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Why Is Diabetes A Problem

Diabetes

Diabetes

Diabetes is a disease where your body cannot control its blood sugar levels properly – either because your body doesn’t make enough (or any) insulin, or because your cells have become resistant to insulin. Insulin is a chemical produced in the pancreas. It helps your body process sugars. If blood sugar levels aren’t kept under control, diabetes can be life-threatening. Diabetes can lead to other health conditions, including kidney failure, eye disease, foot ulceration and a higher risk of heart disease. Keeping your blood sugar at a safe level means you’re less likely to have other health problems. There’s no cure for diabetes, but there are things you can do to stay well. Support from your friends, whānau and health care providers can help. Heart and diabetes checks Diabetes is our largest and fastest growing health issue we face in New Zealand. Diabetes is closely linked with heart disease (also known as cardiovascular disease or CVD), and together they are responsible for the deaths of more New Zealanders each year than cigarettes are. Many of these deaths are preventable. The More Heart and Diabetes Checks Health Target has been established to help save these lives – aiming to have regular heart and diabetes checks for at least 90 percent of those at risk of developing these conditions. Find out more about heart and diabetes checks. How common is diabetes? There are over 240,000 people in New Zealand who have been diagnosed with diabetes (mostly type 2). It is thought there are another 100,000 people who have it but don’t know. Diabetes is most common among Māori and Pacific Islanders. They’re three times as likely to get it as other New Zealanders. South Asian people are also more likely to develop diabetes. The number of people with both types of Continue reading >>

Diabetes

Diabetes

Key facts The number of people with diabetes has risen from 108 million in 1980 to 422 million in 2014 (1). The global prevalence of diabetes* among adults over 18 years of age has risen from 4.7% in 1980 to 8.5% in 2014 (1). Diabetes prevalence has been rising more rapidly in middle- and low-income countries. Diabetes is a major cause of blindness, kidney failure, heart attacks, stroke and lower limb amputation. In 2015, an estimated 1.6 million deaths were directly caused by diabetes. Another 2.2 million deaths were attributable to high blood glucose in 2012**. Almost half of all deaths attributable to high blood glucose occur before the age of 70 years. WHO projects that diabetes will be the seventh leading cause of death in 2030 (1). Healthy diet, regular physical activity, maintaining a normal body weight and avoiding tobacco use are ways to prevent or delay the onset of type 2 diabetes. Diabetes can be treated and its consequences avoided or delayed with diet, physical activity, medication and regular screening and treatment for complications. What is diabetes? Diabetes is a chronic disease that occurs either when the pancreas does not produce enough insulin or when the body cannot effectively use the insulin it produces. Insulin is a hormone that regulates blood sugar. Hyperglycaemia, or raised blood sugar, is a common effect of uncontrolled diabetes and over time leads to serious damage to many of the body's systems, especially the nerves and blood vessels. In 2014, 8.5% of adults aged 18 years and older had diabetes. In 2015, diabetes was the direct cause of 1.6 million deaths and in 2012 high blood glucose was the cause of another 2.2 million deaths. Type 1 diabetes Type 1 diabetes (previously known as insulin-dependent, juvenile or childhood-onset) is charact Continue reading >>

What Is Diabetes And How Serious Is It?

What Is Diabetes And How Serious Is It?

Learning to control diabetes starts with finding out as much as possible about the disease and how serious it is. That will help reduce stress when making lifestyle changes necessary to stay in good health. Step 1: Learn About Diabetes Diabetes means that your blood glucose (blood sugar) is too high. There are two main types of diabetes. Type 1 diabetes — the body does not make insulin. Insulin helps the body use glucose from food for energy. People with type 1 need to take insulin every day. Type 2 diabetes — the body does not make or use insulin well. People with type 2 often need to take pills or insulin. Type 2 is the most common form of diabetes. Gestational diabetes — occurs in some women when they become pregnant. It raises her future risk of developing diabetes, mostly type 2. It may raise her child’s risk of being overweight and developing type 2 diabetes. Diabetes is serious. You may have heard people say they have “a touch of diabetes” or that their “sugar is a little high.” These words suggest that diabetes is not a serious disease. That is not correct. Diabetes is serious, but you can learn to manage it! It’s not easy, but it’s worth it! All people with diabetes need to make healthy food choices, stay at a healthy weight and move more every day. Taking good care of yourself and your diabetes can help you feel better. It may help you avoid health problems caused by diabetes, like: Heart attack and stroke. Eye problems that can lead to trouble seeing or going blind. Nerve damage that can cause your hands and feet to hurt, tingle, or feel numb. Some people may even lose a foot or a leg. Kidney problems that can cause your kidneys to stop working. Gum disease and loss of teeth. When your blood glucose is close to normal you are likely to: Ha Continue reading >>

The Diabetes Epidemic : What Is Diabetes And Why Is It A Problem? [article]

The Diabetes Epidemic : What Is Diabetes And Why Is It A Problem? [article]

This is the first of three articles on diabetes. This article looks at how blood sugar is normally controlled and what happens in Diabetes. It also covers why Diabetes is such a problem. The next two articles will look at Type 1 and Type 2 Diabetes seperately and in more depth. Diabetes is a disease that has reached epidemic proportions both internationally and within New Zealand. It is the leading cause of blindness, kidney failure and lower limb amputations in the world. So what is this horrible disease? How do we get it? And let’s face it – we are personal trainers not physiologists. How much do we really need to understand about the disease to train our Diabetic clients effectively? Normal Glucose Metabolism To understand Diabetes we first need to recap how glucose (blood sugar) is normally regulated in our bodies. Insulin and glucagon are the two hormones that keep our glucose levels controlled. Insulin is released from the beta cells on our pancreas when glucose levels are high. Insulin helps move glucose from the blood stream into our muscles and liver, and stores any extra glucose as fat. Glucose cannot enter your body’s cells from the bloodstream by itself, so insulin acts like a ‘key’. Once released into the blood, insulin binds to insulin receptors (the ‘keyholes’) located on the cell walls, ‘unlocking’ the cell and allowing the glucose to enter. This glucose can either be used immediately as energy or stored as glycogen or fat for future use. When blood glucose levels are low, insulin secretion is decreased, and the hormone glucagon is released from the pancreas instead. Glucagon works to break down the glycogen stores in the liver. This glucose is then released back into the bloodstream to raise the low glucose levels, meaning there is a c Continue reading >>

Why Is Diabetes A Growing Problem In This Country?

Why Is Diabetes A Growing Problem In This Country?

Question: Why is diabetes a growing problem in this country? Answer: Well, diabetes is a growing a problem not only in this country, but in fact around the world. Type 1 diabetes which is that juvenile onset diabetes, is increasing somewhat, and we really don't know why that is, but as we mention that is a relatively unusual form of diabetes, it's maybe 5 or 10 percent of diabetes. The real cause of the epidemic of diabetes in the United States and around the world is increasing body weight, there's just no doubt about it, because when the body increases in size, when you get fatter and fatter, you become more and more resistant to insulin, you're no longer responding to insulin in a normal way. And that is the cause of diabetes because people's pancreases are limited, they can't keep putting out more and more insulin in order to overcome the obesity-caused resistance. So whether you look around the world, at countries that are just beginning to become normal and overweight, or whether you look in the United States, where we are certainly becoming way too overweight as a population, the cause of diabetes is that overweight, and the insulin resistance that is caused by being overweight and obese. Next: What Are The Meanings and Significance Of These Terms Related To Diabetes: 'Beta Cells,' 'Islets,' 'Glucagon,' and 'Amylin'? Previous: What Causes Diabetes? Continue reading >>

How Diabetes Got To Be The No. 1 Killer In Mexico

How Diabetes Got To Be The No. 1 Killer In Mexico

Mario Alberto Maciel Tinajero looks like a fairly healthy 68-year-old. He has a few extra pounds on his chest but he's relatively fit. Yet he's suffered for the last 20 years from what he calls a "terrible" condition: diabetes. "I've never gotten used to this disease," he says. Maciel runs a stall in the Lagunilla market in downtown Mexico City. This market is famous for its custom-made quinceañera dresses and hand-tailored suits. Diabetes has come to dominate Maciel's life. It claimed the life of his mother. He has to take pills and injections every day to keep it under control. And because of the disease he's supposed to eat a diet heavy in vegetables that he views as inconvenient and bland. "Imagine not being able to eat a carnitas taco!" he says with indignation. His doctors have told him to stop eating the steaming hot street food that's for sale all around the market — tacos, tamales, quesadillas, fat sandwiches called tortas. His eyes light up when talks about the roast pork taquitos and simmering beef barbacoa that he's supposed to stay away from. "A person who has to work 8 or 10 hours has to eat what's at hand, what's available," he says. "It's difficult to follow a diabetic diet. The truth is it's very difficult." Diabetes is the leading cause of death in Mexico, according to the World Health Organization. The disease claims nearly 80,000 lives each year, and forecasters say the health problem is expected to get worse in the decades to come. By contrast, in the U.S. it's the sixth leading cause of death, with heart disease and cancer claiming 10 times more Americans each year than diabetes. Rising rates of obesity combined with a genetic predisposition for Type 2 diabetes has caused a slow steady rise in the condition in Mexico over the last 40 years. Now Continue reading >>

The Looming Public Health Crises Threatening To Take Down China’s Health Care System

The Looming Public Health Crises Threatening To Take Down China’s Health Care System

The slender, steel needle pierced Mary Shi’s pudgy belly. The sharp point pricked her skin and as her thumb pushed down on the syringe, cloudy insulin began to swim in her bloodstream. Shi was running out of places to inject herself: her stomach, arms and legs all bore the bruising from regular shots. More importantly, she was tired of having to forgo wearing T-shirts and skirts for clothes that would strategically cover her body when she went out for afternoon tea with her girlfriends in Shanghai. “When you can stand the psychosocial burden of diabetes and social discrimination, injections are really a piece of cake,” said Shi, a 30-year-old app developer. Shi was diagnosed as a diabetic when she was 18. She had been studying for the highly competitive gaokao college entrance exam when she fainted at school. An emergency doctor explained that Shi had diabetes and if the illness was left unregulated, she’d be blind within five years. Her bewildered parents became depressed and Shi came to resent the disease and the rules it imposed on her lifestyle, hiding her illness from her friends for several years. Shi is one of millions of people caught in China’s diabetes epidemic. In the 1980s diabetes was a rarity affecting just one percent of China’s population. Now, due to rapid economic development, and the subsequent growth in availability of high-calorie diets, cars and sedentary lifestyles, China has the highest number of diabetics in the world, totaling 109 million people in 2015—roughly 11 percent of the population. That makes China home to a third of the world’s diabetic population. The scale of this public health problem is huge, particularly because it comes at a time when the country’s health system as a whole is under reform, moving from a rudimen Continue reading >>

Watch For Warning Signs

Watch For Warning Signs

When your blood sugar is out of control, you may start to have other health problems. But if you know their warning signs, you can nip them in the bud or keep them from getting worse. Nerve Damage This usually starts in your hands and feet. But it can also affect your stomach, bowels, bladder, genitals, heart, and other parts of your body. See your doctor right away if you get: Tingling, pain, or numbness in your hands or feet Stomach problems like nausea, vomiting, or diarrhea A lot of bladder infections or trouble emptying your bladder Problems getting or keeping an erection Dizzy or lightheaded If you have nerve damage, you can improve or slow its progress if you keep your blood sugar levels near normal. Some supplements and medications for pain, nausea, or sexual problems can also help. Skin Issues Skin problems like yeast infections are a warning that your blood sugar is too high. You may notice symptoms like: Itching in moist folds of your skin, such as under your breasts, between fingers and toes, or in your armpits Itching, pain, or discharge in your vagina For uncircumcised men, itching under the foreskin Your doctor may prescribe medication for yeast infections, especially if you get them often. Watch for these other skin symptoms: Hair loss on your toes, feet, or lower legs Brown patches of raised skin on the sides of your neck, armpit, or groin, called acanthosis nigricans Eye Damage The sooner you get treatment for eye problems, the better. Get help right away if you notice these warning signs: Blurred vision Trouble reading See rings around lights or dark spots Get very sensitive to sunlight and other bright light Can't see well at night Eye damage doesn't always cause symptoms, even when it's advanced. So it's important to see an eye doctor at least once Continue reading >>

Type 2 Diabetes A Massive Problem!

Type 2 Diabetes A Massive Problem!

The global epidemic of Type 2 diabetes is an indicator of serious underlying issues in our society, says a University of Sydney medical expert. "People think of this as an issue of individual responsibility - you're overweight, you've got diabetes, it's your fault. But it just isn't," said Associate Professor Bruce Neal. "You are overweight because you live in a society that make it easy for you to be overweight, that bombards you with advertising about the wrong kinds of foods, that doesn't make it easy for you to lose weight," said Professor Neal. More than 250 million people worldwide have Type 2 diabetes, and the numbers are growing rapidly. Most will eventually die or be disabled by the complications. "Diabetes is an indicator of serious underlying issues in our society," he added. "We have to get governments much more engaged in addressing the reasons why we have this epidemic. Unless they take a more active role it is not going to go away. It is not going to get better. In fact it is going to get much worse." Professor Neal was speaking after the release of a landmark study, the biggest of its kind ever conducted, that shows that a combination of two blood pressure lowering drugs reduces the risk of death in Type 2 diabetes patients, as well as their risks of heart and kidney disease. The ADVANCE (Action in Diabetes and Vascular Disease) Study was led by researchers at The George Institute for International Health. The Institute is affiliated to Sydney University with a mission to seek solutions for major global public health problems through research, policy development and training. "The really novel thing about this study was that we lowered blood pressure, irrespective of what your blood pressure was to start with," said Professor Neal. "So if you had Type 2 Continue reading >>

What Are The Side Effects Of Diabetes Mellitus Type 2?

What Are The Side Effects Of Diabetes Mellitus Type 2?

With Diabetes, there are short- and long-term side effects to deal with, if you don’t work hard to keep your blood glucose level under control. However, by watching the amount and types of food you eat (your meal plan), exercising, and taking any necessary medications, you may be able to prevent these complications. Heart disease and stroke If you have diabetes, you're up to five times more likely to develop heart disease or have a stroke. Prolonged, poorly controlled blood glucose levels increase the likelihood of atherosclerosis, where the blood vessels become clogged up and narrowed by fatty substances. Nerve damage High blood glucose levels can damage the tiny blood vessels in your nerves. This can cause a tingling or burning pain that spreads from your fingers and toes up through your limbs. It can also cause numbness, which can lead to ulceration of the feet. Diabetic retinopathy Diabetic retinopathy is when the retina, the light-sensitive layer of tissue at the back of the eye, becomes damaged. Blood vessels in the retina can become blocked or leaky, or can grow haphazardly. This prevents light fully passing through to your retina. If it isn't treated, it can damage your vision. Kidney disease If the small blood vessels of your kidney become blocked and leaky, your kidneys will work less efficiently. It's usually associated with high blood pressure, and treating this is a key part of management. Foot problems Damage to the nerves of the foot can mean small nicks and cuts aren't noticed and this, in combination with poor circulation, can lead to a foot ulcer. About 1 in 10 people with diabetes get a foot ulcer, which can cause a serious infection. Sexual dysfunction In men with diabetes, particularly those who smoke, nerve and blood vessel damage can lead to ere Continue reading >>

5 Health Conditions That Are Caused By Diabetes

5 Health Conditions That Are Caused By Diabetes

Source: Web exclusive: May 2011 If you’ve got diabetes, that’s not the only disease you should be concerned about. Diabetes is linked to a host of other health problems. But it’s not all doom and gloom, since there are ways to reduce your risk. Number one is blood glucose control. "If you can control your diabetes, then your risk of developing those complications and secondary conditions goes down," says Karen McDermaid, a diabetes educator in Moosomin, Saskatchewan. These five conditions are the big ones to look out for if you’re prediabetic or have diabetes. 1. Heart disease and stroke Cardiovascular disease is the leading causing of death for people who have diabetes. That’s because high blood sugar can cause a gradual buildup of fatty deposits that clog and harden the walls of blood vessels. And when blood vessels are partially blocked or narrowed, it can lead to a stroke or heart attack. Not everyone faces the same risk. You’re more likely to have cardiovascular disease if you’ve been living with diabetes for more than 15 years. Same applies if you’ve already had diabetes complications affecting your eyes, kidneys or nerves, or if you’ve noticed problems with circulation, like chest pain when you’re physically active, or leg pain when you spend time walking. Cardiovascular risk factors for people without diabetes also apply to you: If you smoke, have high blood pressure or high cholesterol levels, or have close relatives who have had heart attacks or stroke, your odds are higher of developing the disease. Reduce your risk: If you smoke, quit. Increase your level of regular physical exercise. And stick to a well-balanced, heart-healthy diet. 2. Kidney disease Diabetes is a leading cause of kidney failure. At least half of all people with diabetes Continue reading >>

Problem Solving

Problem Solving

When you have diabetes, you learn to plan ahead to be sure you maintain blood sugar levels within your target range goals – not too high, not too low. That means figuring out when and what you will eat for meals and snacks, when you will monitor blood sugar and how to fit in exercise. But life often throws curve balls, and no matter how well you plan, unexpected things happen that can drive your blood sugar in the wrong direction.When it happens – because it will – you need to know how to problem-solve and think through how to prevent it from happening again. Also, your diabetes needs may change over time, requiring you to make adjustments because previous solutions no longer work. Diabetes educators can help you figure out how to problem solve – in general and for specific issues you may be facing. 1. Don’t beat yourself up – Managing your diabetes doesn’t mean being ”perfect.” 2. Analyze your day – think about what was different: Were you more stressed than usual? Were you traveling? Were you sick? Did something change in your routine (new job, getting up earlier or staying up later)? Were you more or less active than usual? Did you eat more carbohydrates than usual? Did you take more or less diabetes medication than usual? 3. Learn from it – figure out how to correct the problem in a way that works best for you, and apply that to similar situations moving forward:  Carry an extra snack Consider how you can add more activity into your day Think of ways you can ease stress, such as by meditating, doing yoga, or sitting quietly for a few minutes with a cup of tea or a book 4. Discuss possible solutions with  your diabetes educator your doctor your diabetes support group (face to face or on the Internet) 5. Try the new solutions and then evalu Continue reading >>

Diabetes — A Common, Growing, Serious, Costly, And Potentially Preventable Public Health Problem

Diabetes — A Common, Growing, Serious, Costly, And Potentially Preventable Public Health Problem

Abstract An estimated 135 million people worldwide had diagnosed diabetes in 1995, and this number is expected to rise to at least 300 million by 2025. The number of people with diabetes will increase by 42% (from 51 to 72 million) in industrialized countries between 1995 and 2025 and by 170% (from 84 to 228 million) in industrializing countries. Several potentially modifiable risk factors are related to diabetes, including insulin resistance, obesity, physical inactivity and dietary factors. Diabetes may be preventable in high-risk groups, but results of ongoing clinical trials are pending. Several efficacious and economically acceptable treatment strategies are currently available (control of glycemia, blood pressure, lipids; early detection and treatment of retinopathy, nephropathy, foot-disease; use of aspirin and ACE inhibitors) to reduce the burden of diabetes complications. Diabetes is a major public health problem and is emerging as a pandemic. While prevention of diabetes may become possible in the future, there is considerable potential now to better utilize existing treatments to reduce diabetes complications. Many countries could benefit from research aimed at better understanding the reasons why existing treatments are under-used and how this can be changed. Continue reading >>

Diabetic Eye Problems

Diabetic Eye Problems

If you have diabetes, your blood glucose, or blood sugar, levels are too high. Over time, this can damage your eyes. The most common problem is diabetic retinopathy. It is a leading cause of blindness in American adults. Your retina is the light-sensitive tissue at the back of your eye. You need a healthy retina to see clearly. Diabetic retinopathy damages the tiny blood vessels inside your retina. You may not notice it at first. Symptoms can include Blurry or double vision Rings, flashing lights, or blank spots Dark or floating spots Pain or pressure in one or both of your eyes Trouble seeing things out of the corners of your eyes Treatment often includes laser treatment or surgery, with follow-up care. Two other eye problems can happen to people with diabetes. A cataract is a cloud over the lens of your eye. Surgery helps you see clearly again. Glaucoma happens when pressure builds up in the eye, damaging the main nerve. Eye drops or surgery can help. If you have diabetes, you should have a complete eye exam every year. Finding and treating problems early may save your vision. NIH: National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases Continue reading >>

Overview

Overview

The importance of both diabetes and these comorbidities will continue to increase as the population ages. Therapies that have proven to reduce microvascular and macrovascular complications will need to be assessed in light of the newly identified comorbidities. Lifestyle change has been proven effective in preventing or delaying the onset of type 2 diabetes in high-risk individuals. Based on this, new public health approaches are emerging that may deserve monitoring at the national level. For example, the Diabetes Prevention Program research trial demonstrated that lifestyle intervention had its greatest impact in older adults and was effective in all racial and ethnic groups. Translational studies of this work have also shown that delivery of the lifestyle intervention in group settings at the community level are also effective at reducing type 2 diabetes risk. The National Diabetes Prevention Program has now been established to implement the lifestyle intervention nationwide. Another emerging issue is the effect on public health of new laboratory based criteria, such as introducing the use of A1c for diagnosis of type 2 diabetes or for recognizing high risk for type 2 diabetes. These changes may impact the number of individuals with undiagnosed diabetes and facilitate the introduction of type 2 diabetes prevention at a public health level. Several studies have suggested that process indicators such as foot exams, eye exams, and measurement of A1c may not be sensitive enough to capture all aspects of quality of care that ultimately result in reduced morbidity. New diabetes quality-of-care indicators are currently under development and may help determine whether appropriate, timely, evidence-based care is linked to risk factor reduction. In addition, the scientific evid Continue reading >>

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