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Why Does Someone With Diabetes Have An Increased Risk Of Cardiovascular Disease?

Risk Factors

Risk Factors

90% of Australians have at least one risk factor for heart disease. The more risk factors for coronary heart disease you have, the greater your chance of developing it. The good news is that for most risk factors, you can do something about them. Risks you can control Smoking Cholesterol High Blood Pressure Being inactive Diabetes Being overweight Unhealthy diet Risks you can’t control Age: As you get older, your risk of heart disease increases. Gender: Men are at higher risk of heart disease. Women’s risk grows and may be equal to men after menopause. Ethnic background: People of some origins (e.g. from the Indian sub-continent) have higher risk. Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people have more risk because of lifestyle factors. Family history: If someone in your family has cardiovascular disease, speak to your doctor about your risk. SMOKING Smokers are almost twice as likely to have a heart attack compared with people who have never smoked. Stopping smoking is one of the best ways to prevent heart disease and it’s never too late to give up. How does smoking damage your heart? Smoking damages the lining of your arteries, leading to a build-up of fatty material (atheroma) which narrows the artery. This can cause angina, a heart attack or a stroke. The carbon monoxide in tobacco smoke reduces the amount of oxygen in your blood. This means your heart has to pump harder to supply the body with the oxygen it needs. The nicotine in cigarettes stimulates your body to produce adrenaline, which makes your heart beat faster and raises your blood pressure, making your heart work harder. Your blood is more likely to clot, which increases your risk of having a heart attack or stroke. Second-hand smoke When non-smokers breathe in second-hand smoke – also known as pass Continue reading >>

Why Does Psoriasis Increase Risk For Obesity, Heart Disease?

Why Does Psoriasis Increase Risk For Obesity, Heart Disease?

What is a comorbidity? The term itself sounds scary — after all, the word "morbid" is in there. But comorbidities means there are multiple medical conditions that occur in the same person. Cathy Beckwith, 56, of Jersey Village, Texas, has psoriasis, psoriatic arthritis and has pre-diabetes. She also has premature ventricular contractions, causing an irregular heartbeat. Her doctors believe her many health conditions are related, and they have a common theme — inflammation. When she visited her cardiologist in Houston, "he told me my (premature ventricular contractions) could be caused by stress on my heart from the inflammation I have all the time," Beckwith said. Once Beckwith's rheumatologist learned she had psoriasis, the doctor was certain her joint pain and swelling were psoriatic arthritis. Doctors have long suspected that those with psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis, both inflammatory conditions, are more susceptible to a number of related conditions, including obesity, heart disease and diabetes. Does psoriasis cause comorbidities? Doctors can't say whether it's the psoriasis that causes the related conditions, also known as comorbidities, or whether it's the other way around. But new research adds to the belief that those with psoriasis are at an increased risk of developing other inflammatory conditions, even those with mild psoriasis. "We know from experiments with mice that skin inflammation comes first," said Nicole Ward, an associate professor of dermatology at Case Western Reserve University in Cleveland. "It precedes the vascular inflammation that can lead to cardiovascular comorbidities such as heart attacks." While Ward's lab results in mice are similar to those found in humans by researchers Dr. Nehal N. Mehta, a cardiologist, and Dr. Joel Gelfand Continue reading >>

Cardiovascular Disease In Type 2 Diabetes From Population To Man To Mechanisms

Cardiovascular Disease In Type 2 Diabetes From Population To Man To Mechanisms

Epidemic of diabetes, affecting about 3–5% of Western populations, is one of the main threats to human health in the 21st century (1). Changes in the human environment, behavior, and lifestyle have resulted in a dramatic increase in the incidence and prevalence of diabetes in people with genetic susceptibility to diabetes. The global number of people with diabetes was 151 million in 2000, and it is projected to increase to 221 million in 2010 (an increase of 46%) both in developed and developing countries (2). Chronic hyperglycemia leads to many long-term complications in the eyes, kidneys, nerves, heart, and blood vessels. Individuals with pre-diabetes, undiagnosed type 2 diabetes, and long-lasting type 2 diabetes are at high risk of all complications of macrovascular disease, coronary heart disease (CHD), stroke, and peripheral vascular disease. More than 70% of patients with type 2 diabetes die of cardiovascular causes (3). Therefore, the epidemic of type 2 diabetes will be followed by an epidemic of diabetes-related cardiovascular disease (CVD). Over the years, epidemiological studies have produced important information on the prevalence and incidence of diabetes complications in different populations. They have also given important information on different risk factors determining susceptibility to diabetes complications (Fig. 1). This information is crucial for mechanistic studies in physiology at the tissue level and for molecular biology studies at the cellular level. A good example is glycated hemoglobin. Several studies have indicated that glycated hemoglobin is associated with diabetes complications in prospective epidemiological studies. That information has been crucial for the planning of clinical trials to test the hypothesis that the treatment of chron Continue reading >>

Type 1 Diabetes And Cardiovascular Disease

Type 1 Diabetes And Cardiovascular Disease

Abstract The presence of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in Type 1 diabetes largely impairs life expectancy. Hyperglycemia leading to an increase in oxidative stress is considered to be the key pathophysiological factor of both micro- and macrovascular complications. In Type 1 diabetes, the presence of coronary calcifications is also related to coronary artery disease. Cardiac autonomic neuropathy, which significantly impairs myocardial function and blood flow, also enhances cardiac abnormalities. Also hypoglycemic episodes are considered to adversely influence cardiac performance. Intensive insulin therapy has been demonstrated to reduce the occurrence and progression of both micro- and macrovascular complications. This has been evidenced by the Diabetes Control and Complications Trial (DCCT) / Epidemiology of Diabetes Interventions and Complications (EDIC) study. The concept of a metabolic memory emerged based on the results of the study, which established that intensified insulin therapy is the standard of treatment of Type 1 diabetes. Future therapies may also include glucagon-like peptide (GLP)-based treatment therapies. Pilot studies with GLP-1-analogues have been shown to reduce insulin requirements. Introduction Over the past 40 years, a reduction in the mortality due to cardiovascular (CV) disease and coronary heart disease (CHD) by about 70% both in diabetic and non-diabetic patients has been observed [1]. The cause is presumed to be a substantial progress in CV risk factor management and interventional cardiology [1]. Furthermore, in patients with type 1 diabetes, a decrease in mortality and a remarkable improvement in life expectancy occurred during the past decades [2, 3]. The comparison of two subcohorts of the Pittsburgh Epidemiology of Diabetes Complication Continue reading >>

Heart Disease And Diabetes

Heart Disease And Diabetes

Heart disease is common in people with diabetes. Data from the National Heart Association from 2012 shows 65% of people with diabetes will die from some sort of heart disease or stroke. In general, the risk of heart disease death and stroke are twice as high in people with diabetes. While all people with diabetes have an increased chance of developing heart disease, the condition is more common in those with type 2 diabetes. In fact, heart disease is the number one cause of death among people with type 2 diabetes. The Framingham Study was one of the first pieces of evidence to show that people with diabetes are more vulnerable to heart disease than those people who did not have diabetes. The Framingham Study looked at generations of people, including those with diabetes, to try to determine the health risk factors for developing heart disease. It showed that multiple health factors -- including diabetes -- could increase the possibility of developing heart disease. Aside from diabetes, other health problems associated with heart disease include high blood pressure, smoking, high cholesterol levels, and a family history of early heart disease. The more health risks factors a person has for heart disease, the higher the chances that they will develop heart disease and even die from it. Just like anyone else, people with diabetes have an increased risk of dying from heart disease if they have more health risk factors. However, the probability of dying from heart disease is 2 to 4 times higher in a person with diabetes. So, while a person with one health risk factor, such as high blood pressure, may have a certain chance of dying from heart disease, a person with diabetes has double or even quadruple the risk of dying. For example, one medical study found that people with d Continue reading >>

Diabetes And Heart Disease — An Intimate Connection

Diabetes And Heart Disease — An Intimate Connection

By By Om P. Ganda, M.D., Director, Lipid Clinic, Joslin Diabetes Center A strong link between diabetes and heart disease is now well established. Studies from Joslin Diabetes Center several years ago showed a two- to threefold increase in the incidence of heart disease in patients with diabetes compared with those without diabetes who were being followed in the Framingham Heart Study. Women with diabetes have an even greater risk of heart disease compared with those of similar age who do not have diabetes. In fact, cardiovascular disease leading to heart attack or stroke is by far the leading cause of death in both men and women with diabetes. Another major component of cardiovascular disease is poor circulation in the legs, which contributes to a greatly increased risk of foot ulcers and amputations. Several advances in the treatment of heart disease over the past two decades have improved the chances of surviving a heart attack or stroke. However, as the incidence of diabetes steadily increases, so has the number of new cases of heart disease and cardiovascular complications. Unfortunately, in patients with diabetes, improvement in survival has been less than half as much as in the general population. Why Is Heart Disease So Common in People With Diabetes? Diabetes by itself is now regarded as the strongest risk factor for heart disease; however, a variety of mechanisms—not solely blood glucose levels—most likely come into play. The blood vessels in patients with diabetes are more susceptible to other well-established risk factors, such as smoking, high cholesterol and high blood pressure, and more than 90% of patients with diabetes have one or more of these additional risk factors. Some of the increased susceptibility to blood vessel damage that people with diabe Continue reading >>

Insulin Resistance: Risk Factor For Heart Disease And Diabetes

Insulin Resistance: Risk Factor For Heart Disease And Diabetes

MORE Insulin resistance is a metabolic disorder that occurs when the body's cells cannot properly intake insulin. Insulin, which is produced in the pancreas, is a hormone that helps the body use energy from blood glucose, or blood sugar from digested food, according to the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases. "Think of insulin as the key that unlocks the door to their cells. That door needs to be opened in order for glucose to exit the blood into the cell," said Kimber Stanhope, a nutrition research scientist at the University of California at Davis. When people are insulin resistant, their pancreas, which acts as the locksmith of sorts, is still making those "keys," but the locks — the receptors on cells that take in blood sugar — aren't working as well as they should, Stanhope said. That’s a problem because insulin doesn't just play a role in helping the body use blood sugar as fuel; it's critical for many other bodily processes as well. Being insulin resistant can put people on the path towards developing Type 2 diabetes, and is the single best predictor of who will develop diabetes 10 or 20 years down the line. Once someone is pre-diabetic or diabetic, the pancreas simply can't produce enough insulin to make the cells sufficiently take up glucose and blood sugar levels rise. Insulin resistance also raises the risk of other disorders, such as heart disease. More than 50 million Americans have metabolic disorders that include insulin resistance, according to the American Heart Association. The condition occurs in more than 50 percent of obese children, according to a 2006 study published in the journal Diabetes Care. Causes One of the primary causes of insulin resistance is excess body fat, Stanhope said. "Nearly everybody that is ov Continue reading >>

Cardiovascular Disease Atheroma

Cardiovascular Disease Atheroma

The cause of most cardiovascular disease is a build-up of atheroma - a fatty deposit within the inside lining of arteries. There are lifestyle factors that can be taken to reduce the risk of forming atheroma. These include not smoking; choosing healthy foods; a low salt intake; regular physical activity; keeping your weight and waist size down; drinking alcohol in moderation. Your blood pressure and cholesterol level are also important. All people aged over 40 years should have a cardiovascular health risk assessment - usually available at your GP surgery. If you have a high risk of developing a cardiovascular disease, treatment to reduce high blood pressure (hypertension) and/or cholesterol may be advised. What is cardiovascular disease? Play VideoPlayMute0:00/0:00Loaded: 0%Progress: 0%Stream TypeLIVE0:00Playback Rate1xChapters Chapters Descriptions descriptions off, selected Subtitles undefined settings, opens undefined settings dialog captions and subtitles off, selected Audio TrackFullscreen This is a modal window. Beginning of dialog window. Escape will cancel and close the window. TextColorWhiteBlackRedGreenBlueYellowMagentaCyanTransparencyOpaqueSemi-TransparentBackgroundColorBlackWhiteRedGreenBlueYellowMagentaCyanTransparencyOpaqueSemi-TransparentTransparentWindowColorBlackWhiteRedGreenBlueYellowMagentaCyanTransparencyTransparentSemi-TransparentOpaqueFont Size50%75%100%125%150%175%200%300%400%Text Edge StyleNoneRaisedDepressedUniformDropshadowFont FamilyProportional Sans-SerifMonospace Sans-SerifProportional SerifMonospace SerifCasualScriptSmall CapsReset restore all settings to the default valuesDoneClose Modal Dialog End of dialog window. Cardiovascular diseases are diseases of the heart or blood vessels. However, the term cardiovascular disease is used to desc Continue reading >>

Diabetes, Heart Disease, And You

Diabetes, Heart Disease, And You

Diabetes is a common disease that is on the rise in America. Having diabetes raises your risk for developing other dangerous conditions, especially heart disease and stroke. November is National Diabetes Month, a time to raise awareness about preventing and managing diabetes and protecting yourself from its complications. Diabetes is a serious condition that happens when your body can’t make enough of a hormone called insulin or can’t properly use the insulin it has. Insulin helps your body digest sugars that come from what you eat and drink. Without enough insulin, sugar builds up in your blood. Over time, that sugar buildup damages your nerves, blood vessels, heart, and kidneys. More than 29 million Americans have diabetes, or about 1 of every 11 people. 1 About 8 million of them don’t know they have diabetes. Another 86 million—more than 1 in 3 Americans older than 20 years—have prediabetes, a condition in which a person’s blood sugar is high, but not yet high enough to trigger diabetes.2 Most people with diabetes have type 2 diabetes. Adults with type 2 diabetes are about twice as likely to die from heart disease as adults who do not have diabetes.3 Surprising Facts About Diabetes Women with diabetes have a 40% greater risk of developing heart disease and a 25% greater risk of stroke than men with diabetes do.5 Experts aren’t sure why the risk is so much greater in women with diabetes than in men with diabetes. Women’s biology may play a role: Women usually have more body fat, which can put them at greater risk for heart disease and stroke. If you are a woman with diabetes, you can take steps to control your condition and improve your chances for avoiding heart disease and stroke (see below). Almost 7 in 10 people with diabetes over age 65 will die o Continue reading >>

Causes And Risks Of Heart Disease

Causes And Risks Of Heart Disease

What is heart disease? Heart disease is sometimes called coronary heart disease (CHD). It is the leading cause of death among adults in the United States. Learning about the causes and risk factors of the disease may help you avoid heart problems. Causes of heart disease Heart disease occurs when plaque develops in the arteries and blood vessels that lead to the heart. This blocks important nutrients and oxygen from reaching your heart. Plaque is a waxy substance made up of cholesterol, fatty molecules, and minerals. Plaque accumulates over time when the inner lining of an artery is damaged by high blood pressure, cigarette smoking, or elevated cholesterol or triglycerides. Risk factors Several risk factors play an important role in determining whether or not you’re likely to develop heart disease. Two of these factors, age and heredity, are out of your control. The risk of CHD increases around the age of 55 in women and 45 in men. Your risk may be greater if you have close family members who have a history of heart disease. Other risk factors for heart disease include: obesity insulin resistance or diabetes high cholesterol and blood pressure family history of heart disease being physically inactive smoking eating an unhealthy diet clinical depression Unhealthy lifestyle choices Though genetic factors can increase your risk of developing heart disease, unhealthy lifestyle choices also play a big role. Some unhealthy lifestyle choices that can contribute to heart disease include: living a sedentary lifestyle and not getting enough physical exercise eating an unhealthy diet that is high in fat proteins, trans fats, sugary foods, and sodium smoking excessive drinking staying in a high-stress environment without proper stress management techniques not managing your diabe Continue reading >>

Heart Disease Risk Factors

Heart Disease Risk Factors

Know Your Risks What are major risk factors? What are contributing factors? Learn to be heart-smart! Explore topics on the website. (En español) See also risk factors for children and teens. Cardiovascular disease can take many forms: high blood pressure, coronary artery disease, valvular heart disease, stroke, or arrhythmias (irregular heartbeat). According to the World Health Organization, cardiovascular disease causes more than 17 million deaths in the world each year and is responsible for half of all deaths in the United States. Coronary artery disease, the most common form of cardiovascular disease, is the leading cause of death in America today. Cancer, the second largest killer, accounts for a little more than half as many deaths. In the United States, more than 80 million Americans have some form of cardiovascular disease. But thanks to many studies involving thousands of patients, researchers have identified certain factors that play important roles in a person's chances of developing heart disease. These are called risk factors. Risk factors are divided into two categories: major and contributing. Major risk factors have been proven to increase your risk of heart disease. Contributing risk factors can lead to an increased risk of heart disease. The more risk factors you have, the more likely you are to develop heart disease. Some risk factors can be changed, treated, or modified, and some cannot. But by controlling as many risk factors as possible through lifestyle changes, medicines, or both, you can reduce your risk of heart disease. High Blood Pressure (Hypertension). High blood pressure increases your risk of heart disease, heart attack, and stroke. If you are obese, smoke, or have high blood cholesterol levels along with high blood pressure, your risk o Continue reading >>

Reducing The Risks Of Developing Heart Disease

Reducing The Risks Of Developing Heart Disease

Risk factors and risk score The importance of a healthy lifestyle affects everyone and in particular if you have been diagnosed with a heart condition. The narrowing or blockages within the coronary arteries may be slowed down if a healthy lifestyle is continued. Deaths from cardiovascular disease Cardiovascular disease refers to all the diseases of the heart and circulation, including stroke and coronary heart disease. Coronary Heart Disease (CHD) - or heart disease - is preventable, yet it kills, according to the Heart Research Institute UK, around 18,050 people in Scotland each year. The disease is caused when the heart’s blood vessels, the coronary arteries, become narrowed or blocked and can’t supply enough blood to the heart. This can cause a heart attack or angina. The good news is that if we tackle these risk factors, we can reduce our numbers of people developing heart disease. How can we prevent heart disease? We can lower the risk of people developing heart disease in the first place. We can also prevent further illness and death in people who already have heart disease. We can break down risk factors into what we can’t change (non-modifiable) and what we can change (modifiable). What are the risk factors? Scotland has a high prevalence of the risk factors associated with heart disease, like: smoking - if you have a heart condition, one of the most important things you can do for yourself is to stop smoking poor diet - a healthy diet can help reduce your risk of developing coronary heart disease and stop you gaining weight, reducing your risk of diabetes and high blood pressure being overweight - this increases the work the heart has to do, and it leads to high blood pressure and abnormal levels of fat in the blood. It’s also associated with diabetes, Continue reading >>

The Connection Between Heart Disease And Diabetes

The Connection Between Heart Disease And Diabetes

Ways for Diabetics to Protect Their Heart Most people living with diabetes are aware that they have an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. But the statistics can be truly staggering regarding heart disease and the diabetes. As a result, the amount of glucose in the blood increases while the cells are starved of energy. Over time, high blood glucose levels damage nerves and blood vessels, leading to complications such as heart disease and stroke, the leading causes of death among people with diabetes The Connection Between Heart Disease and Diabetes The connection between diabetes and heart disease starts with high blood sugar levels. With time, the high glucose in the bloodstream damages the arteries, causing them to become stiff and hard. Fatty material that builds up on the inside of these blood vessels can eventually block blood flow to the heart or brain, leading to heart attack or stroke. Your risk of heart disease with diabetes is further elevated if you also have a family history of cardiovascular disease or stroke. According to the National Institutes of Health, about 65 percent of people with diabetes actually die of heart disease or stroke, and a person with diabetes has twice the chance of developing heart disease as someone without diabetes. connection. DID YOU KNOW? A person with diabetes who has had one heart attack has a much greater risk of having another. A middle-aged person who has diabetes has the same chance of having a heart attack as someone who is not diabetic, but already had a heart attack. People with diabetes develop cardiovascular disease at a much earlier age than others. People with diabetes who have heart attacks are more apt to die as a result. People with diabetes have a higher-than-average risk of having a heart attack or stroke. Continue reading >>

How Age And Gender Affect Your Heart

How Age And Gender Affect Your Heart

The number of people affected by heart disease increases with age in both men and women. About four out of five people who die of coronary heart disease are 65 or older. Because heart disease becomes more common as you age, it's important to have regular checkups and watch your heart disease risk factors. Your doctor will work with you to help you lower your risk of heart disease. What Happens As You Get Older As you age, so do your blood vessels. They become less flexible, making it harder for blood to move through them easily. Fatty deposits called plaques also collect along your artery walls and slow the blood flow from the heart. These things, along with poor nutrition and exercise habits, can increase your risk of heart disease. Add other risk factors — such as high blood pressure, smoking, and diabetes — and it's likely that you will have a greater risk for a heart attack. Gender and Risk Gender may also affect your risk. For years, heart disease was considered a man's disease. However, we now know that heart disease is the leading cause of death for women as well as men. Although men tend to develop coronary artery disease earlier in life, after age 65 the risk of heart disease in women is almost the same as in men. Women have many of the same risk factors for heart disease as men, such as smoking, high blood pressure, and high cholesterol. Diabetes is a particularly important risk factor for developing heart disease in women. The symptoms of heart disease in diabetic women can be very subtle. Women may have mild heartburn or breathlessness during physical exertion rather than chest pain that is considered typical in men or in people without diabetes. Use our interactive tool to find your risk of heart disease or cardiovascular disease in the next 5 years. Continue reading >>

Review Article Coronary Artery Disease And Diabetes Mellitus

Review Article Coronary Artery Disease And Diabetes Mellitus

Abstract Diabetes mellitus (DM) and coronary artery disease (CAD) are closely related. DM is a risk factor for CAD, but it is also equivalent to established CAD. The prevalence of DM and CAD is growing primarily due to the rising prevalence of obesity. The rapidly changing life style, especially in developing countries, plays major role in the occurrence of these diseases. We performed a literature review to summarize and explore the relationship between CAD and DM with a special focus on Arab countries in terms of risk factors and prevalence. We suggest future directions to prevent escalation in the incidence of DM and CAD in Arab countries. An important part of any preventive program for CAD should include clear prevention strategies for DM and other associated metabolic risk factors, such as obesity. Preventive measures, such as physical exercise in high-risk groups, at the population level should be encouraged. Continue reading >>

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