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Why Is Diabetes So Common

Type 1 And Type 2 Diabetes Rising Among U.s. Youth

Type 1 And Type 2 Diabetes Rising Among U.s. Youth

are rising among U.S. kids and teens, according to the first national snapshot of diabetes rates among American youths. The new report, presented this weekend in Philadelphia at the American Diabetes Association's annual meeting, shows a 23% rise in rates of type 1 diabetes and a 21% rise in type 2 diabetes rates from 2001 to 2009. Both trends are sounding alarm bells for researchers. The rise in type 1 diabetes is "alarming," says researcher Elizabeth Mayer-Davis, PhD, MSPH, RD, of the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. Even so, it was not a complete surprise, as a similar increase has been reported among European youth, Mayer-Davis says. Diabetes has serious long-term health risks. It makes heart disease, kidney problems, nerve damage, and many other conditions more likely. "This is frightening," says Robert E. Ratner, MD, chief scientific and medical officer of the American Diabetes Association. "These are harbingers of adult health problems," he tells WebMD. If the trend is not reversed, there could be an epidemic of heart disease, stroke, and kidney failure when this generation is age 25-35, Ratner says. It's not clear why type 1 diabetes is becoming more common. One theory holds that today's infants are exposed to fewer viruses and bacteria that help the immune system mature, says researcher Dana Dabelea, MD, PhD, of the University of Colorado in Denver. Some studies also suggest a possible link between very early exposure to cow's milk and certain foods to a higher risk of type 1 diabetes. "Studies are exploring whether later introduction of some foods to the infant's diet may be protective," Dabelea tells WebMD. "But we really don't know the cause." The rise in type 2 diabetes, though dramatic, was less surprising. That's because obesity is a major ris Continue reading >>

Diabetes Mystery: Why Are Type 1 Cases Surging?

Diabetes Mystery: Why Are Type 1 Cases Surging?

When public health officials fret about the soaring incidence of diabetes in the U.S. and worldwide, they are generally referring to type 2 diabetes. About 90 percent of the nearly 350 million people around the world who have diabetes suffer from the type 2 form of the illness, which mostly starts causing problems in the 40s and 50s and is tied to the stress that extra pounds place on the body’s ability to regulate blood glucose. About 25 million people in the U.S. have type 2 diabetes, and another million have type 1 diabetes, which typically strikes in childhood and can be controlled only with daily doses of insulin. For reasons that are completely mysterious, however, the incidence of type 1 diabetes has been increasing throughout the globe at rates that range from 3 to 5 percent a year. Although the second trend is less well publicized, it is still deeply troubling, because this form of the illness has the potential to disable or kill people so much earlier in their lives. No one knows exactly why type 1 diabetes is rising. Solving that mystery—and, if possible, reducing or reversing the trend—has become an urgent problem for public health researchers everywhere. So far they feel they have only one solid clue. “Increases such as the ones that have been reported cannot be explained by a change in genes in such a short period,” says Giuseppina Imperatore, who leads a team of epidemiologists in the Division of Diabetes Translation at the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. “So environmental factors are probably major players in this increase.” A Challenge of Counting Type 1 and type 2 diabetes share the same underlying defect—an inability to deploy insulin in a manner that keeps blood sugar from rising too high—but they arise out of almos Continue reading >>

The Growing Incidence Of Obesity And Type 2 Diabetes In Young People

The Growing Incidence Of Obesity And Type 2 Diabetes In Young People

As the new year begins, many people make resolutions, often having to do with weight. In a country where 71 percent of adults age 20 years and over are overweight or obese, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), it is no wonder that adults are resolving to eat more healthfully, exercise more and lose weight. But, as adults strive to adopt healthier habits, it is important for them not to forget their children. Children too have been increasing in weight. Indeed, as revealed in a new white paper from FAIR Health, Obesity and Type 2 Diabetes as Documented in Private Claims Data: Spotlight on This Growing Issue among the Nation’s Youth, over the years from 2011 to 2015 obesity became a more serious problem for the nation’s young people, as did type 2 diabetes, to which obesity contributes. Type 2 diabetes was once so rare in children that it was often referred to as “adult-onset diabetes.” But, notably, it has now become all too common in young people. In the new white paper, we at FAIR Health, an independent, national, nonprofit organization dedicated to transparency in healthcare costs and health insurance information, consulted our database of over 21 billion privately billed healthcare claims to study trends and patterns in obesity and type 2 diabetes. We investigated the period from 2011 to 2015 in the pediatric population, which we defined as spanning the ages from 0 to 22 years. Findings on type 2 diabetes and obesity We found that claim lines with a type 2 diabetes diagnosis more than doubled in the pediatric population during that period, increasing 109 percent. Claim lines with a diagnosis of obesity also increased across the pediatric population, ranging from a 45 percent rise among 3- to 5-year-olds to a jump of 154 percent a Continue reading >>

Diabetes: The Epidemic

Diabetes: The Epidemic

On Barbara Young's office table is a graph. A bar chart, actually: four columns of green, purple, red and bright blue showing the progression, in England, of rates of coronary heart disease, stroke, cancer and diabetes over the past five years. The first two are flatlining or falling. Cancer, in red, is rising, but slowly. Trace a line between the blue bars from 2005 to 2010, and it soars off the chart. "Diabetes," says Young flatly, "is becoming a crisis. The crisis. It's big, it's scary, it's growing and it's very, very expensive. It's clearly an epidemic, and it could bring the health service to its knees. Something really does need to happen." Baroness Young is, admittedly, the chief executive of Diabetes UK, Britain's main diabetes charity and campaigning group. It's her job to say such things. But the figures are behind her all the way: diabetes is fast becoming the 21st century's major public-health concern. The condition is now nearly four times as common as all forms of cancer combined, and causes more deaths than breast and prostate cancer combined. Some 2.8m people in the UK have been diagnosed with it; an estimated 850,000 more probably have type 2 diabetes but don't yet know. Another 7m are classified as high-risk of developing type 2; between 40% and 50% of them will go on to develop it. By the year 2025, more than 5m people in this country will have diabetes. The implications for the NHS, obviously, don't bear thinking about. Diabetes already costs the service around £1m an hour, roughly 10% of its entire budget. That's not just because the condition generally has to be managed with medication or insulin, but because by the time they are diagnosed, around half the people with type 2 – by far the most common and fastest growing form – have developed a Continue reading >>

Diabetes Cases Have Quadrupled In Just Over 3 Decades

Diabetes Cases Have Quadrupled In Just Over 3 Decades

(CNN)It's a potentially fatal disease whose risks can in many cases be prevented through lifestyle measures. So why has diabetes seen a massive increase in sufferers? The number of people living with the potentially fatal disease has quadrupled since 1980, to more than 400 million, according to the World Health Organization (WHO). Worldwide, diabetes killed 1.5 million in 2012 alone, with high blood-glucose causing another 2.2 million deaths, the organization says. In its first Global Diabetes Report, the WHO says a "whole-of-government and whole-of-society approach" is required to tackle the disease, which costs an estimated $827 billion annually in patient care and medicine. Findings of the WHO report were published in the medical journal Lancet, and highlight inequalities between countries, as diagnoses and medicine are more accessible in high-income nations. Diabetes is a chronic disease caused by the body's failure to produce enough insulin to regulate blood glucose -- or blood sugar. Raised blood glucose can eventually damage the heart, blood vessels, eyes, kidneys and nerves. Abnormally low blood glucose can cause seizures and loss of consciousness. Type 2 diabetes -- which results from the body's ineffective use of insulin -- is far more common and can be influenced by lifestyle as well as genetic and metabolic factors. Impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and impaired fasting glycemia (IFG) are elevated glucose levels not yet at the level of diabetes but which nonetheless increase the risk of heart attacks and strokes. Additionally, pregnant woman can develop gestational diabetes, increasing the risk of complications and the long-term risk of type 2 diabetes. The WHO says that between 1980 and 2014, the percentage of adults with diabetes increased from 4.7% of the Continue reading >>

Why Indians Are At Higher Risk Of Diabetes

Why Indians Are At Higher Risk Of Diabetes

Compared to those in the developed world, middle classes in India and other developing countries are more susceptible to Type-2 diabetes, obesity and cardiovascular diseases, thanks to their undernourished ancestors, says a study. The results, published in the journal Cell Metabolism, could explain projections that more than 70 percent of the global burden of Type-2 diabetes will fall on individuals from developing countries by 2030. According to the World Health Organisation (WHO), India will have 80 million people with diabetes by 2030. Based on their results that eating a ‘normal’ diet can make animals overweight, if their ancestors had been undernourished for several generations, the researcher from University of Sydney in Australia, the National Centre for Cell Science and the DYP Medical College in Pune, India said that diabetes is linked to the nutrition endured by ancestors. “People in developing countries have faced multi-generational undernutrition and are currently undergoing major lifestyle changes, contributing to an epidemic of metabolic diseases, though the underlying mechanisms remain unclear,” the study said. Increasing prosperity in developing countries has been accompanied by a sudden increase in caloric intake. However their populations’ epigenetic makeup, whereby changing environmental factors alter how people’s genes are expressed, has not compensated for these dietary changes. This means their bodies are still designed to cope with undernourishment; so they store fat in a manner that makes them more prone to obesity and its resulting diseases than populations accustomed to several generations of a ‘normal’ diet. This scenario was recreated in a 12-year study of two groups of rats by associated professor Anandwardhan Hardikar’s te Continue reading >>

5 Reasons Why Type One Diabetes Is On The Rise

5 Reasons Why Type One Diabetes Is On The Rise

A 2009 study in The Lancet found that new cases of type 1 diabetes in kids could double in the next 10 years. Possible reasons for this dramatic rise include: Too big too fast. The "accelerator hypothesis" theorizes that children who are bigger and grow more quickly are more likely to develop type 1 diabetes. Too little sun. The "sunshine hypothesis" comes from data showing that countries situated closer to the equator have lower rates of type 1 diabetes. Too clean. The "hygiene hypothesis" is the notion that cleanliness -- lack of exposure to certain germs and parasites -- may increase susceptibility to diseases like diabetes. Too much cow's milk. The "cow's milk hypothesis" states that exposing babies to infant formula containing cow's milk in the first six months of life damages their immune systems, and can trigger autoimmune diseases such as type 1 diabetes. Too much pollution. The "POP hypothesis" alleges that being exposed to pollutants increases diabetes risk. Unlike type 2 diabetes, which is caused by insulin resistance and faulty leptin signaling due to inappropriate diet and lack of exercise, people with type 1 diabetes do not produce insulin and must therefore inject insulin several times a day if they are to remain alive. Tragically those with type 1 diabetes can have the healthiest lifestyle possible yet still suffer many diseases, as current technology is a poor substitute for a fully functioning pancreas. Type 1 diabetes is actually an autoimmune disease, in which the immune system destroys pancreatic cells that produce insulin. The disease tends to progress rather quickly and therefore needs to be diagnosed early, as it can result in serious long-term complications including blindness, kidney failure, heart disease and stroke. While type 1 diabetes is f Continue reading >>

Diabetes Incidence And Historical Trends

Diabetes Incidence And Historical Trends

Type 1 Diabetes Incidence There are approximately 500,000 children aged under 15 with type 1 diabetes in the world (Patterson et al. 2014); in 2013 alone, 79,000 more children developed type 1 (IDF Diabetes Atlas 2013). Worldwide, the incidence of type 1 diabetes increased, on average, 3% per year between 1960 to 1996 in children under age 15 (Onkamo et al. 1999). Between 1990 and 1999, incidence increased in most continents, with a rise of 5.3% in North America, 4% in Asia, and 3.2% in Europe. This trend is especially troubling in the youngest children; for every hundred thousand children under age 5, 4% more were diagnosed every year, on average, worldwide (Diamond Project Group 2006). In the U.S., the latest data show that the prevalence of type 1 diabetes increased by 21% in children between 2001 and 2009 (Dabelea et al. 2014), and the incidence of type 1 diabetes in non-Hispanic whites increased by 2.7% per year between 2002 and 2009 (Lawrence et al. 2014). More recent numbers show that overall, type 1 diabetes incidence in children increased by 1.8% per year between 2002 and 2012 (Mayer-Davis et al. 2017). Those numbers are from the SEARCH for Diabetes in Youth study, which has study centers in 5 U.S. states. The CDC collects nation-wide data on diabetes, but does not differentiate between type 1 and type 2 diabetes. A study of a large population of U.S. patients with commercial health insurance found that type 1 (and type 2) prevalence increased between 2002-2013 in children (Li et al. 2015). Another study of U.S. patients-- both children and adults-- with commercial health insurance found that the type 1 diabetes incidence rate increased 1.9% in children between 2001 and 2015, and varied by area. The incidence decreased during that same time period in adults, al Continue reading >>

Why Is Diabetes An Epidemic In The African American Community?

Why Is Diabetes An Epidemic In The African American Community?

This paper reflects the research and thoughts of a student at the time the paper was written for a course at Bryn Mawr College. Like other materials on Serendip, it is not intended to be "authoritative" but rather to help others further develop their own explorations. Web links were active as of the time the paper was posted but are not updated. Contribute Thoughts | Search Serendip for Other Papers | Serendip Home Page "The facts are clear: The diabetes epidemic sweeping the U.S. is hitting the African American community particularly hard, according to doctors." (2) Diabetes is defined as, "A disease that affects the body's ability to produce or respond to insulin, a hormone that allows blood glucose (blood sugar) to enter the cells of the body and be used for energy." (1) There are two types of diabetes: type 1 diabetes and type 2 diabetes. Type 1 diabetes, which usually begins during childhood or adolescence, "Is a condition characterized by high blood glucose levels caused by total lack of insulin. This occurs when the body's immune system attacks the insulin producing beta cells in the pancreas and destroys them.." (2) Type 2 Diabetes, most common form of the disease, "Usually occurring in middle age adults after the age of forty-five, is a condition characterized by high blood glucose levels caused by either lack of insulin or the body's inability to use insulin efficiently." (2) National health surveys over the past 35 years show that the number of African American's that have been diagnosed with diabetes is drastically increasing. In fact, it has been reported, "Out of 16 million Americans with diabetes, twenty-three million are African Americans." (3) There are clearly many implications on why diabetes is so rampant in the African American community, those of w Continue reading >>

Overview

Overview

The importance of both diabetes and these comorbidities will continue to increase as the population ages. Therapies that have proven to reduce microvascular and macrovascular complications will need to be assessed in light of the newly identified comorbidities. Lifestyle change has been proven effective in preventing or delaying the onset of type 2 diabetes in high-risk individuals. Based on this, new public health approaches are emerging that may deserve monitoring at the national level. For example, the Diabetes Prevention Program research trial demonstrated that lifestyle intervention had its greatest impact in older adults and was effective in all racial and ethnic groups. Translational studies of this work have also shown that delivery of the lifestyle intervention in group settings at the community level are also effective at reducing type 2 diabetes risk. The National Diabetes Prevention Program has now been established to implement the lifestyle intervention nationwide. Another emerging issue is the effect on public health of new laboratory based criteria, such as introducing the use of A1c for diagnosis of type 2 diabetes or for recognizing high risk for type 2 diabetes. These changes may impact the number of individuals with undiagnosed diabetes and facilitate the introduction of type 2 diabetes prevention at a public health level. Several studies have suggested that process indicators such as foot exams, eye exams, and measurement of A1c may not be sensitive enough to capture all aspects of quality of care that ultimately result in reduced morbidity. New diabetes quality-of-care indicators are currently under development and may help determine whether appropriate, timely, evidence-based care is linked to risk factor reduction. In addition, the scientific evid Continue reading >>

Diabetes As A Development Issue

Diabetes As A Development Issue

Non-communicable diseases such as diabetes are often associated with industrialised countries, and communicable diseases with developing countries. In the past this division was partly justified, but as a result of globalisation and urbanisation the prevalence of this disease is rising rapidly also in low- and middle-income countries. It not only causes further health problems, it also has a high economic impact that has the power to undermine the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). Diabetes needs to be managed well in any country, but conditions in poor countries are particularly challenging. [ By David Whiting ] Diabetes is a chronic, non-communicable disease. There are two main types: type 1 is diagnosed primarily in the young and is characterised by the absence of insulin; type 2 is usually diagnosed in adults and is characterised by a relative insufficiency of insulin. Both forms of diabetes lead to serious complications if not managed properly – including damage to sight and nerves, kidney disease, amputations and increased risk of cardiovascular disease, such as strokes, for example. The causes of type 1 are largely unknown, although there is some evidence of a link to infections. The causes of type 2 diabetes are largely related to economic development. Urbanisation, mechanisation and globalisation lead to reduced physical activity and a diet that contains more fat and salt, which in turn lead to obesity and raised blood pressure. Diabetes therefore is a development issue. According to the International Diabetes Federation, currently 246 million people worldwide live with diabetes and it is expected that 380 million will be affected by 2025. This will mostly concern people aged 45-64 years in low- and middle-income countries. So by 2030 more than 80 % of peop Continue reading >>

Why Gestational Diabetes Is On The Rise

Why Gestational Diabetes Is On The Rise

Gestational diabetes cases are soaring, and you (as well as your baby) might be at risk without even knowing it. Find out gestational diabetes symptoms and diet. Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), or high blood sugar during pregnancy, used to be relatively rare, occurring in about 3 percent to 4 percent of pregnancies. But in recent years, the rate has doubled—now, up to 6 percent to 8 percent of moms-to-be are diagnosed with this prenatal complication. And new recommendations lowering the cutoff point for diagnosis may lead to an even more dramatic increase. If these new guidelines from an international panel of 50 experts are adopted in the United States, 16 percent of pregnant women may hear the words, "You have gestational diabetes." In women with GDM, excess glucose (blood sugar) passes from the mother's bloodstream through the placenta. Serious pregnancy complications include preeclampsia (a serious high blood pressure condition that can be fatal), preterm delivery and delivery of overweight babies, often via Cesarean section. Some 70 percent to 80 percent of women diagnosed with GDM in the United States eventually develop type II diabetes. New research is showing that GDM can have long-term consequences for children as well. "Children of women with GDM are at risk for developing type II diabetes themselves," says Danielle Downs, Ph.D., an associate professor of kinesiology and obstetrics and gynecology at Pennsylvania State University who conducts research on gestational diabetes. But even normal-size babies who are born to mothers with untreated GDM are at greater risk of becoming overweight kindergarteners—and, consequently, overweight adults. Although being overweight is a major risk factor for GDM, only about half of women diagnosed with it carry excess Continue reading >>

Type 1 Diabetes

Type 1 Diabetes

Greg has , so when he started feeling sluggish and tired all the time — even after getting a good night's sleep — he chalked it up to high blood sugar levels. But he'd been doing a great job sticking to his meal plan, exercising, and taking his diabetes medicines, and his blood sugar checks showed his levels were in a healthy range. What was going on? Greg went to see his doctor, and tests revealed that he had a problem with his thyroid. People with type 1 diabetes have a greater risk for certain health problems (like Greg's thyroid problem). Like type 1 diabetes, these are often autoimmune disorders. Most teens with type 1 diabetes never need treatment for any other autoimmune disorder. But some do. So it can help to find out more about the diseases that can happen to people with type 1 diabetes. What Are Autoimmune Disorders? In autoimmune disorders, a person's immune system mistakenly attacks the body's healthy tissues as though they were foreign invaders. If the attack is severe enough, it can affect how well that body part works. For example, type 1 diabetes is an autoimmune disease that affects the pancreas. In type 1 diabetes, the pancreas can't make insulin because the immune system attacks the pancreas and destroys the cells that make insulin. People with type 1 diabetes are also more prone to having other autoimmune problems. Doctors aren't exactly sure why autoimmune diseases happen, but a person's genes probably play a role. Doctors think this is because family members of people with type 1 diabetes are more likely to have autoimmune diseases, too. Although certain autoimmune disorders are linked to diabetes, they are not actually caused by the diabetes — they're just more likely to happen to people who have the disease. Autoimmune diseases that people Continue reading >>

What Causes Diabetes Fatigue?

What Causes Diabetes Fatigue?

Fatigue is one of the most common disabling diabetes symptoms. Diabetes fatigue can disrupt and interfere with all aspects of daily living. What causes diabetes fatigue, and why is it so common? We’ve written about fatigue before and received tons of great comments on those posts. But this time let’s go deeper and find the whole range of causes and solutions, even if it takes a few weeks. Hopefully, everyone will find something that might help them, because this is a serious problem. For example, Melanie wrote, “[Fatigue] really takes a toll on my family and things we can do. I just want to have the energy to play with my son and to do things around the house or with friends…I can’t drive more than 30 minutes because my husband is afraid I will fall asleep…and wreck [the car]. (I have dozed while driving before.)” Maria commented, “Fatigue is a constant and I have had to learn to do only what I can. I don’t push myself anymore as I pay for it dearly. I get tired of explaining why I don’t feel good, don’t want to do anything. Some understand and some don’t.” And Jan wrote, “I sleep from midnight to noon each day. Then I get depressed because I wasted half a day.” Because of my multiple sclerosis (MS), I live with fatigue sometimes, and I know how limiting it is. I know how difficult it can be to manage. There are more than 15 known causes for fatigue. It helps to figure out what is causing yours, so you can address it. Here are some possibilities. First, diabetes can directly cause fatigue with high or low blood sugar levels. • High blood glucose makes your blood “sludgy,” slowing circulation so cells can’t get the oxygen and nutrients they need. Margaret commented, “I can tell if my sugars are high in the morning, because ‘grogg Continue reading >>

Diabetes More Prevalent In African Americans Due To Living Conditions

Diabetes More Prevalent In African Americans Due To Living Conditions

The higher incidence of diabetes among African Americans when compared to whites may have more to do with living conditions than genetics, according to a study led by researchers at the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. The study, available online in advance of publication in the October 2009 edition of the Journal of General Internal Medicine, found that when African Americans and whites live in similar environments and have similar incomes, their diabetes rates are similar, which contrasts with the fact that nationally diabetes is more prevalent among African Americans than whites. Researchers from the Hopkins Center for Health Disparities Solutions and Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine compared data from the 2003 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) with the Exploring Health Disparities in Integrated Communities Southwest Baltimore (EHDIC-SWB) Study. The Baltimore study was conducted in a racially integrated urban community without race differences in socioeconomic status. In recent decades the United States has seen a sharp increase in diabetes prevalence, with African Americans having a considerably higher occurrence of type 2 diabetes and other related complications compared to whites. "While we often hear media reports of genes that account for race differences in health outcomes, genes are but one of many factors that lead to the major health conditions that account for most deaths in the United States," said Thomas LaVeist, PhD, director of the Hopkins Center for Health Disparities Solutions and lead author of the study. Some researchers have speculated that disparities in diabetes prevalence are the result of genetic differences between race groups. However, LaVeist noted that those previous studies were based on national dat Continue reading >>

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