Diabetes Mystery: Why Are Type 1 Cases Surging?
When public health officials fret about the soaring incidence of diabetes in the U.S. and worldwide, they are generally referring to type 2 diabetes. About 90 percent of the nearly 350 million people around the world who have diabetes suffer from the type 2 form of the illness, which mostly starts causing problems in the 40s and 50s and is tied to the stress that extra pounds place on the body’s ability to regulate blood glucose. About 25 million people in the U.S. have type 2 diabetes, and another million have type 1 diabetes, which typically strikes in childhood and can be controlled only with daily doses of insulin. For reasons that are completely mysterious, however, the incidence of type 1 diabetes has been increasing throughout the globe at rates that range from 3 to 5 percent a year. Although the second trend is less well publicized, it is still deeply troubling, because this form of the illness has the potential to disable or kill people so much earlier in their lives. No one knows exactly why type 1 diabetes is rising. Solving that mystery—and, if possible, reducing or reversing the trend—has become an urgent problem for public health researchers everywhere. So far they feel they have only one solid clue. “Increases such as the ones that have been reported cannot be explained by a change in genes in such a short period,” says Giuseppina Imperatore, who leads a team of epidemiologists in the Division of Diabetes Translation at the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. “So environmental factors are probably major players in this increase.” A Challenge of Counting Type 1 and type 2 diabetes share the same underlying defect—an inability to deploy insulin in a manner that keeps blood sugar from rising too high—but they arise out of almos Continue reading >>
Type 2 Diabetes In Children
There is an increase in the number of cases of type 2 diabetes in children and teens. The rise may be due to obesity and decreased physical activity among children. The risk for type 2 diabetes increases with age. What is type 2 diabetes? Type 2 diabetes is a metabolic disorder resulting from the body's inability to produce enough, or to properly use, insulin. It has previously been called non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM). Without enough insulin, the body cannot move blood sugar into the cells. It is a chronic disease with no known cure. What is prediabetes? In prediabetes, blood glucose levels are higher than normal but not high enough to be defined as diabetes. However, many people with prediabetes develop type 2 diabetes within 10 years, states the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases. Prediabetes also increases the risk of heart disease and stroke. With modest weight loss and moderate physical activity, people with prediabetes can delay or prevent type 2 diabetes. What causes type 2 diabetes? The exact cause of type 2 diabetes is unknown. However, there is an inherited susceptibility which causes it to run in families. Although a person can inherit a tendency to develop type 2 diabetes, it usually takes another factor, such as obesity, to bring on the disease. Prevention or delay of onset of type 2 diabetes Type 2 diabetes may be prevented or delayed by following a program to eliminate or reduce risk factors, particularly losing weight and increasing exercise. Information gathered by the Diabetes Prevention Program, sponsored by the National Institutes of Health and the American Diabetes Association, continues to study this possibility. What are the symptoms of type 2 diabetes? The following are the most common symptoms for Continue reading >>
Factors That Could Explain The Increasing Prevalence Of Type 2 Diabetes Among Adults In A Canadian Province: A Critical Review And Analysis
Abstract The prevalence of diabetes has increased since the last decade in New Brunswick. Identifying factors contributing to the increase in diabetes prevalence will help inform an action plan to manage the condition. The objective was to describe factors that could explain the increasing prevalence of type 2 diabetes in New Brunswick since 2001. A critical literature review was conducted to identify factors potentially responsible for an increase in prevalence of diabetes. Data from various sources were obtained to draw a repeated cross-sectional (2001–2014) description of these factors concurrently with changes in the prevalence of type 2 diabetes in New Brunswick. Linear regressions, Poisson regressions and Cochran Armitage analysis were used to describe relationships between these factors and time. Factors identified in the review were summarized in five categories: individual-level risk factors, environmental risk factors, evolution of the disease, detection effect and global changes. The prevalence of type 2 diabetes has increased by 120% between 2001 and 2014. The prevalence of obesity, hypertension, prediabetes, alcohol consumption, immigration and urbanization increased during the study period and the consumption of fruits and vegetables decreased which could represent potential factors of the increasing prevalence of type 2 diabetes. Physical activity, smoking, socioeconomic status and education did not present trends that could explain the increasing prevalence of type 2 diabetes. During the study period, the mortality rate and the conversion rate from prediabetes to diabetes decreased and the incidence rate increased. Suggestion of a detection effect was also present as the number of people tested increased while the HbA1c and the age at detection decreas Continue reading >>
Type 2 Diabetes Statistics: Facts And Trends
Diabetes mellitus, or diabetes, is a disease that causes high blood sugar. It occurs when there is a problem with insulin. Insulin is a hormone that takes sugar from foods and moves it to the body's cells. If the body does not make enough insulin or does not use insulin well, the sugar from food stays in the blood and causes high blood sugar. There are several different types of diabetes, but the most common is type 2. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's (CDC) National Diabetes Report, 2014, 90 to 95 percent of people with diabetes in the United States have type 2. Just 5 percent of people have type 1. Contents of this article: Key facts about diabetes in the U.S. Diabetes is at an all-time high in the U.S. The CDC's Division of Diabetes Translation states that 1 percent of the population, which is about a half of a million people, had diagnosed diabetes in 1958. Today, nearly 10 percent of the population have diabetes, according to the American Diabetes Association (ADA). That's 29.1 million Americans, and more than a quarter of these people do not know they have it. The ADA report that the number of people who have diabetes increased by 382 percent from 1988 to 2014. The risk of developing diabetes increases with age. The CDC report that 4.1 percent of people age 20-44 have diabetes, but the number jumps to 25.9 percent for people over 65 years old. As obesity has become more prevalent over the past few decades, so too has the rate of type 2 diabetes. An article in the Journal of Diabetes Science and Technology states that 25.6 percent of Americans are obese, much higher than the 15.3 percent of obese people in 1995. In that same period, the incidence of diabetes increased by 90 percent. Although the link between obesity and diabetes is well Continue reading >>
Why Is Type 2 Diabetes On The Rise?
Research and Innovation > Q & A > Why is type 2 diabetes on the rise? The Canadian Diabetes Association reports that nine million Canadians live with diabetes or prediabetes and that 20 new cases are diagnosed every hour. “We are currently in the middle of a global epidemic of type 2 diabetes,” says Dr. Bernard Zinman, professor of medicine at U of T and senior investigator at the Samuel Lunenfeld Research Institute of Mount Sinai Hospital “Canada is similarly affected and this tsunami of diabetes will have a devastating impact on the patients affected, their families and the health care system.” Today we launch a four-week series on type 2 diabetes by talking to Dr. Zinman. A world-leader in the study of both type 1 and type 2 diabetes, Zinman’s interests are in the long-term complications of diabetes, the evaluation of new therapies and diabetes in aboriginal populations. He serves as director of the Leadership Sinai Centre for Diabetes, a unique, multi-disciplinary outpatient unit that is one of the largest diabetes clinical research units in Ontario. This week, Dr. Zinman gives us an orientation to type 2 diabetes: what happens in the body of a diabetic? How can we treat and prevent it? How serious is the problem? In subsequent weeks we’ll talk to Professor Thomas Wolver about relationship between diabetes and diet, to Professor Greg Wells about how exercise can be used to treat diabetes and to Professor Daniel Drucker about new frontiers in diabetes drugs. Our series focuses on type 2 diabetes, but can we start by talking a little about the difference between type 1 and type 2? Type 1 diabetes is an autoimmune disease that results in destruction of the beta cells of the pancreas. These are the cells that make insulin. In type 1, the body attacks its own Continue reading >>
Growing Numbers Of Children Have Type 2 Diabetes, Figures Show
More than 500 children and young people in the UK have type 2 diabetes, despite it usually occurring in people aged 40 or over. The Local Government Association (LGA) said the prevalence of the largely preventable condition, linked to being overweight or obese, should act as a “wake-up call” ahead of the government’s forthcoming childhood obesity strategy. The figures compiled by the Royal College of Paediatrics and Child Health (RCPCH) show that there are 533 people aged 19 or under with type 2 diabetes, including 11 aged nine or under. The LGA, which represents more than 370 councils with responsibility for public health, said on Wednesday that the number would continue to rise in the absence of bold action to get children eating more healthily and doing more exercise. Community wellbeing spokeswoman Izzi Seccombe, said: “Obesity is usually linked with major health conditions later on in life, but already we are seeing the early consequences of child obesity, with more and more children developing type 2 diabetes as a result. “Type 2 diabetes is normally associated with adults, so it is a major concern that we are seeing this in children and teenagers. “This is a wake-up call for the nation as the government faces a once-in-a-lifetime opportunity to take radical game-changing action in its forthcoming childhood obesity strategy. We cannot afford to delay any longer.” Unlike type 1 diabetes, type 2 is largely preventable and is closely linked to lifestyle. Data from the National Child Measurement Programme shows that one in 10 four and five-year-olds and one in five 10 and 11-year-olds are obese. The LGA has previously called for the childhood obesity strategy to include teaspoon sugar labelling, a reduction of sugar content in fizzy drinks, greater provi Continue reading >>
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Type 2 Diabetes
Type 2 diabetes is a progressive condition in which the body becomes resistant to the normal effects of insulin and/or gradually loses the capacity to produce enough insulin in the pancreas. We do not know what causes type 2 diabetes. Type 2 diabetes is associated with modifiable lifestyle risk factors. Type 2 diabetes also has strong genetic and family related risk factors. Type 2 diabetes: Is diagnosed when the pancreas does not produce enough insulin (reduced insulin production) and/or the insulin does not work effectively and/or the cells of the body do not respond to insulin effectively (known as insulin resistance) Represents 85–90 per cent of all cases of diabetes Usually develops in adults over the age of 45 years but is increasingly occurring in younger age groups including children, adolescents and young adults Is more likely in people with a family history of type 2 diabetes or from particular ethnic backgrounds For some the first sign may be a complication of diabetes such as a heart attack, vision problems or a foot ulcer Is managed with a combination of regular physical activity, healthy eating and weight reduction. As type 2 diabetes is often progressive, most people will need oral medications and/or insulin injections in addition to lifestyle changes over time. Type 2 diabetes develops over a long period of time (years). During this period of time insulin resistance starts, this is where the insulin is increasingly ineffective at managing the blood glucose levels. As a result of this insulin resistance, the pancreas responds by producing greater and greater amounts of insulin, to try and achieve some degree of management of the blood glucose levels. As insulin overproduction occurs over a very long period of time, the insulin producing cells in the pan Continue reading >>
Gluten-free Diets Actually Increase Risks Of Type 2 Diabetes
This article was originally published on The Conversation. Read the original article. It’s hard not to notice that the range of gluten-free foods available in supermarkets has increased massively in recent years. This is partly because the rise in the number of people diagnosed with coeliac disease and gluten sensitivity, and partly because celebrities, such as Gwyneth Paltrow, Miley Cyrus and Victoria Beckham, have praised gluten-free diets. What used to be prescription-only food is now a global health fad. But for how much longer? New research from Harvard University has found a link between gluten-free diets and an increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes. Gluten is a protein found in cereals such as wheat, rye and barley. It is particularly useful in food production. For example, it gives elasticity to dough, helping it to rise and keep its shape, and providing a chewy texture. Many types of foods may contain gluten, including less obvious ones such as salad dressing, soup and beer. The same protein that is so useful in food production is a nightmare for people with coeliac disease. Coeliac disease is an autoimmune disorder in which the body mistakenly reacts to gluten as if it were a threat to the body. The condition is quite common, affecting one in 100 people, but only a quarter of those who have the disease have been diagnosed. There is evidence that the popularity of gluten-free diets has surged, even though the incidence of coeliac disease has remained stable. This is potentially due to increasing numbers of people with non-coeliac gluten sensitivity. In these cases, people exhibit some of the symptoms of coelaic disease but without having an immune response. In either case, avoiding gluten in foods is the only reliable way to control symptoms, that may Continue reading >>
SHARE RATE★★★★★ Diabetes: a serious global health problem on the rise If you have diabetes or are at risk for developing the disease, you’re certainly not alone. It is estimated that almost 400 million people worldwide are affected by diabetes. Unfortunately, the numbers of people with diabetes are increasing in every country.1 One large study conducted in China in 2010, which included 100,000 people, found that 11.6% of participants had type 2 diabetes and about half had pre diabetes (defined as impaired glucose tolerance, impaired fasting glucose, or A1C between 5.7% and 6.4%).1 In the US alone, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) estimated that in 2010 diabetes affected 25.8 million people (that’s 8.3% of the population). Among these, 18.8 million were diagnosed and 7 million were undiagnosed. Diabetes was most common in people 65 years of age or older, occurring in approximately 27% of this age group.2 The statistics are even more sobering if you consider the percentages of adults in the US with prediabetes. Based on statistics from 2005 to 2008, the CDC found that 35% of US adults (age 20 years and older) had prediabetes, with the highest rate among adults 65 years of age and older. Prediabetes affects 1 in 2 adults (50%) in this age range. When these percentages are applied to the entire population of the US (2010 census data), this translates to 79 million adults 20 years of age or older with prediabetes.2 Dramatic increase in numbers for type 2 diabetes in US Results from two major studies conducted in the US have shown a dramatic increase in the prevalence of type 2 diabetes over the past four decades. The Framingham Heart Study (a very important long-term health study conducted in a group of people from Framingham, Massachusetts) Continue reading >>
Type 2 Diabetes Rates Increasing Among Young People, Minorities
A new study shows sharp increases in diabetes among young people and minorities. Across racial groups and gender, researchers found a 4.8 percent increase in type 2 diabetes for youths between 10 and 19 years old, and a 1.8 percent increase in type 1 diabetes among those aged 0 to 19 years old. Researchers also found a sharp increase of new diagnosed cases of type 2 diabetes in minorities, including an 8.9 percent increase for Native Americans, an 8.5 percent increase for Asian Americans/Pacific Islanders and a 6.3 percent increase for non-Hispanic blacks. The national SEARCH for Diabetes in Youth Study was conducted in five states — South Carolina, Ohio, Colorado, California and Washington. It was funded by the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK) and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). The most recent findings were published in the New England Journal of Medicine last week. Diabetes is a condition in which the body does not create enough insulin to control the body’s blood sugar levels. This lack of insulin can harm the body with diseases of the heart, kidneys, eyes and nervous system. About 29 million people in the U.S. are living with diagnosed or undiagnosed diabetes, and 208,000 people younger than 20 are living with diagnosed diabetes, according to the Nation Institutes of Health. Diabetes accounts for more than 76,000 deaths in the U.S. annually, according to the CDC. The onset of type 1 — which typically manifests around puberty but can be seen in people as young as 6 or as old as 60 — comes with a variety of symptoms such as excessive thirst, frequent urination, unexplained weight loss and blurred vision. A genetic predisposition and an environmental trigger are thought to cause type 1. While geneti Continue reading >>
Deadly But Preventable Type 2 Diabetes On The Rise In Australia
Diabetes is a chronic condition that is becoming increasingly common in Australia. While type 1 diabetes is usually diagnosed in childhood, a lifelong auto-immune disease believed to be caused by an interaction of genetic and environmental factors, type 2 diabetes comes later in life and is largely preventable. Unfortunately, too many of us are overweight, inactive, with a poor diet and bad habits, increasing the risk of diabetes. If you think diabetes is easily fixed with insulin, you are wrong, and perhaps underestimating the dangers. At its worst, poorly managed diabetes can cause heart disease, kidney disease, blindness and lower limb amputation. An estimated 1.2 million Australians, or 5.1 per cent of the population, had diabetes in 2014-15, the majority type 2. But it is thought that for every four adults who were diagnosed, one would be living without knowing their status. Diabetes is more common in men than women, and prevalence increases with age, to about 16 per cent for those aged 65-74. It is also often associated with other conditions. In 2013, diabetes contributed to 10 per cent of all deaths in Australia, most cases listing diabetes as an associated cause (coronary heart disease was the underlying cause in 23 per cent of those deaths and stroke in 6 per cent). Regrettably, indigenous Australians are 3.5 times more likely than other Australians to have diabetes, and four times more likely to be hospitalised or die from the condition. Australians with type 2 diabetes have access to various resources but, according to one expert, need more support to manage their condition. Writing in the Medical Journal of Australia in August, Jane Speight from Deakin University and Diabetes Victoria called for a “paradigm shift” to improve self-management, while resear Continue reading >>
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Rise In Type 2 Diabetes In Children 'deeply Worrying'
The UK is seeing a small but "extremely worrying" rise in the number of children developing a type of diabetes that is normally seen only in adults and is linked to obesity, say experts. Figures for England and Wales show 533 children and young people are now diagnosed with type 2 diabetes - up from about 500 the year before. This is still only 2% of all child diabetes - most have type 1 instead. The Local Government Association says it is still too much. Diabetes Diabetes is a condition that causes a person's blood sugar to become too high. There are two main types: Type 1 can develop at any age, but often begins in childhood. It is not related to diet or lifestyle, and experts are still trying to figure out why certain people are susceptible. Genetics probably play some role Type 2 is far more common than type 1, but is still rare in childhood. It is usually seen in adults and is often associated with obesity The body, which represents hundreds of individual councils with responsibility for public health, believes cases will continue to rise unless bold action is taken in the English government's awaited childhood obesity strategy. Whatever happened to the obesity strategy? How can I reduce my risk of diabetes? The LGA is calling for teaspoon sugar labelling and a reduction of sugar content in fizzy drinks, greater provision of tap water in schools and restaurants, and for councils to be given powers to ban junk food advertising near schools, to be included in the childhood obesity strategy. Cllr Izzi Seccombe, from the LGA, said: "This is a wake-up call for the nation as the government faces a once-in-a-lifetime opportunity to take radical game-changing action in its forthcoming childhood obesity strategy. "We cannot afford to delay any longer." The government has re Continue reading >>
Key facts The number of people with diabetes has risen from 108 million in 1980 to 422 million in 2014 (1). The global prevalence of diabetes* among adults over 18 years of age has risen from 4.7% in 1980 to 8.5% in 2014 (1). Diabetes prevalence has been rising more rapidly in middle- and low-income countries. Diabetes is a major cause of blindness, kidney failure, heart attacks, stroke and lower limb amputation. In 2015, an estimated 1.6 million deaths were directly caused by diabetes. Another 2.2 million deaths were attributable to high blood glucose in 2012**. Almost half of all deaths attributable to high blood glucose occur before the age of 70 years. WHO projects that diabetes will be the seventh leading cause of death in 2030 (1). Healthy diet, regular physical activity, maintaining a normal body weight and avoiding tobacco use are ways to prevent or delay the onset of type 2 diabetes. Diabetes can be treated and its consequences avoided or delayed with diet, physical activity, medication and regular screening and treatment for complications. What is diabetes? Diabetes is a chronic disease that occurs either when the pancreas does not produce enough insulin or when the body cannot effectively use the insulin it produces. Insulin is a hormone that regulates blood sugar. Hyperglycaemia, or raised blood sugar, is a common effect of uncontrolled diabetes and over time leads to serious damage to many of the body's systems, especially the nerves and blood vessels. In 2014, 8.5% of adults aged 18 years and older had diabetes. In 2015, diabetes was the direct cause of 1.6 million deaths and in 2012 high blood glucose was the cause of another 2.2 million deaths. Type 1 diabetes Type 1 diabetes (previously known as insulin-dependent, juvenile or childhood-onset) is charact Continue reading >>
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Diabetes Mellitus Type 2
Diabetes mellitus type 2 (also known as type 2 diabetes) is a long-term metabolic disorder that is characterized by high blood sugar, insulin resistance, and relative lack of insulin. Common symptoms include increased thirst, frequent urination, and unexplained weight loss. Symptoms may also include increased hunger, feeling tired, and sores that do not heal. Often symptoms come on slowly. Long-term complications from high blood sugar include heart disease, strokes, diabetic retinopathy which can result in blindness, kidney failure, and poor blood flow in the limbs which may lead to amputations. The sudden onset of hyperosmolar hyperglycemic state may occur; however, ketoacidosis is uncommon. Type 2 diabetes primarily occurs as a result of obesity and lack of exercise. Some people are more genetically at risk than others. Type 2 diabetes makes up about 90% of cases of diabetes, with the other 10% due primarily to diabetes mellitus type 1 and gestational diabetes. In diabetes mellitus type 1 there is a lower total level of insulin to control blood glucose, due to an autoimmune induced loss of insulin-producing beta cells in the pancreas. Diagnosis of diabetes is by blood tests such as fasting plasma glucose, oral glucose tolerance test, or glycated hemoglobin (A1C). Type 2 diabetes is partly preventable by staying a normal weight, exercising regularly, and eating properly. Treatment involves exercise and dietary changes. If blood sugar levels are not adequately lowered, the medication metformin is typically recommended. Many people may eventually also require insulin injections. In those on insulin, routinely checking blood sugar levels is advised; however, this may not be needed in those taking pills. Bariatri Continue reading >>
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Type 2 Diabetes Causes
Type 2 diabetes has several causes: genetics and lifestyle are the most important ones. A combination of these factors can cause insulin resistance, when your body doesn’t use insulin as well as it should. Insulin resistance is the most common cause of type 2 diabetes. Genetics Play a Role in Type 2 Diabetes Type 2 diabetes can be hereditary. That doesn’t mean that if your mother or father has (or had) type 2 diabetes, you’re guaranteed to develop it; instead, it means that you have a greater chance of developing type 2. Researchers know that you can inherit a risk for type 2 diabetes, but it’s difficult to pinpoint which genes carry the risk. The medical community is hard at work trying to figure out the certain genetic mutations that lead to a risk of type 2. Lifestyle Is Very Important, Too Genes do play a role in type 2 diabetes, but lifestyle choices are also important. You can, for example, have a genetic mutation that may make you susceptible to type 2, but if you take good care of your body, you may not develop diabetes. Say that two people have the same genetic mutation. One of them eats well, watches their cholesterol, and stays physically fit, and the other is overweight (BMI greater than 25) and inactive. The person who is overweight and inactive is much more likely to develop type 2 diabetes because certain lifestyle choices greatly influence how well your body uses insulin. Lack of exercise: Physical activity has many benefits—one of them being that it can help you avoid type 2 diabetes, if you’re susceptible. Unhealthy meal planning choices: A meal plan filled with high-fat foods and lacking in fiber (which you can get from grains, vegetables, and fruits) increases the likelihood of type 2. Overweight/Obesity: Lack of exercise and unhealthy me Continue reading >>