Type 2 Diabetes Causes
Type 2 diabetes has several causes: genetics and lifestyle are the most important ones. A combination of these factors can cause insulin resistance, when your body doesn’t use insulin as well as it should. Insulin resistance is the most common cause of type 2 diabetes. Genetics Play a Role in Type 2 Diabetes Type 2 diabetes can be hereditary. That doesn’t mean that if your mother or father has (or had) type 2 diabetes, you’re guaranteed to develop it; instead, it means that you have a greater chance of developing type 2. Researchers know that you can inherit a risk for type 2 diabetes, but it’s difficult to pinpoint which genes carry the risk. The medical community is hard at work trying to figure out the certain genetic mutations that lead to a risk of type 2. Lifestyle Is Very Important, Too Genes do play a role in type 2 diabetes, but lifestyle choices are also important. You can, for example, have a genetic mutation that may make you susceptible to type 2, but if you take good care of your body, you may not develop diabetes. Say that two people have the same genetic mutation. One of them eats well, watches their cholesterol, and stays physically fit, and the other is overweight (BMI greater than 25) and inactive. The person who is overweight and inactive is much more likely to develop type 2 diabetes because certain lifestyle choices greatly influence how well your body uses insulin. Lack of exercise: Physical activity has many benefits—one of them being that it can help you avoid type 2 diabetes, if you’re susceptible. Unhealthy meal planning choices: A meal plan filled with high-fat foods and lacking in fiber (which you can get from grains, vegetables, and fruits) increases the likelihood of type 2. Overweight/Obesity: Lack of exercise and unhealthy me Continue reading >>
Diabetes And Genetics
Tweet Genetics play a strong role in the chances of developing both type 1 and type 2 diabetes. Other factors include environment and lifestyle. Diabetes is an increasingly common chronic condition affecting millions of people in the UK alone. Diabetes and genetic risk The risk of developing diabetes is affected by whether your parents or siblings have diabetes. The likelihood of developing type 1 diabetes or type 2 diabetes differ, as you can see below. Type 1 diabetes and genetics - average risks Mother with diabetes increases risk of diabetes by 2% Father with diabetes increases risk of diabetes by 8% Both parents with diabetes increases risk by 30% Brother or sister with diabetes increases risk by 10% Non-identical twin with diabetes increases risk by 15% Identical twin with diabetes increases risk by 40% Type 2 diabetes and genetics - average risks If either mother of father has diabetes increases risk of diabetes by 15% If both mother and father have diabetes increases risk by 75% If non-identical twin has diabetes increases risk by 10% If identical twin has diabetes increases risk by 90% Some other forms of diabetes may be directly inherited, including maturity onset diabetes in the young (MODY) and diabetes due to mitochondrial DNA mutation. However, neither type 1 or type 2 diabetes may be entirely genetically determined. Experts believe that environmental factors act as either ‘initators’ or ‘accelerators.’ Several genes are known as susceptibility genes, meaning that if an individual is carrying this gene they face greater risk of developing diabetes. Similarly, other genes provide greater immune tolerance for non-diabetics. My family have type 2 diabetes, will I get it? Type 2 diabetes is, in part, inherited. First degree relatives of individuals wit Continue reading >>
Which Type Of Diabetes Is More Likely To Be Inherited And Why?
Question: Which type of diabetes is more likely to be inherited and why? Answer: Type 1 diabetes typically occurs in childhood, while type 2 diabetes usually develops in adults. However, some adults develop a form of diabetes that looks very similar to type 1 diabetes, and now with the huge increase in obesity, many children and adolescents are getting type 2 diabetes. Now, both type 1 and type 2 diabetes have a genetic component; that means of course, that they tend to run in families. However, we often regard diseases that develop in childhood as being more likely to be due to genetics. But this is not the case for diabetes, and in fact, studies show that type 2, which mostly commonly develops in adulthood, seems to have a greater genetic basis than the childhood form of type 1 diabetes. For example, as you know, identical twins share 100 percent of their genetic material; however, if one twin has type 1 diabetes, the chance of that the other twin will develop it is only 10 to 20 percent. In contrast, if one twin has type 2, or the adult form of diabetes, the other twin has up to a 90 percent chance of developing type 2 diabetes. In type 2 diabetes, we know that overeating and lack of physical activity are very important contributors. Meanwhile, for type 1 diabetes, it's more the exposure to toxins in the environment, possibly viruses, and other external factors that can increase risk to this form of diabetes. Next: What Is The Risk That A Child Will Develop Diabetes If One Or Both Parents Are Diabetic? Previous: What Are The Meanings and Significance Of These Terms Related To Diabetes: 'Beta Cells,' 'Islets,' 'Glucagon,' and 'Amylin'? Continue reading >>
Type 1 Diabetes Risk Factors
There are several risk factors that may make it more likely that you’ll develop type 1 diabetes—if you have the genetic marker that makes you susceptible to diabetes. That genetic marker is located on chromosome 6, and it’s an HLA (human leukocyte antigen) complex. Several HLA complexes have been connected to type 1 diabetes, and if you have one or more of those, you may develop type 1. (However, having the necessary HLA complex is not a guarantee that you will develop diabetes; in fact, less than 10% of people with the “right” complex(es) actually develop type 1.) Other risk factors for type 1 diabetes include: Viral infections: Researchers have found that certain viruses may trigger the development of type 1 diabetes by causing the immune system to turn against the body—instead of helping it fight infection and sickness. Viruses that are believed to trigger type 1 include: German measles, coxsackie, and mumps. Race/ethnicity: Certain ethnicities have a higher rate of type 1 diabetes. In the United States, Caucasians seem to be more susceptible to type 1 than African-Americans and Hispanic-Americans. Chinese people have a lower risk of developing type 1, as do people in South America. Geography: It seems that people who live in northern climates are at a higher risk for developing type 1 diabetes. It’s been suggested that people who live in northern countries are indoors more (especially in the winter), and that means that they’re in closer proximity to each other—potentially leading to more viral infections. Conversely, people who live in southern climates—such as South America—are less likely to develop type 1. And along the same lines, researchers have noticed that more cases are diagnosed in the winter in northern countries; the diagnosis rate Continue reading >>
Same Genetic Factor Causes Both Type 1 And Type 2 Diabetes
Type 1 and type 2 diabetes may have the same underlying cause, namely “fragile” beta cells that are easily damaged by cellular stress. This was the conclusion of research by 29 researchers in Europe, Australia, and Canada led by Adrian Liston, who kindly sent me the full text of the paper. The research was published this month in the journal Nature Genetics. The traditional view of diabetes is that types 1 and 2 are quite different. Type 1 is an autoimmune disease in which the body’s own immune system destroys the beta cells, the cells that produce insulin, and the destruction is so great that patients must inject insulin. Type 2 is thought to occur because of insulin resistance. Insulin resistance means the body can still produce insulin, but cells don’t respond properly to it, so they are unable to overcome this resistance and may eventually die from “overwork.” The liver produces glucose when it thinks glucose is needed, and insulin is supposed to shut this process down when glucose levels are adequate. But insulin resistance in the liver means that it keeps pouring out glucose into the bloodstream even after meals when glucose levels are high. Because being overweight increases insulin resistance, obesity and rates of type 2 diabetes are associated, and some people call type 2 diabetes a “lifestyle disease” and blame patients with type 2 diabetes for “bringing it on themselves.” For this reason, some people want to change the names of the two diseases so it’s clear that they are different. But now it seems that the underlying cause of both diseases is the same: a genetic defect in the beta cells that makes them more susceptible to various kinds of stress. Without the fragile beta cells, people can tolerate insulin resistance by simply producing Continue reading >>
Genetics & Diabetes : What's Your Risk?
A school nurse anxiously wants to know if there is a reason why several children from her small grade school have been diagnosed with type 1 (juvenile onset) diabetes. Is it an epidemic? Will there be more cases? Is a recent chicken pox outbreak to blame? A man in his 50s develops type 2 diabetes. His mother developed diabetes in her 60s. Should this man's brother and sister be concerned, too? What about his children's chances of developing diabetes? A married couple wants to have children, but they are concerned because the husband has type 1 diabetes. They wonder what the risk is that their child would have diabetes. A couple has three young children. One of the children develops type 1 diabetes. There's no history of diabetes anywhere in either parent's families. Is this just a fluke? What are the chances the other children will develop diabetes? Chances are if you or a loved one have diabetes, you may wonder if you inherited it from a family member or you may be concerned that you will pass the disease on to your children. Researchers at Joslin Diabetes Center report that, while much has been learned about what genetic factors make one more susceptible to developing diabetes than another, many questions remain to be answered. While some people are more likely to get diabetes than others, and in some ways type 2 (adult onset diabetes) is simpler to track than type 1 (juvenile onset) diabetes, the pattern is not always clear. For more than 20 years researchers in the Epidemiology and Genetics Section at Joslin in Boston (Section Head Andrzej S. Krolewski, M.D., Ph.D., Senior Investigator James H. Warram, M.D., Sc.D., and colleagues) have been studying diabetes incidence and hereditary factors. They are continuing a scientific journey begun by Elliott P. Joslin, M.D., Continue reading >>
Genetics Of Diabetes
You've probably wondered how you got diabetes. You may worry that your children will get it too. Unlike some traits, diabetes does not seem to be inherited in a simple pattern. Yet clearly, some people are born more likely to get diabetes than others. What leads to diabetes? Type 1 and type 2 diabetes have different causes. Yet two factors are important in both. First, you must inherit a predisposition to the disease. Second, something in your environment must trigger diabetes. Genes alone are not enough. One proof of this is identical twins. Identical twins have identical genes. Yet when one twin has type 1 diabetes, the other gets the disease at most only half the time. When one twin has type 2 diabetes, the other's risk is at most 3 in 4. Type 1 diabetes In most cases of type 1 diabetes, people need to inherit risk factors from both parents. We think these factors must be more common in whites because whites have the highest rate of type 1 diabetes. Because most people who are at risk do not get diabetes, researchers want to find out what the environmental triggers are. One trigger might be related to cold weather. Type 1 diabetes develops more often in winter than summer and is more common in places with cold climates. Another trigger might be viruses. Perhaps a virus that has only mild effects on most people triggers type 1 diabetes in others. Early diet may also play a role. Type 1 diabetes is less common in people who were breastfed and in those who first ate solid foods at later ages. In many people, the development of type 1 diabetes seems to take many years. In experiments that followed relatives of people with type 1 diabetes, researchers found that most of those who later got diabetes had certain autoantibodies in their blood for years before. (Antibodies ar Continue reading >>
Genetic Epidemiology Of Type 2 Diabetes In Mexican Mestizos
Copyright © 2017 Eiralí Guadalupe García-Chapa et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. Abstract There are currently about 415 million people with diabetes worldwide, a figure likely to increase to 642 million by 2040. In 2015, Mexico was the second Latin American country and sixth in the world in prevalence of this disorder with nearly 11.5 million of patients. Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is the main kind of diabetes and its etiology is complex with environmental and genetic factors involved. Indeed, polymorphisms in several genes have been associated with this disease worldwide. To estimate the genetic epidemiology of T2D in Mexican mestizos a systematic bibliographic search of published articles through PubMed, Scopus, Google Scholar, and Web of Science was conducted. Just case-control studies of candidate genes about T2D in Mexican mestizo inhabitants were included. Nineteen studies that met the inclusion criteria were found. In total, 68 polymorphisms of 41 genes were assessed; 26 of them were associated with T2D risk, which were located in ABCA1, ADRB3, CAPN10, CDC123/CAMK1D, CDKAL1, CDKN2A/2B, CRP, ELMO1, FTO, HHEX, IGF2BP2, IRS1, JAZF1, KCNQ1, LOC387761, LTA, NXPH1, SIRT1, SLC30A8, TCF7L2, and TNF-α genes. Overall, 21 of the 41 analyzed genes were associated with T2D in Mexican mestizos. Such a genetic heterogeneity compares with findings in other ethnic groups. 1. Introduction Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is a metabolic disorder characterized by impaired glucose uptake in muscle and fat, altered glucose-induced insulin secretion, and increased hepatic glucose production, which lead to hypergl Continue reading >>
What Is Maturity-onset Diabetes Of The Young?
Maturity-Onset Diabetes of the Young or MODY affects 1-2% of people with diabetes, although it often goes unrecognised. The 3 main features of MODY are: Diabetes often develops before the age of 25 Diabetes runs in families from one generation to the next Diabetes may be treated by diet or tablets and does not always need insulin treatment Why does MODY run in families? MODY runs in families because of a change in a single gene which is passed on by affected parents to their children. We call this Autosomal Dominant Inheritance. All children of an affected parent with MODY have a 50% chance of inheriting the affected gene and developing MODY themselves. Why is it important to recognise it? There are different types of MODY. By finding out which type of MODY a person has the most appropriate treatment for them can be determined. Knowing the type of MODY a person has also means we can advise them about how their diabetes will progress in the future. As it runs in families, it is important to advise other family members of their risk of inheriting it. What different types of MODY have been identified? MODY is caused by a change in a single gene. 6 genes have been identified that account for 87% of UK MODY: Changes in these different genes lead to different types of MODY. For more information about these different types of MODY please click on one of the above. There are still more genes to identify as 13% of MODY is not yet accounted for. Click here to download slides on diagnosing MODY For further information on the clinical implications of a diagnosis of MODY, the following is a useful review: Murphy R, Ellard S, Hattersley AT.Clinical implications of a molecular genetic classification of monogenic beta-cell diabetes. Nat Clin Pract Endocrinol Metab. 2008 Apr; 4(4):200-1 Continue reading >>
Diabetes And Family History: How Much Risk Is Genetic?
Whether you have Type I or Type II diabetes, there are several factors that could have contributed to the disease. Among these are your family’s lifestyle and your genetic history. By gaining a better understanding of these two issues, you may be able to control your diabetes with more ease, or possibly (in the case of Type II) avoid it altogether. At the very least, understanding the risks created by your genetic and family history will allow you to detect diabetes earlier and avoid the damage it can do if left untreated. How Family Affects Diabetes Risk Your family affects your diabetes risk in two different ways. First, of course, your parents contributed to your genetic heritage. But there’s also the way your parents, your siblings, and your extended family may have influenced the way you eat, exercise, and care for yourself, because these are habits you learn from the people around you as you grow up. Your genetic makeup can play a big role in both Type I and Type II diabetes, while the way a family cares for itself and the habits you’re taught in regard to diet and exercise are generally more related to Type II risk. To help prevent Type II diabetes if you don’t have the disease yet or if you’re prediabetic, there are four questions the NIDDK suggests you ask your family. These are: Does anyone in your family have Type II diabetes and if so, who are they? Has anyone in your family been told they may develop diabetes or are at risk for it? Has anyone in your family been told they need to get more exercise or lose weight in order to prevent diabetes? Did your mother have diabetes when she was pregnant, either with me or with a sibling? Type II diabetes can be greatly affected by the lifestyle a family lives. As you grow up and get older you learn a lot of Continue reading >>
Genetic And Epigenetic Factors In Etiology Of Diabetes Mellitus Type 1
Abstract Diabetes mellitus type 1 (T1D) is a complex disease resulting from the interplay of genetic, epigenetic, and environmental factors. Recent progress in understanding the genetic basis of T1D has resulted in an increased recognition of childhood diabetes heterogeneity. After the initial success of family-based linkage analyses, which uncovered the strong linkage and association between HLA gene variants and T1D, genome-wide association studies performed with high-density single-nucleotide polymorphism genotyping platforms provided evidence for a number of novel loci, although fine mapping and characterization of these new regions remains to be performed. T1D is one of the most heritable common diseases, and among autoimmune diseases it has the largest range of concordance rates in monozygotic twins. This fact, coupled with evidence of various epigenetic modifications of gene expression, provides convincing proof of the complex interplay between genetic and environmental factors. In T1D, epigenetic phenomena, such as DNA methylation, histone modifications, and microRNA dysregulation, have been associated with altered gene expression. Increasing epidemiologic and experimental evidence supports the role of genetic and epigenetic alterations in the etiopathology of diabetes. We discuss recent results related to the role of genetic and epigenetic factors involved in development of T1D. The Editorial Board of the Section on Pediatric Trainees Monthly Feature is proud to feature an article by Dr Kavitha Selvaraj, who suggests that the effects of toxic stress can be combated through the development of physician–teacher partnerships. Her article concluded our series of featured essays on the Advocacy Campaign for 2016–2017. Catherine Spaulding, MD, Editor, Pediatrics, Continue reading >>
Genetics Of Type 1 Diabetes
The HLA region maps to chromosome 6p21.31. The classical HLA loci are encoded in a region of DNA approximately 4 Mb, with the class II loci at the centromeric end of the region and the class I loci at the telomeric end. The region contains >200 identified genes, over half of which are predicted to be expressed. A schematic representation of the HLA region, with T1D-relevant genes indicated, is shown in Figure 1. Only some of the HLA region genes are involved in the immune response; in particular, the genes that encode the classical HLA class I (A, B, and C) and class II (DR, DQ, and DP) antigens. Genes encoding classical HLA class I and class II antigens flank a chromosomal region that is sometimes referred to as the “class III region,” which contains some immunologically relevant genes (e.g., tumor necrosis factor [TNFA]) but no classical HLA genes. Products of loci encoding the six classical class I (A, B, and C) and class II (DR, DQ, and DP) antigens are structurally similar, cell-surface proteins that bind antigenic peptides and present them to T cells. DR-encoding genes differ from those encoding DQ and DP in two important ways. First, the DRA1 gene, which encodes the α chain of the DR molecule, is essentially monomorphic and does not require genotyping. Second, the DRB1 gene is present on all chromosomes, but additional DRB genes are present on specific haplotypes. Some of the additional DRB genes, e.g., DRB2, are pseudogenes; however, three of these (DRB3, DRB4, and DRB5) encode functional polypeptide chains that can pair with the DRA1 gene product to create a functional antigen. The role of these additional DR antigens in disease susceptibility is not yet understood. Molecules resembling the classical class I antigens are encoded in the HLA region, includin Continue reading >>
Genetics And Type 1 Diabetes
If you have type 1 diabetes, you might wonder if your child would get it, too. Or if one of your parents has it, what it means for you. Your genes definitely play a role in type 1, a less common form of diabetes that’s often diagnosed in children and young adults. But they’re not the whole story. Like much in life, it’s a mix of nature and nurture. Your environment, from where you grow up to the foods you eat, also matters. Researchers don’t know exactly how -- and how much -- all those things affect your chances of getting the disease. Your genes set the stage, but you can’t be certain how it'll all play out. There’s no diabetes gene that gets turned on or off to give you type 1. Instead, a bunch of them play a role, including a dozen or so that have the biggest say: the HLA genes. They make proteins your immune system uses to keep you healthy. Since type 1 diabetes is an autoimmune disease -- your body destroys the cells that make insulin -- it makes sense that HLA genes are front and center. There are thousands of versions of them in the human gene pool. Which ones you get from your parents affect your chances of diabetes in a big way. Some make you more likely to get it, while others can help protect you from it. You have type 1 if your body makes little or no insulin, a hormone that helps your body turn sugar into energy. Certain genes are more common in one group of people than in another. That’s why race and ethnicity affect things, too. For example, white people are more likely to have type 1 diabetes than others. But even if you have genes that make you more likely to get type 1, that doesn’t mean you definitely will. Even with identical twins -- who have the same exact genes -- sometimes one gets it and the other doesn’t. That’s where the e Continue reading >>
Genetic Testing For Neonatal Diabetes
A genetic test can alter treatment, predict prognosis and improve clinical management. The genetic team lead by Professors Andrew Hattersley and Sian Ellard in Exeter identified activating mutations in the KCNJ11 and ABCC8 genes, encoding the Kir6.2 and SUR1 subunits of the pancreatic K-ATP channel as the most common cause of neonatal diabetes which is typically diagnosed in the first six months of life (Gloyn et al. N Eng J Med 2004:350; 1838-1849; Proks et al, Hum Mol Genet 2006:15; 1793-1800). These patients often have de-novo mutations and so do not have diabetic relatives. However, around 10% show generation to generation transmission with an autosomal dominant inheritance and about 20% of patients have neurological features, typically developmental delay and in some cases epilepsy (termed DEND syndrome). Beta-cell autoantibodies seen in Type 1 diabetes are not detected. Patients usually present with very high glucose values and occasionally ketoacidosis and often C peptide is not measurable even in response to either glucose or glucagon. Treatment with high dose sulphonylureas is successful for most patients and achieves improved glycaemic control. Protocols for transfer and further information can be accessed here shortly «link pending». To date, at least 300 patients with a Kir6.2 or SUR1 mutation have been successfully treated with oral sulphonylurea tablets (stopping insulin completely with better control and less hypos) despite being apparently insulin dependent. Reports of this include: 1. Klupa T, et al. Diabetologia. 2005; 48(5):1029-31 2. Codner E, et al. Diabetes Care. 2005; 28(3)758-9 3. Zung A. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2004; 89(11):5504-7 4. Sagen JV, Diabetes. 2004; 53(10):2713-8 5. Pearson E, N Eng J Med 2006; 355(5): 467-477 6. Rafiq M, Diabetes C Continue reading >>
Is Diabetes A Hereditary Disease?
The entire approach and foundation of Orthodox Medicine is based on Luis Pasteur's Germ Theory, a flawed concept. A disease condition is viewed by the orthodoxy as an isolated event, confined to the area in which it manifests itself (E.g. an ear infection, eye infection, gum infection, lung cancer, skin cancer, diabetes, heart disease, etc. ). Under this theory, for unknown reasons, microbes or tumors indiscriminately grow in the patient and must be cut (surgery), burned (radiation), or poisoned (drugs) out of the body. In the orthodox model, the solution is sought through mechanical and chemical means. Seeking to understand WHY the infection or disease condition appeared in the first place, is not explored. The quick fix with a prescription for drugs to smother the symptoms is the typical orthodox 'answer'. A contemporary of Pasteur, Antoine Bechamp, had a different opinion as to why disease conditions 'took hold'. Bechamp felt that the ENVIRONMENT, or the ECOLOGY of the blood played the critical role in deciding whether disease conditions would manifest or not. It is important to discover the stressors (environmental, biological, chemical, psychological, and emotional) in a patient's life that cause a weakening of a particular bodily system; which in turn allows the manifestation of a disease condition in a weakened area. In order to maintain a state of health, all systems within the body need to exist in a state of balance or equilibrium. Imbalance leads to conditions of discomfort (dis-ease) which eventually spirals into ill health if not corrected. The Chinese and Indians (Ayurvedic medicine) had worked all of this out thousands of years ago. Doctors at the International Council for Truth in Medicine are revealing the truth about diabetes that has been suppressed f Continue reading >>