diabetestalk.net

Why Is Diabetes A Risk Factor For Stroke

Diabetes, Heart Disease, And Stroke

Diabetes, Heart Disease, And Stroke

Having diabetes means that you are more likely to develop heart disease and have a greater chance of a heart attack or a stroke. People with diabetes are also more likely to have certain conditions, or risk factors, that increase the chances of having heart disease or stroke, such as high blood pressure or high cholesterol. If you have diabetes, you can protect your heart and health by managing your blood glucose, also called blood sugar, as well as your blood pressure and cholesterol. If you smoke, get help to stop. What is the link between diabetes, heart disease, and stroke? Over time, high blood glucose from diabetes can damage your blood vessels and the nerves that control your heart and blood vessels. The longer you have diabetes, the higher the chances that you will develop heart disease.1 People with diabetes tend to develop heart disease at a younger age than people without diabetes. In adults with diabetes, the most common causes of death are heart disease and stroke. Adults with diabetes are nearly twice as likely to die from heart disease or stroke as people without diabetes.2 The good news is that the steps you take to manage your diabetes also help to lower your chances of having heart disease or stroke. What else increases my chances of heart disease or stroke if I have diabetes? If you have diabetes, other factors add to your chances of developing heart disease or having a stroke. Smoking Smoking raises your risk of developing heart disease. If you have diabetes, it is important to stop smoking because both smoking and diabetes narrow blood vessels. Smoking also increases your chances of developing other long-term problems such as lung disease. Smoking also can damage the blood vessels in your legs and increase the risk of lower leg infections, ulcers, a Continue reading >>

The Connection Between Diabetes, Heart Disease, And Stroke

The Connection Between Diabetes, Heart Disease, And Stroke

Aaron contacted TheDiabetesCouncil with some questions related to diabetes and heart disease. Aaron is 57 years old. He has had Type 2 diabetes for 12 years. Aaron visited his doctor related to swelling in his ankles and feet, shortness of breath, and weight gain. After some tests, the doctor informed him that on top of his Type 2 diabetes, he now has congestive heart failure. He was now wondering why did he have heart disease now and was it because of his diabetes? In order to help Aaron and other people with diabetes understand the connection between diabetes and heart disease and how to prevent it, we decided to look into the specific link between the two diseases. What is the connection between diabetes and heart disease? According to the American Heart Association, there exist a relationship between cardiovascular disease and diabetes: 68% percent of people with diabetes who are aged 65 and older die from heart disease and 16% die of a stroke. People with diabetes are more likely to die from a heart disease than those without diabetes. The National Institute of Health states the following for people with diabetes: They have additional causes of heart disease They are at higher risk of heart disease than those who do not have diabetes They may develop heart disease at a younger age Risk assessment must take into account the major risk factors (cigarette smoking, elevated blood pressure, abnormal serum lipids and lipoproteins, and hyperglycemia) and predisposing risk factors (excess body weight and abdominal obesity, physical inactivity, and family history of CVD). Identification of risk factors is a major first step for developing a plan for risk reduction in persons with diabetes. – Scott M. Grundy et al, Diabetes and Cardiovascular Disease In two words, the conn Continue reading >>

Study: Lack Of Sleep Linked To Risk Factors For Stroke, Diabetes And Heart Disease

Study: Lack Of Sleep Linked To Risk Factors For Stroke, Diabetes And Heart Disease

People who get less than six hours of sleep a night may be more likely to have risk factors that increase their odds of diabetes, heart disease and strokes, a Korean study suggests. This combination of risk factors - including high blood sugar, high cholesterol, extra fat around the midsection, high blood pressure and excess amounts of fats in the blood - is known as metabolic syndrome. “The 'short' sleepers should be aware of the risks of developing metabolic syndrome, which could lead them to suffer from life threatening and chronic diseases,” lead author Dr. Jang Young Kim of Yonsei University in South Korea said by email. Kim’s team followed about 2,600 adults for more than two years and found that participants who didn’t get at least six hours of sleep a night were 41 percent more likely to develop metabolic syndrome than individuals who got six to eight hours of shuteye. The findings are drawn from two lifestyle surveys that included questions about sleep habits. The surveys were administered once between 2005 and 2008 and again sometime between 2008 and 2011. Study participants also underwent medical exams and shared their medical history. After an average follow-up of 2.6 years, about 560 people in the study, or 22 percent of participants, developed metabolic syndrome, according to the results in the journal Sleep. Short sleep duration was linked to about 30 percent increased risk of high blood sugar and excess belly fat, as well as 56 percent higher odds of hypertension, compared to those who slept longer. One shortcoming of the study is its reliance on participants to accurately recall and report on their sleep habits, medical conditions and lifestyle behaviors, the authors acknowledge. It also lacked data on the quality of sleep. Still, the findings a Continue reading >>

Diabetes Mellitus: An Independent Risk Factor For Stroke?

Diabetes Mellitus: An Independent Risk Factor For Stroke?

Raised blood pressure is the strongest single risk factor for stroke in the general population. Diabetics are at increased risk of both hypertension and stroke. It is not clear if diabetes mellitus confers an excess risk of stroke that is independent of blood pressure. The authors examined the relation of diabetic status (personal history of diabetes and/or fasting plasma glucose greater than 7.8 mmol per liter) to stroke risk in a population-based cohort of 3,778 adults aged 50–79 years in Rancho Bernardo, California who were followed from 1972 for an average of 12 years. There were 232 stroke cases, 139 of which were ascertained from death certificates. Diabetics had higher mean systolic blood pressures, significantly so in females, and diabetics of both sexes were significantly more obese. Diabetics had greater univariate age-adjusted stroke mortality and morbidity rates than nondiabetics. The increased stroke rates were still apparent in diabetics after stratifying for systolic blood pressure. In multivariate analyses, the relative risks (RRs) for stroke mortality and morbidity associated with diabetes were not significantly changed in men (RR = 1.8) and women (RR = 2.2), after adjusting for the effect of risk factors including age, systolic blood pressure, cholesterol level, obesity, and smoking habits, and excluding persons with personal history of heart attack, heart failure, or stroke. These findings support the hypothesis that diabetes may confer excess risk of stroke independent of blood pressure. Continue reading >>

Why Is The Risk Of A Stroke In Young People On The Rise?

Why Is The Risk Of A Stroke In Young People On The Rise?

I assume you're talking about the recent report published in the Annals of Neurology. First, it's important to note that the increased risk over the last couple of decades looms large in terms of percentage but is quite small in terms of actual numbers: from 3.1 cases per 10,000 people to 4.7 cases per 10,000 people. Second, the authors note that some of the increase isn't actually because more people are having strokes, but that we're getting better at detecting and diagnosing strokes. Most of the young people who had strokes, according to the study, had diabetes or high blood pressure. So the risk factors that lead to diabetes or high blood pressure are, unsurprisingly, also risk factors for stroke: obesity, poor diet, smoking, lack of exercise. Continue reading >>

Stroke: Diabetes And Other Risk Factors

Stroke: Diabetes And Other Risk Factors

Diabetes can increase your risk for many health conditions, including stroke. In general, people with diabetes are 1.5 times more likely to have a stroke than people without diabetes. People with diabetes are often left with too much sugar in their blood. That’s because their body is often unable to maintain the delicate balance that insulin plays in helping blood cells create energy from sugar. Over time, this excess sugar can lead to the buildup of clots or fat deposits inside vessels that supply blood to the neck and brain. If these deposits grow, they can cause a narrowing of the blood vessel wall or even a complete blockage. When blood flow to your brain stops for any reason, a stroke occurs. Stroke is a condition in which blood vessels in the brain are damaged. Strokes are characterized by a number of factors, including where in the brain blood vessels have been damaged and what event actually caused the damage. The main types of stroke are ischemic stroke, hemorrhagic stroke, and transient ischemic attack (TIA). Ischemic stroke Ischemic stroke is the most common type of stroke. It occurs when an artery that supplies oxygen-rich blood to the brain is blocked, most often by a blood clot. About 87 percent of strokes are ischemic strokes. Hemorrhagic stroke Hemorrhagic stroke occurs when an artery in the brain leaks blood or ruptures. Approximately 15 percent of strokes are hemorrhagic strokes. Hemorrhagic strokes can be very serious, and are responsible for about 40 percent of stroke-related deaths. Transient ischemic attack (TIA) A TIA is sometimes called a ministroke because the blood flow to the brain is blocked for a minute or so. Rarely, it can be blocked for more than 5 minutes. A TIA is an ischemic stroke, but a very short-lived one. You shouldn’t ignore, Continue reading >>

Risk Factors For Stroke

Risk Factors For Stroke

- [Voiceover] What you see here is an anterior view of a guy with his brain showing. And you can see all these blood vessels that are supplying his brain here. And if anything happened to any of these blood vessels, they would deliver less blood to parts of the brain, which would likely result in a loss of brain function, which is what a stroke is. So we don't want him to have a stroke. So let's look at a few things that predispose one to developing a stroke, things called risk factors. And I think the easiest and, sort of, most intuitive way to do this is to pick a vessel, so we'll pick this one here, in the brain, and we'll look at the different things that can happen to that vessel that might predispose you to developing a stroke. So let's just zoom in on that area there. So we've zoomed in quite a bit here. So you can see the artery here. This is a cerebral artery. And this is all just sort of surrounding brain tissue, all this stuff in pink here. And all these wavy lines, these are all the, the grooves and ridges that sort of cover your brain. So what sort of things might affect your blood vessel and predispose you to having a stroke? Well, young blood vessels are usually nice and healthy. So the walls of the arteries are pretty strong and have a lot of tensile strength, whereas, when you get older, these walls sort of almost get a little bit weaker. So that sort of causes two issues. The first one is that, if this blood vessel wall is a little bit weaker, then it's more likely to rupture. And if it ruptures, then blood traveling within your arteries can more easily leak out and cause a hemorrhagic stroke. So that's the first thing. The second things is that, as you get older, your arteries, the walls of them, also get a bit stiffer. And stiffer blood vessels put y Continue reading >>

Stroke Risk Factors

Stroke Risk Factors

What is a Risk Factor? A risk factor is anything that increases your chance of illness, accidents, or other negative events. Risk factors may include: Medical history Genetic make-up Personal habits Life style Aspects of the environment Stroke and Risk Factors A stroke occurs when the brain’s blood flow stops or when blood leaks into brain tissue. The oxygen supply to a part of the brain is interrupted by a stroke, causing brain cells in that area to die. This means that some parts of the body may not be able to function. There are a number of risk factors that increase the chances of having a stroke. Some risk factors cannot be reversed or changed. They are uncontrollable. But you can do something about most of the risk factors for stroke. Some risk factors you can get rid of — like smoking. There are other risk factors you can’t get rid of, but can control — like diabetes. Risk Factors You Cannot Change You cannot reverse the following risk factors for stroke. You should be aware of how these risk factors apply to you. Age For every 10 years you live, your risk of having a stroke increases. Gender Men have 2 times more risk for stroke than women have. But more women die of stroke than of breast cancer. Race African Americans have 2 times more risk of stroke than other races have. Hispanics and Asians have the greatest risk for stroke from burst blood vessels. This type of stroke is called hemorrhagic (hem-er-RAJ-ik). Past Stroke or TIA If you’ve already had a stroke or a mini-stroke (TIA), your risk for stroke is now greater. TIA stands for transient (TRANS-yent) ischemic (iss-KEY-mik) attack. TIAs do not cause lasting damage; however, they are a warning sign that a more serious stroke may occur. Family History Your risk for stroke is greater when heart atta Continue reading >>

Diabetes As A Risk Factor For Stroke In Women Compared With Men: A Systematic Review And Meta-analysis Of 64 Cohorts, Including 775,385 Individuals And 12,539 Strokes.

Diabetes As A Risk Factor For Stroke In Women Compared With Men: A Systematic Review And Meta-analysis Of 64 Cohorts, Including 775,385 Individuals And 12,539 Strokes.

Diabetes mellitus is a risk factor for ischemic stroke with studies reporting a stronger (references {1,2}), similar (reference {3}), or weaker effect (references {4,5}) of diabetes mellitus on stroke risk in women compared with men. We reported in 201 Hispanic men, mean age 79 years, and in 302 Hispanic women, mean age 80 years, that at 45-month follow-up, diabetes mellitus was a significant independent risk factor for ischemic... To read the rest of this recommendation and access over 145,000 article recommendations from 3,700+ journals across biomedicine, register for a month’s FREE TRIAL and create your personalized F1000Prime homepage. What is F1000Prime? Over 145,000 recommendations of top articles in biology and medicine, contributed by the F1000 Faculty. Covering more than 3,700 peer-reviewed journals and updated daily, the data are easily navigated by subject area or advanced search. Unique tools allow creation of highly personalized article feeds and alerts to provide users with the most relevant and up-to-date content from F1000Prime and PubMed too. The F1000 Faculty selects, rates, and reviews articles they consider worthy of inclusion in F1000Prime to help you filter the mass of biomedical literature. It comprises more than 8,000 expert leading experts in Biology and Medicine, and includes Nobel Laureates, Lasker Award winners and Fellows of the Royal Society. Personalized homepage: for quick access to the most relevant F1000Prime article recommendations, plus relevant articles as soon as they are published. Follow articles and Faculty Members: pinpoint content and scientists closely related to your research. F1000 SmartSearches: feed the search engine clusters of related articles and be alerted as soon as similar articles appear in PubMed. Continue reading >>

Conditions That Increase Risk For Stroke

Conditions That Increase Risk For Stroke

Many common medical conditions can increase your chances of having a stroke. Work with your health care team to control your risk. Previous Stroke or Transient Ischemic Attack If you have already had a stroke or a transient ischemic attack (TIA), also known as a "mini-stroke," your chances of having another stroke are higher. High Blood Pressure High blood pressure is a leading cause of stroke. It occurs when the pressure of the blood in your arteries and other blood vessels is too high. There are often no symptoms of high blood pressure. Get your blood pressure checked often. If you have high blood pressure, lowering your blood pressure through lifestyle changes or medicine can also lower your risk for stroke. High Cholesterol Cholesterol is a waxy, fat-like substance made by the liver or found in certain foods. Your liver makes enough for your body’s needs, but we often get more cholesterol from the foods we eat. If we take in more cholesterol than the body can use, the extra cholesterol can build up in the arteries, including those of the brain. This can lead to narrowing of the arteries, stroke, and other problems. A blood test can tell your doctor if you have high levels of cholesterol and triglycerides (a related kind of fat) in your blood. Lower Your Risk for Stroke Learn the ABCS of stroke prevention: Aspirin: Aspirin may help lower your risk for stroke. Blood Pressure: Control your blood pressure. Cholesterol: Control your cholesterol. Smoking: Quit smoking or don’t start. Common heart disorders can increase your risk for stroke. For example, coronary artery disease increases your risk for stroke, because plaque builds up in the arteries and blocks the flow of oxygen-rich blood to the brain. Other heart conditions, such as heart valve defects, irregular hea Continue reading >>

Risk Factors For Stroke

Risk Factors For Stroke

Patient Education Why is it important to know my risk for stroke? Knowing your risk for stroke is the first step in preventing stroke. You can change or treat some risk factors, but others you can’t. By having regular medical checkups and knowing your risk, you can focus on what you can change and lower your risk of stroke. What risk factors can I change or treat? High blood pressure This is the single most important risk factor for stroke because it’s the number one cause of stroke. Know your blood pressure and have it checked at least once every two years. If it’s consistently 140/90 or above, it’s high. Talk to your doctor about how to control it. Tobacco use Don’t smoke cigarettes or use other forms of tobacco. Tobacco use damages blood vessels. Diabetes Mellitus Having diabetes increase your risk of stroke because it can cause disease of blood vessels in the brain. Work with your doctor to manage diabetes and reduce other risk factors. Carotid or other artery disease The carotid arteries in your neck supply most of the blood to your brain. A carotid artery damaged by a fatty buildup of plaque inside the artery wall may become blocked by a blood clot, causing a stroke. TIAs Transient ischemic attacks (TIAs) are “mini strokes” that produce stroke-like symptoms but no last effects. Recognizing and treating TIAs can reduce the risk of a major stroke. Know the warning signs of a TIA and seek emergency medical treatment immediately. Atrial fibrillation or other heart disease In atrial fibrillation the heart’s upper chambers quiver rather than beating effectively. This causes the blood to pool and clot, increasing the risk of stroke. People with other types of heart disease have a higher risk of stroke too. Certain blood disorders A high red blood cell cou Continue reading >>

Risk Factors For Stroke In Tanzania

Risk Factors For Stroke In Tanzania

Stroke is a leading cause of death and disability worldwide, mandating the need for a global strategy for stroke prevention.1, 2, 3 Central to the development of a strategy for stroke prevention is the need to establish the importance of modifiable risk factors for stroke, both globally and within regions and countries. Whereas the age-adjusted incidence of stroke is decreasing in high-income countries, it is increasing in low-income and middle-income countries.4 Until recently, our knowledge of risk factors for stroke was derived almost exclusively from western Europe and North America. Phase 1 of the INTERSTROKE study,3 which assessed the importance of risk factors in 22 high-income, middle-income, and low-income countries, reported that 90% of the population-attributable risk for stroke was associated with ten risk factors: hypertension, smoking, physical inactivity, poor diet, obesity, dyslipidaemia, diabetes mellitus, psychosocial stress, depression, and cardiac causes (eg, atrial fibrillation). Despite inclusion of 3000 cases and 3000 controls, this study was not large enough to reliably assess whether there were important regional variations in the effect of risk factors. Such information is essential to implement region-specific population-based interventions to reduce the burden of stroke. The full-scale INTERSTROKE study, which now includes more than 26 000 participants from 31 countries, and which is expected to be reported in 2014, will provide reliable estimates of the importance of risk factors for stroke (both overall and by subtype) in different regions of the world. Regional variations in the importance of risk factors for stroke might relate to variations in the prevalence or strength of association of common risk factors, or to the presence of unique Continue reading >>

What Causes Sleep Apnea?

What Causes Sleep Apnea?

Sleep apnea is a period during sleep in which breathing either stops or is markedly reduced; it can be broken down into three broad categories: obstructive sleep apnea (OSA): where the airway is reduced/blocked central sleep apnea (CSA): when there is no neural signaling to breathe mixed/complex: some mix of the above === OSA === Normally, upper airway patency is maintained by structures and muscles of the nasopharynx and oropharynx. Patients with OSA have reduced patency (generally due to excess tissue or an overly-compliant airway) and this reduced airway size puts a person at higher risk of partial or complete upper airway failure, resulting in OSA. Simply put: the body wants to breathe, but can't. Once an obstructive apnea occurs, the person's body tends to wake up slightly in order to gain more control of breathing. Hence, people with OSA have a hard time getting good quality sleep. Major risk factors for OSA include obesity, craniofacial abnormalities, and upper airway soft tissue abnormalities (e.g. very large tongue). There is some evidence for a hereditary basis, but the overwhelming majority of cases are not genetic in origin. Other factors can come into play, such as smoking, nasal congestion, and diabetes. Nota bene: while these factors are strongly associated with OSA, their elimination isn't always curative, for reasons which are yet unclear. === CSA === Respiratory drive during sleep is controlled by phasic signals from brainstem nuclei that induce cyclic increases and decreases of ventilatory muscle activation. When this drive is less than the threshold needed for (a) inspiratory muscle activation and (b) maintaining upper airway patency during sleep, you get an apnea. Simply put: There's nothing that would prevent the body from breathing, but there is s Continue reading >>

How Do Babies Get Stroke?

How Do Babies Get Stroke?

That's a great question because as you may be aware, neonates (babies within the first month of life) have a much higher rate of suffering a stroke than older babies/children. The reason they suffer from stroke during this period is largely unknown but there are a few causes we know of for sure (note: although there are known causes, often when it happens you don't know which of the causes it may be). Regarding causes, I'll break it down to causes of the types of stroke. There are two types: the one where the artery gets clogged (thrombotic stroke) and the one where the artery bleeds out (hemorrhagic stroke). Thrombotic stroke is more common in neonates and adults alike. Thrombotic stroke: Firstly, clots can form in the placenta and be transported to the baby's blood vessels both in utero and during childbirth. Other causes during pregnancy are poorly controlled diabetes, high blood pressure (preeclampsia), certain infections (especially with high fever), illicit drug use, PROM (premature rupture of the membranes - when the water breaks too soon), and when the placenta separates from the uterine wall (abrupt placentae). Childbirth itself poses a risk. The birthing process is traumatic and much pressure is exerted on the baby's head, this can cause clots to form. This is worse with vacuum extractions and forceps deliveries. Deliveries with complications where the baby is deprived of oxygen are also a potential cause. At birth, they are born with a high percentage of red blood cells and this can clog the arteries as well. In addition, breastfed babies tend to get mildly dehydrated after childbirth because mom's milk hasn't come in yet, just a bit of colostrum - so the blood thickens further, increasing the risk of clotting. Causes that have nothing to do with pregnancy or Continue reading >>

Can Diabetes Cause Strokes?

Can Diabetes Cause Strokes?

Diabetes increases the risk that a stroke will occur. Diabetes contributes to atherosclerosis (fatty plaque build-up) in arteries carrying blood to the brain. Individuals with diabetes have about three times the risk of stroke than individuals without diabetes. Hyperglycemia from uncontrolled diabetes can accelerate cholesterol plaque formation and advance vascular disease at a rate greater than patient's without diabetes. When these atherosclerotic plaques get deposited inside the arteries they begin to limit and decrease blood flow to organs and vital structures. When this happens to the arteries that supply the brain, ischemic strokes can occur due to the lack/loss of blood flow to brain tissue. Atherosclerotic cholesterol plaques can become unstable due to metabolic and hormonal factors which cause them to rupture allowing our bodies platelets to "clog" the damaged plaque to prevent bleeding but in so doing all blood flow is disrupted and the organ will suffer damage due to lack of oxygen and vital nutients. When this process happens in the brain, it is known as an ischemic stroke which can lead to permanent neurologic deficits. Hemmorhagic strokes caused by bleeding into the brain tissue can also occur because these "diseased" arteries are more prone to disruption especially when combined with underlying high blood pressure. Continue reading >>

More in diabetes