessive one).
    Longer info:
    Diabetes mellitus Type 1 (Juvenile Diabetes) is inherited, but it is autosomal with complex dominant/recessive rules:
    Type 1 diabetes is a polygenic disease, meaning many different genes contribute to its onset. Depending on locus or combination of loci, it can be dominant, recessive, or somewhere in between.
    That results in some interesting, albeit complex, expressions:
    The risk of a child developing type 1 diabetes is about 10% if the father has it, about 10% if a sibling has it, about 4% if the mother has type 1 diabetes and was aged 25 or younger when the child was born, and about 1% if the mother was over 25 years old when the child was born.
    Diabetes mellitus Type 2 does have genetic components, but the vast majority merely increase the risk of developing Type 2 Diabetes. Environmental factors play a large role in Type 2.
    Excess body fat is associated with 30% of cases in those of Chinese and Japanese descent, 60-80% of cases in those of European and African descent, and 100% of Pima Indians and Pacific Islanders.

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