Public Health Issue: Diabetes Mellitus
Disclaimer: This essay has been submitted by a student. This is not an example of the work written by our professional essay writers. Any opinions, findings, conclusions or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of UK Essays. This assignment will address the public health issue of the increasing prevalence of diabetes mellitus (diabetes) and explore links with health inequalities both nationally and locally. It will discuss the frameworks available which give guidance for standards of care for diabetes patients and their influence on diabetes care. It will then critically discuss the issue of diabetes management in relation to patient education and the ability of patients to self-manage their chronic long-term condition, evaluating both the role of both healthcare professionals and individuals in achieving the best possible healthy outcomes. It will then discuss whether all people get the same level of diabetes care, in particular focusing on people who are not able to attend GP surgeries. Public health is defined as "The science and art of promoting and protecting health and wellbeing, preventing ill health and prolonging life through the organised efforts of society" (Faculty of Public Health 2008). Health equality is a key element of social justice and as such justifies the government and other health agencies to work in collaboration to develop health policies which improve the public's health regardless of social class, income, gender or ethnicity through promoting healthier lifestyles and protecting them from infectious diseases and environmental hazards (Griffiths & Hunter 2007). Yet many health inequalities still exist in the UK, some of which will be discussed in this paper. There are predomi Continue reading >>
Why Is This Generation More Prone To Diabetes, High Blood Pressure, And Other Health Issues? How Did Our Forefathers Deal With It?
When you leave your doctor’s office, do you ever wonder what he’s not telling you? Every appointment, he tells you to eat less sugar and go on more walks, but aren’t there other ways to get your diabetes under control? Here’s 3 tricks to manage your diabetes that your doctor won’t tell you: Eat More Fat You read that right. Eat more fat. That’s because fat helps your body absorb insulin. That means the more fat you eat, the easier it’ll be to manage your blood sugar. But here’s the kicker: It’s got to be the right type of fat. You’re looking for Unsaturated Omega-3 Fat. Here’s some great sources: Fish Eggs (Any eggs labeled “enriched” have plenty of omega-3) Grass-fed beef (There’s lots of omega-3 in the grass) Do Some Pushups… Or any kind of strength exercises. All the cardio your doctor tells you to do will increase your insulin absorption a little, but to really keep your body regulated you’ve got to get your entire body moving. The best way to do that is any exercise that focuses on strength. You want to avoid straining yourself, but make a habit of doing a few pushups every day, throw in some body squats, and soon you’ll be taking tighter control of your blood sugar. Not to mention it’ll get rid of stress, and give you plenty of energy. Relax Laying back and keeping cool are vital to regulating your blood sugar. Stress causes physical distress on the body which affects blood glucose levels. Not to mention, when you’re stressed out it’s easy to overeat, which obviously wreaks havoc on your blood sugar. For easy relaxation, try out simple meditation or breathing exercises. These tricks will help, but… If You Want to REVERSE your Type 2 Diabetes and never worry about your blood sugar again, here’s what you need: A recent med Continue reading >>
Diabetes : Strategies For Prevention
Report of the Chief Medical Officer of Health Table of Contents Message from Ontario's Chief Medical Officer of Health Diabetes : A Public Health Challenge What is Diabetes? Why is Diabetes Such an Important Public Health Issue? The Economic Impact of Diabetes A Dangerous Lack of Awareness How Can We Identify People at Risk and Prevent Diabetes and Its Complications? Risk Factors for Diabetes Type 1 Diabetes Type 2 Diabetes Strategies for Prevention Changing Risk Factors Early Identification and Effective Management Rehabilitation Age Socio-Economic Issues Ethnic and Cultural Groups Aboriginal People An Agenda for Action : Recommendations For Individuals and Families For Communities For Health Care Providers For Federal and Provincial Governments Conclusion Acknowledgements Appendix A : Types of Diabetes Appendix B : Symptoms of Diabetes Appendix C : Long-Term Complications of Diabetes Appendix D : Are You at Risk for Diabetes? Appendix E : Canadian Guidelines for Healthy Weights Appendix F : Ontario Diabetes Initiatives in Progress Northern Diabetes Health Network Southern Ontario Aboriginal Diabetes Initiative (SOADI) Seniors and Diabetes Initiative Diabetes Complication Prevention Strategy Evaluation Non-Governmental Organizations Everyone in Ontario needs to understand the seriousness of this disease because all of us are susceptible to diabetes and its resultant impact on health. The prevalence of diabetes is alarmingly high and is expected to increase over the next century. In Ontario, over 600,000 people have been diagnosed with diabetes; at least another 300,000 people don't know they have it. Four out of 10 people with diabetes will develop debilitating and long-term complications. Diabetes is a major cause of premature death, blindness, kidney disease, heart d Continue reading >>
Top Public Health Issues Facing Health Officials
Improved national health care conditions can ultimately create a stronger nation, both economically and through an improved quality of life. Public health officials will be playing a large part in the health of our country this year with the identification, prevention and treatment of the public health issues facing citizens today. Matters of public health have been investigated and managed for centuries, first establishing significance following the devastating effects of the bubonic plague, or Black Death, in 1348. Recognized public health initiatives were established to control the spread of the disease in 1350 A.D. Through each health issue that America has faced, the public health industry has become a crucial part of the American system of healthcare and government. In 1872, the foundation of the American Public Health Association (APHA) brought a national focus to the causes and treatments of illness, disease and other factors affecting American health. Proven public health achievements in the 20th century (smallpox eradication, improved sanitation, clean water access) increased life expectancy by 30 years and paved the way for more advanced treatments and preventative measures in the country today. Although our country has made astounding advancements in medicine and public health, considerable public health challenges persevere. Some of the main health care issues facing America today include: Diabetes, which causes abnormally high blood glucose levels, either because the body does not produce insulin (Type 1) or the body does not produce enough insulin to function properly (Type 2). A third type, gestational diabetes, affects females during pregnancy. While Type 1 diabetes is primarily genetic, Type 2 diabetes (usually closely related to obesity), can be preve Continue reading >>
Diabetes: A Public Health Issue For The Twenty-first Century
Paula McGee PhD RN RNT MA BA Cert Ed and Mark RD Johnson MA PhD Dip HE (Warwick) Editor, Diversity and Equality in Health and Care; Professor of Nursing, Faculty of Health, Birmingham City University, Birmingham, UK Editor, Diversity and Equality in Health and Care; Professor of Diversity in Health and Social Care, Mary Seacole Research Centre, De Montfort University, Leicester, UK Diabetes is a long-term condition that arises because of changes in the way in which insulin is produced and used. Insulin is a hormone that facilitates the uptake of glucose, by cells, to produce energy; it also promotes the storage of glucose as glycogen, and plays an important role in lipid metabolism. Lack of insulin causes the levels of blood glucose to rise, with potentially lifethreatening results. In type 1 diabetes the pancreas stops producing insulin, causing excessive thirst, frequent urination, fatigue and acute illness that requires immediate treatment and daily injections of insulin to maintain life. Type 2 diabetes develops when the pancreas cannot produce enough insulin for the body’s needs. Obesity, genetics, ageing and ethnicity are all cited as possible reasons for inadequate levels of insulin, and treatment is usually concerned with encouraging lifestyle and dietary changes and the use of medication to either increase the secretion or promote the uptake of insulin. Other types of diabetes can occur, for example, during pregnancy, and recent reports suggest that insulin may also play a part in the development of Alzheimer’s disease (see, for example, Craft et al, 2013; Trivedi, 2012). Thus diabetes does not seem to be a single disease, but rather a cluster of conditions linked to the multiple roles of insulin.What is more, it is clear that there is an inescapable link b Continue reading >>
Diabetes is a chronic condition that stems from the body's inability to sufficiently produce and/or properly use insulin which the body needs to use sugar as an energy source. Diabetes can lead to serious complications and premature death but those who have diabetes can take steps to control the disease and lower the risk of complications. Continue reading >>
- American Diabetes Association® Releases 2018 Standards of Medical Care in Diabetes, with Notable New Recommendations for People with Cardiovascular Disease and Diabetes
- Leeds diabetes clinical champion raises awareness of gestational diabetes for World Diabetes Day
- Diabetes doctors: Which specialists treat diabetes?
Why Do So Many Gun Control People Attempt To Redefine Gun Violence As A Public Health Issue Instead Of The Crime Issue That It Is?
At least half of all deaths by firearm are suicides, and about half of all suicides are by firearm. This is a public health concern. To me, the best argument for gun control is the likelihood that it will greatly reduce suicides. Studies have shown that suicides are often more impulsive than most people would expect. Not impulsive as in “I’m walking along, perfectly happy, and throw myself in front of a train”, but impulsive as in “I just lost my job today, my girlfriend doesn’t understand me, and I’ve been unhappy for a while. Time to go.” Here’s a pull quote from an NYT article that illustrates a historical parallel: For generations, the people of Britain heated their homes and fueled their stoves with coal gas. While plentiful and cheap, coal-derived gas could also be deadly; in its unburned form, it released very high levels of carbon monoxide, and an open valve or a leak in a closed space could induce asphyxiation in a matter of minutes. This extreme toxicity also made it a preferred method of suicide. “Sticking one’s head in the oven” became so common in Britain that by the late 1950s it accounted for some 2,500 suicides a year, almost half the nation’s total. Those numbers began dropping over the next decade as the British government embarked on a program to phase out coal gas in favor of the much cleaner natural gas. By the early 1970s, the amount of carbon monoxide running through domestic gas lines had been reduced to nearly zero. During those same years, Britain’s national suicide rate dropped by nearly a third, and it has remained close to that reduced level ever since. The conventional wisdom is that if someone wants to end their life, they will find a way to do it. Take their gun away, and they will jump off a bridge. This is c Continue reading >>
Who Is Public Health?
Public health works in countless ways to make our world better. Find out how public health makes a difference by getting to know a few APHA members. We asked them these three questions: What public health work are you doing in your community right now, and how do you hope it will make a difference? Why did you decide to work in the field of public health? What value do you find in being an APHA member? LEA DOOLEY Bringing public health to a clinical setting I currently manage a robust HIV program based within Nationwide Children’s Hospital in Columbus Ohio. Our program offers wrap around services to clients and includes community outreach across the city. In my role I bring the public health focus to a clinical setting and expand our reach through the community. I hope someday to work myself out of a job when HIV is eradicated, but until then I will keep speaking with every person I meet about the importance of sexual health and testing. As a manager I really enjoy investing in the career paths of my younger colleagues who are just starting out and looking at all their options within this huge field. It’s great to be a public health mentor. Finding the joy I have worked in HIV since 1988. I never thought I would still be in the same field but honestly nothing else has seemed as exciting, or as meaningful as working with people and communities to manage conditions they are afraid to discuss. I have been fortunate enough to work overseas in Asia and Africa while still being current on domestic health issues. Name another field that gives you so much flexibility and joy! Keeping current and staying connected I really love getting The Nation's Health and seeing all the work that happens each month as well as program successes. Public health is a huge field, and although Continue reading >>
The Looming Public Health Crises Threatening To Take Down China’s Health Care System
The slender, steel needle pierced Mary Shi’s pudgy belly. The sharp point pricked her skin and as her thumb pushed down on the syringe, cloudy insulin began to swim in her bloodstream. Shi was running out of places to inject herself: her stomach, arms and legs all bore the bruising from regular shots. More importantly, she was tired of having to forgo wearing T-shirts and skirts for clothes that would strategically cover her body when she went out for afternoon tea with her girlfriends in Shanghai. “When you can stand the psychosocial burden of diabetes and social discrimination, injections are really a piece of cake,” said Shi, a 30-year-old app developer. Shi was diagnosed as a diabetic when she was 18. She had been studying for the highly competitive gaokao college entrance exam when she fainted at school. An emergency doctor explained that Shi had diabetes and if the illness was left unregulated, she’d be blind within five years. Her bewildered parents became depressed and Shi came to resent the disease and the rules it imposed on her lifestyle, hiding her illness from her friends for several years. Shi is one of millions of people caught in China’s diabetes epidemic. In the 1980s diabetes was a rarity affecting just one percent of China’s population. Now, due to rapid economic development, and the subsequent growth in availability of high-calorie diets, cars and sedentary lifestyles, China has the highest number of diabetics in the world, totaling 109 million people in 2015—roughly 11 percent of the population. That makes China home to a third of the world’s diabetic population. The scale of this public health problem is huge, particularly because it comes at a time when the country’s health system as a whole is under reform, moving from a rudimen Continue reading >>
Diabetes Remains A Major Health Concern In The U.s.
Nearly half of American adults have diabetes or are at risk for developing this disease. There’s no question that diabetes is a major public health concern in the United States. Diabetes has become increasingly common throughout the past few decades and currently affects an estimated 29 million Americans. But with prevention and treatment efforts, experts hope we’ve made some progress in slowing or reversing national trends. To learn more, researchers analyzed data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, which collects detailed health information from a representative sample of the U.S. population. Data was analyzed from 1988 through 2012 and included nearly 26,500 U.S. adults. The findings were recently published in the Journal of the American Medical Association. Based on the most recent data from 2011–2012, researchers found that diabetes affects 12–14% of U.S. adults. Yet more than one-third of adults with diabetes don’t know they have it. Equally as concerning is the proportion of adults that are at risk for diabetes but have not yet developed the disease. As of 2012, it’s estimated that 38% of U.S. adults have prediabetes and are likely to develop full-blown diabetes, unless steps are taken to improve their health. Diabetes continues to affect certain populations more than others. Adults who are black, Asian or Hispanic are more than 20% more likely to have diabetes than whites. Among those with diabetes, roughly half of Asian and Hispanic adults don’t know they have it. However, the good news is that diabetes trends have slowed in recent years. Overall, the frequency of diabetes increased from 9.8% to 12.4% between 1988 and 2012. Diabetes prevalence only increased by 1.6% over the last ten years. Study findings suggest that preven Continue reading >>
Is Diabetes A Public-health Disorder?
Abstract In the U.S., certain health conditions are readily accepted as "public-health disorders," and others continue to be primarily viewed as "clinical diseases." Reflecting on infectious conditions, it appears that disease burden, rapid change in disease incidence (suggesting preventability), and public concern about risk are three essential characteristics that define a public-health disorder. By any one of several criteria, diabetes is associated with a very high burden to individuals with the disease, as well as to society in general. Further, there is convincing and increasing evidence that primary, secondary, and tertiary prevention strategies are effective in reducing the disease burden associated with diabetes. Yet most would still consider diabetes primarily to be a clinical disease. In part, this perception is based on the fact that, in association with aging and a possible strong family history, diabetes and its complications may appear inevitable to many. Further, much of the burden associated with diabetes is insidious, coming on gradually only after a considerable number of years. Thus, the burden associated with diabetes has not dramatically increased in the past few months or years; it has been here for some time and is increasing steadily. Finally, our understanding of public concern is only now being systematically investigated. Factors that galvanize the public to demand societal or governmental action are quite complex and very different from those elements that convince the scientist/expert to request "public-health responses." Legitimate and important public-health dimensions associated with diabetes complement the critical role of clinical care. To effectively establish these public-health perspectives, public concern must be incorporated into Continue reading >>
Pre-conception Care For Women With Diabetes: A Public Health Issue
Pre-conception care is recognised to be an effective strategy for addressing many health behaviours, particularly for women with diabetes, who carry a higher risk of morbidity and mortality. However, there is a lack of evidence of the most effective approaches for promoting pre-conception health and encouraging women to access services. This article explores this challenging issue and suggests a number of strategies that health professionals may consider in relation to promoting health in this area. Continue reading >>
Some Public Health Aspects Of Diabetes Mellitus
Summary Diabetes Mellitus is a disease of increasing public health importance. It is a major reason for visits by district nurses, and some patients are needlessly dependent on them for insulin injections. Health visitors are valuable as a link between diabetic clinics and patients and, with growing numbers of diabetics, such a service is essential if clinics are to be able to cope with demands. Midwives and medical officers of ante-natal clinics should be constantly aware of the importance of diabetes detection in expectant mothers. There is probably a tendency to underestimate the number of diabetic school-children. Diagnosis of diabetes in children is not always prompt, but routine urinalysis is unjustifiable as a detection method in this particular age group of the population. The diabetic child should live as normal a school life as possible and should receive prompt B.C.G. vaccination as well as priority dental attention. Special educational arrangements in the form of hostel care may be necessary for a minority on account of domestic difficulties. All diabetic children should receive vocational guidance as early in their school careers as possible. The general public know little about diabetes and there is need for more enlightenment as part of a campaign for the primary and secondary prevention of the disease and its complications. Local health authorities have a role to play in this public education, as part of a comprehensive scheme for the prevention of diabetes and for the care and after-care of sufferers from that disease. Continue reading >>
3.8 Million People In England Now Have Diabetes
The new Diabetes Prevalence Model, produced by the Public Health England (PHE) National Cardiovascular Intelligence Network (NCVIN) and launched today at the PHE Conference at Warwick University, estimates the total number of adults with both Type 1 and Type 2 diabetes in England. Whilst 3.8 million people are estimated to have both types of diabetes, approximately 90% of diabetes cases are Type 2; this is largely preventable or manageable by lifestyle changes and also provides additional benefits for health and wellbeing. The likelihood of developing Type 2 diabetes is increased by being overweight (although family history, ethnicity and age can also increase risk). The figures reiterate that diabetes is an increasing burden of ill health, underlining the need for urgent action to lessen the impact on individuals, as well as the health and social care system supporting them. The model suggests that 1 in 4 people with diabetes, an estimated 940,000, are unaware of their condition. The disease can lead to serious complications including foot amputation and kidney disease, and is associated with an increased risk of stroke and heart attack. John Newton, Chief Knowledge Officer at PHE, said: The number of people with diabetes has been steadily increasing and tackling it is fundamental to the sustainable future of the NHS. Diabetes can be an extremely serious disease for those that have it and treating it and its complications costs the NHS almost £10 billion a year. Developing Type 2 diabetes is not an inevitable part of aging, we have an opportunity through public health to reverse this trend and safeguard the health of the nation and the future of the NHS. The proportion of people who have diabetes increases with age: 9% of people aged 45 to 54 have diabetes, but for ov Continue reading >>
Primary Prevention Of Type 2 Diabetes: Integrative Public Health And Primary Care Opportunities, Challenges And Strategies
Diabetes has emerged as a major public health problem in the 21st century. In the USA, an estimated 26 million people (8% of the entire population) have diabetes; 7 million of them are not even aware that they have the disease.1 Over the last several decades, diabetes prevalence has increased 5- to 7-fold in the USA. In the USA, ∼1.9 million new cases were diagnosed in adults in 2010.1 For Americans born in the year 2000, the lifetime risk of developing diabetes is ∼40% among females and 30% among males.2 Diabetes is a major cause of blindness, kidney failure, cardiovascular disease, reductions in quality of life and premature death. In addition to causing much human suffering, it imparts major economic burdens, costing an estimated annual $174 billion in the USA alone, and an increasing burden on medical care systems and resources everywhere.1 Effective management is essential for reducing morbidity and premature mortality related to diabetes and the tools for treating diabetes are stronger than ever before.3–6 Primary prevention, however, is highly attractive as a complementary and integrated strategy for Type 2 diabetes for several reasons (Fig. 1). Firstly, the immense public health burden imposed by diabetes justifies action at the population level. Secondly, currently available treatments, while valuable, are costly, convey risks of harmful side effects (e.g. hypoglycemia), still have limited efficacy and are less likely to be effective for persons who have problems accessing medical care or adhering to self-care regimens. Thirdly, prevention of Type 2 diabetes by lifestyle modification is likely to produce beneficial other effects (e.g. reduction in risk of hypertension, hyperlipidemia, heart disease and certain cancers). Fourthly, most of the determinants Continue reading >>
- Mutual Involvement in Families With Type 2 Diabetes Through Web-Based Health Care Solutions: Quantitative Survey Study of Family Preferences, Challenges, and Potentials
- The Natural History of Type 2 Diabetes: Practical Points to Consider in Developing Prevention and Treatment Strategies
- Mental Health Care in Pediatric Diabetes: Overcoming Challenges and Barriers