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Why Does Obesity Lead To Type 2 Diabetes?

Exactly How Does Obesity Lead To Diabetes?

Exactly How Does Obesity Lead To Diabetes?

There are some people who don’t want to believe that they are at risk of developing certain conditions due to their weight. Unfortunately, there is clear medical data that shows people who are obese have a greater risk of heart disease, high blood pressure, and even cancer. Another disease that people who are overweight are at risk of developing is diabetes. It’s good for people to know exactly how does obesity lead to diabetes. Once individuals become more familiar with how they can get diabetes, they are better prepared to eliminate certain risk factors. How many obese people have diabetes? The statistics that connect diabetes to being overweight are quite alarming. In the past, some medical professionals thought that people had to be obese in order to be at risk for diabetes. Gradually, people began to think that people who were even moderately overweight were also at a greater risk of developing the condition. Recent research has now shown that individuals who are even slightly overweight have an increased risk of falling victim to type 2 diabetes. So what are the exact numbers? Well, it’s believed that well over 25 percent of individuals who are overweight have diabetes. Also, over 80 percent of people who have diabetes are overweight. Since more people are overweight and obese than ever before, there are a lot more diabetics. The frightening thing is that there are a good number of people who don’t even know that they are diabetic. They might pass the symptoms off as something else. how does being overweight cause diabetes? Once it’s been established that there is a clear link between being overweight and developing diabetes, there’s another question that arises: How? Researchers have been trying to understand the link for years. It’s now believed th Continue reading >>

> Weight And Diabetes

> Weight And Diabetes

A balanced diet and an active lifestyle can help all kids maintain a healthy weight. For kids with diabetes, diet and exercise are even more important because weight can affect diabetes and diabetes can affect weight. This is true for kids and teens with type 1 diabetes or type 2 diabetes. In diabetes, the body doesn't use glucose properly. Glucose, a sugar, is the main source of energy for the body. Glucose levels are controlled by a hormone called insulin, which is made in the pancreas. In type 1 diabetes, the pancreas does not make enough insulin. Undiagnosed or untreated type 1 diabetes can cause weight loss. Glucose builds up in the bloodstream if insulin isn't available to move it to the muscles. When glucose levels become high, the kidneys work to get rid of it through urine. This causes weight loss due to dehydration and loss of calories from the sugar that wasn't used as energy. Kids who develop type 1 diabetes often lose weight even though they have a normal or increased appetite. Once kids are diagnosed and treated for type 1 diabetes, weight usually returns to normal. Developing type 1 diabetes isn't related to being overweight, but keeping a healthy weight is important. Too much fat tissue can make it hard for insulin to work properly, leading to both higher insulin needs and trouble controlling blood sugar. In type 2 diabetes, the pancreas still makes insulin, but the insulin doesn't work in the body like it should and blood sugar levels get too high. Most kids and teens are overweight when they're diagnosed with type 2 diabetes. Being overweight or obese increases the risk for developing type 2 diabetes. Also, weight gain in people with type 2 diabetes makes blood sugar levels even harder to control. People with type 2 diabetes have a condition called ins Continue reading >>

Abdominal Fat: Does It Predict The Development Of Type 2 Diabetes?1,2

Abdominal Fat: Does It Predict The Development Of Type 2 Diabetes?1,2

The incidence of type 2 diabetes (T2DM) is rapidly increasing worldwide. There is a great deal of evidence that both genetic and environmental factors are of importance in the pathogenesis of T2DM. Whereas the genetic factors are still poorly understood, numerous studies have shown that obesity (in particular, central obesity), physical inactivity, a high-fat diet, and a diet rich in saturated fatty acids increase the risk of diabetes (1). T2DM is increasingly common among young people and even children; it constitutes a major health problem in both developed and developing countries; and, with obesity, it is becoming one of the largest challenges to health care systems. Therefore, any measures that could prevent or delay the development of diabetes are urgently needed. In this issue of the Journal, the report by Bray et al (2) tries to answer the question of whether preferential abdominal fat accumulation could predict the development of T2DM in US adults with elevated fasting and postprandial glycemia. The role of abdominal obesity in the development of T2DM is controversial (3). Several studies have shown the association among abdominal adiposity, insulin resistance, and hyperglycemia (3). Visceral fat (VF) is increased in proportion to body mass index (BMI) (4), and obesity is one of the main risk factors for the development of T2DM (1). Moreover, visceral adipocytes release an excess amount of free fatty acids (FFAs) and are very resistant to the antilipolytic effect of insulin (3). Several lines of evidence support the concept that FFAs are important regulators of glucose metabolism and that elevated FFAs are associated with insulin resistance at the level of liver and muscle (5). Thus, to explain the association between VF and hepatic insulin resistance, it has b Continue reading >>

Does Fat Cause Insulin Resistance?

Does Fat Cause Insulin Resistance?

For decades now, we have been told that fatness (or “obesity”) is a major cause of diabetes. Health “experts” have warned about this, but they could never say how being overweight could cause insulin resistance (IR). Without IR, you can’t have Type 2 diabetes, so the whole “blame fat” theory has been suspect. Well, now they have a plausible explanation. Obesity may cause inflammation, causing IR, leading to diabetes. But is this theory true? Does adipose (fat) tissue really create inflammation? Or do both obesity and inflammation come from some other cause? Get ready for some science as I try to explore these questions. In a new report in the Journal of Leukocyte Biology, two Japanese scientists report that “obesity is associated with a state of chronic, low-grade inflammation.” They explain that as fat cells get larger, they seem to attract immune cells called macrophages. These cells produce inflammatory chemicals called cytokines that help cause insulin resistance. Chief among these chemicals are interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor-alpha. In animal models, insulin resistance doesn’t occur until after macrophages invade the fat cells. So the question remains, which comes first, the inflammation or the fatness? What draws the immune cells into adipose tissue? Remember that most overweight people never develop diabetes. And some overweight people have much more inflammation than others. (The same is true of thin people, of course.) Why do some develop this fat-related inflammation and some don’t? Some think that weight itself provokes inflammation. According to French scientists writing in the journal European Cytokine Network, weight loss is associated with reduced “macrophage infiltration” and reduced inflammation. Also, another chemical, Continue reading >>

Type 2 Diabetes In Children

Type 2 Diabetes In Children

For decades, type 2 diabetes was considered an adults-only condition. In fact, type 2 diabetes was once called adult-onset diabetes. But what was once a disease mainly faced by adults is becoming more common in children. Type 2 diabetes is a chronic condition that affects how the body metabolizes sugar (glucose). Over 5,000 people under the age of 20 were diagnosed with type 2 diabetes between 2008 and 2009. Until 10 years ago, type 2 diabetes accounted for less than 3% of all newly diagnosed diabetes cases in adolescents; it now comprises 45% of all such cases. It’s more common in those aged 10-19 and in non-Caucasian populations, including African Americans, Native Americans, Asian/Pacific Islanders, and Hispanics. Being overweight is closely tied to the development of type 2 diabetes. Overweight children have an increased likelihood of insulin resistance. As the body struggles to regulate insulin, high blood sugar leads to a number of potentially serious health problems. In the past 30 years, obesity in children has doubled and obesity in adolescents has quadrupled, according to the CDC. Genetics may also play a role. For instance, the risk of type 2 diabetes increases if one parent or both parents has the condition. Symptoms of type 2 diabetes are not always easy to spot. In most cases, the disease develops gradually, making the symptoms hard to detect. Many people do not feel any symptoms. In other cases, children may not show any obvious signs. If you believe your child has diabetes, keep an eye out for these signs: Excessive fatigue: If your child seems extraordinarily tired or sleepy, their body may not have enough sugar to properly fuel their normal body functions. Excessive thirst: Children who have excessive thirst may have high blood sugar levels. Frequent Continue reading >>

Abdominal Obesity And Type 2 Diabetes

Abdominal Obesity And Type 2 Diabetes

Beyond Excess Body Weight The strong relationship between obesity and type 2 diabetes does not mean that being overweight or obese will inevitably cause type 2 diabetes. For example, some normal weight individuals may be at high risk of developing type 2 diabetes, whereas many very obese individuals are not insulin resistant (11) and may never develop the disease. Some etiological factors linking excess body fat and type 2 diabetes could explain this phenomenon. Obesity and type 2 diabetes share a number of causative lifestyle factors such as excessive energy intake, a diet high in saturated fat, and a sedentary lifestyle. However, the risk of developing type 2 diabetes may also depend on genetic susceptibility and the distribution of adipose tissue (12). The possibility of a relationship between body fat distribution and type 2 diabetes was first raised in the mid-forties by French physician Jean Vague (13). He reported that the complications generally found in obese patients depended more on the location of the excess fat rather than obesity per se (13). Following this observation, he described the high-risk form of obesity as “android obesity,” a condition commonly found in men and in which adipose tissue accumulates in the trunk. In opposition, he described the accumulation of body fat in the gluteo-femoral region—the common fat pattern of premenopausal women—as “gynoid obesity.” This type of fat distribution rarely leads to common obesity-related complications (14, 15). Since these pioneering observations, many cross-sectional and prospective studies have linked type 2 diabetes to body fat distribution. Abdominal Obesity: the Diabetogenic Obesity Several prospective studies have shown that abdominal obesity increases the risk of type 2 diabetes (16, 17) Continue reading >>

Type 2 Diabetes And Obesity: Twin Epidemics

Type 2 Diabetes And Obesity: Twin Epidemics

Overview Type 2 diabetes accounts for 95% of the 25.8 million diabetes cases in the U.S1 Obesity is a major independent risk factor for developing the disease, and more than 90% of type 2 diabetics are overweight or obese2 Modest weight loss, as little as 5% of total body weight, can help to improve type 2 diabetes in patients who are overweight or obese3 Metabolic and bariatric surgery may result in resolution or improvement of type 2 diabetes independent of weight loss4 Prevalence Diabetes affects 8.3% of the total U.S. population (25.8 million people)5 18.8 million people have been diagnosed 7 million people are unaware they suffer from the disease About 95% of the diabetes population has type 2 diabetes6 Increases in type 2 diabetes cases across the country associated with higher obesity rates and rising age of population7 More than one-third (35.7%) of adults are obese; rate nearly tripled between 1960-20109 While children and adolescents are increasingly being diagnosed with type 2 diabetes, the CDC notes is it difficult to estimate the disease’s prevalence in this population because it can go undiagnosed for long periods of time10, 11 The rise in diabetes diagnoses is attributed to increasing childhood obesity rates, which have tripled since the 1980s, with approximately 17% (or 12.5 million) of children aged 2-19 suffering from obesity12 African-Americans and the elderly are disproportionately affected by diabetes13 18.7% of all African-Americans over twenty years old have diabetes, compared to 10.2% of whites 26.9% of Americans age 65 and older have diabetes, compared to 11.3% of adults over 20 Pre-Diabetes About 79 million Americans, or 35% of people 20 or older have pre-diabetes,14 while half of adults over 65 are affected by the disease15 Up to 70% of pati Continue reading >>

Lifestyle Causes Of Diabetes Mellitus Type 2

Lifestyle Causes Of Diabetes Mellitus Type 2

A number of lifestyle factors are known to be important to the development of diabetes mellitus type 2 including: obesity, physical activity, diet, stress, and urbanization.[1] Excess body fat underlies 64% of cases of diabetes in men and 77% of cases in women.[2] A number of dietary factors such as sugar sweetened drinks[3][4] and the type of fat in the diet appear to play a role.[5] In one study, those who had high levels of physical activity, a healthy diet, did not smoke, and consumed alcohol in moderation had an 82% lower rate of diabetes. When a normal weight was included, the rate was 89% lower. In this study, a healthy diet was defined as one high in fiber, with a high polyunsaturated to saturated fat ratio, lower trans fats consumption, and a lower mean glycemic index.[6] Dietary[edit] The composition of dietary fat intake is linked to diabetes risk; decreasing consumption of saturated fats and trans fatty acids while replacing them with unsaturated fats may decrease the risk.[5][7] Sugar sweetened drinks appear to increase the risk of type 2 diabetes both through their role in obesity and potentially through a direct effect.[3][4] Obesity[edit] Obesity has been found to contribute to approximately 55% of cases of type 2 diabetes;[8] chronic obesity leads to increased insulin resistance that can develop into type 2 diabetes, most likely because adipose tissue (especially that in the abdomen around internal organs) is a source of several chemical signals, hormones and cytokines, to other tissues. Inflammatory cytokines such as TNFα may activate the NF-κB pathway which has been linked to the development of insulin resistance.[9] Gene expression promoted by a diet of fat and glucose, as well as high levels of inflammation related cytokines found in the obese, ca Continue reading >>

Obesity And Diabetes

Obesity And Diabetes

Doctors and researchers have found that obesity and diabetes are connected. Persons who are obese are at high risk for developing Type 2 diabetes (also known as "insulin-resistant" or "adult-onset" diabetes), particularly if a close family member is affected with diabetes. Therefore, it becomes very important to maintain a healthy body weight throughout your life in order to protect yourself from developing a chronic disease like diabetes. As nurses associated with the Genetics of the Acadian People projects, we have been asked questions at public forums concerning obesity and diabetes. The following is a list of some of the most commonly asked questions, together with our answers and advice. Is obesity caused by a specific genetic defect? Researchers have not yet discovered a specific gene that causes obesity, although several genes are considered to be important in playing a part. However, we have come to understand that a person's genetic make-up can result in a predisposition to becoming obese. This means that a person may be particularly susceptible to becoming obese through experiencing risk factors in their life, like high calorie or high fat diets and lack of exercise. Your genetic make-up, which you have inherited from your parents, may contribute to your general body type, including how and where your body deposits fat in certain places such as buttocks or thighs. There seems to be a strong connection between abdominal fat and diabetes. What, then, is the major cause of obesity? The environment plays a much larger role in a person's likelihood of becoming obese than does any specific gene. By "environment," we mean not only what the outside world does to a person's body but also what enters a person's body through eating and drinking. The two main factors that Continue reading >>

Molecular Link Between Obesity And Type 2 Diabetes Reveals Potential Therapy

Molecular Link Between Obesity And Type 2 Diabetes Reveals Potential Therapy

Inflammatory molecule LTB4 promotes insulin resistance in obese mice and blocking the LTB4 receptor prevents and reverses type 2 diabetes in this model Obesity causes inflammation, which can in turn lead to type 2 diabetes. What isn’t well established is how inflammation causes diabetes — or what we can do to stop it. Researchers at University of California, San Diego School of Medicine have discovered that the inflammatory molecule LTB4 promotes insulin resistance, a first step in developing type 2 diabetes. What’s more, the team found that genetically removing the cell receptor that responds to LTB4, or blocking it with a drug, improves insulin sensitivity in obese mice. The study is published Feb. 23 by Nature Medicine. “This study is important because it reveals a root cause of type 2 diabetes,” said Jerrold M. Olefsky, MD, professor of medicine, associate dean for scientific affairs and senior author of the study. “And now that we understand that LTB4 is the inflammatory factor causing insulin resistance, we can inhibit it to break the link between obesity and diabetes.” Here’s what’s happening in obesity, according to Olefsky’s study. Extra fat, particularly in the liver, activates resident macrophages, the immune cells living there. These macrophages then do what they’re supposed to do when activated — release LTB4 and other immune signaling molecules to call up an influx of new macrophages. Then, in a positive feedback loop, the newly arriving macrophages also get activated and release even more LTB4 in the liver. This inflammatory response would be a good thing if the body was fighting off an infection. But when inflammation is chronic, as is the case in obesity, all of this extra LTB4 starts activating other cells, too. Like macrophages Continue reading >>

Sugars And Type 2 Diabetes

Sugars And Type 2 Diabetes

What is type 2 diabetes? Diabetes is a lifelong condition that causes a person’s blood sugar to be too high. There are two forms of diabetes: type 1 and type 2 [1]. Insulin is a hormone that is key in regulating blood glucose levels. Type 2 diabetes can occur either as a result of insulin receptors becoming desensitised and as a result no longer responding to insulin; or, due to the beta cells of the pancreas no longer producing insulin. Often it is a combination of these two factors that leads to this condition known as type 2 diabetes. Type 2 diabetes is by far the most common type – of all the adults who have diabetes, 90% of them have type 2. Diabetes is an increasing health problem in the UK with 3.2million people diagnosed with diabetes and a further 850,000 estimated to be undiagnosed [1]. Diabetes is a growing health burden and it is estimated that by 2025, 5 million people will have been diagnosed in the UK [2]. Diabetes is the leading cause of blindness in the UK and the disease’s complications cause more than 100 amputations to take place each week. Each year, 24 000 people die early from diabetes-associated complications [3]. Its total cost is estimated at £13.8billion each year [4]. It is predicted that the annual NHS cost of the direct treatment of diabetes in the UK will increase to £16.9 billion over the next 25 years, which is 17 per cent of the NHS budget [5], believed to potentially bankrupt the NHS What are the causes of Type 2 diabetes? There is a complex combination of genetic and environmental risk factors that play a part in the development of diabetes – it tends to cluster in families, but there is also a strong link to environmental risk factors. Ethnicity also plays a major role in its development, with people of South Asian descent Continue reading >>

Obesity? Diabetes? We’ve Been Set Up

Obesity? Diabetes? We’ve Been Set Up

When it comes to the nation’s growing obesity and diabetes epidemics, the more we know, the more the evidence points to one conclusion: We’ve been set up. Important findings about humanity’s past, about how we live and eat today, and even about how we typically treat type 2 diabetes — with medications that themselves induce weight gain — are providing clues that explain how the past two decades could see an explosion in overweight and obese Americans and skyrocketing cases of type 2 diabetes, which is usually closely tied to the problem. Harvard’s extensive research on the subject weaves a story of ancient humans who were both extraordinarily active and able to easily gain weight in times of plenty. It illuminates how a modern diet rich in refined carbohydrates and heavy in red meat has preyed on Paleolithic instincts, creating an obese nation, a health crisis, and what one researcher describes as a hard-to-escape cycle of weight gain, insulin resistance, and weight-retaining diabetic medication, leading to more pounds. “It’s not just a trap, it’s a trap and a downward spiral,” said Assistant Professor of Medicine Osama Hamdy, a physician at Harvard-affiliated Joslin Diabetes Center and director of a groundbreaking weight loss program being replicated at Joslin affiliates around the world. Hamdy and hundreds of other Harvard investigators in recent decades have produced a dizzying array of findings on obesity and diabetes. Even a casual look at the years of research on the subject shows a slew of results on how lifestyle affects weight and how weight affects health. It shows new genes discovered, laser surgery to save diabetics’ eyesight, new diabetes drug candidates, and advances in using stem cells to replace the insulin-producing beta cells that Continue reading >>

Obesity And Type 2 Diabetes

Obesity And Type 2 Diabetes

Diabetes is a medical condition that prevents the body from properly processing blood sugar. Type 2 diabetes is highly associated with excess weight and afflicts many obese people, putting them at risk of disabling symptoms and complications. Because type 2 diabetes and its precursors are closely tied to obesity, weight loss is often all that is needed to improve or resolve them. Even a moderate amount of weight loss can help many people reduce diabetes medications and even put the disease into remission. When we eat foods that contain carbohydrates, our bodies break them down into a sugar called glucose. Glucose travels through the bloodstream and supplies energy to all of our cells. However, before our cells can use glucose as energy, they need a hormone called insulin. The pancreas detects the presence of glucose in our blood after we eat and releases insulin to balance our blood sugar levels. “Insulin takes the blood sugar that’s floating around in our bloodstream and puts it into the places we need it,” says Dr. Craig Primack, a medical obesity specialist. According to Dr. Primack, insulin is “like the key in the lock,” opening the door for our muscles, organs and fat to take in glucose and put it to use. When insulin is no longer able to fulfill this crucial role, we can gradually develop type 2 diabetes as our cells become unable to process high levels of glucose in the blood. Though it is not entirely clear why insulin stops functioning properly, it is generally agreed that obesity and physical inactivity are contributors to type 2 diabetes. Obesity. When our bodies have more fatty tissue, especially in the abdomen, our cells become more resistant to insulin and more is required to reduce blood sugar levels. Inactivity. Because physical activity uses u Continue reading >>

Mechanism Linking Diabetes Mellitus And Obesity

Mechanism Linking Diabetes Mellitus And Obesity

Go to: Abstract Body mass index has a strong relationship to diabetes and insulin resistance. In obese individuals, the amount of nonesterified fatty acids, glycerol, hormones, cytokines, proinflammatory markers, and other substances that are involved in the development of insulin resistance, is increased. The pathogenesis in the development of diabetes is based on the fact that the β-islet cells of the pancreas are impaired, causing a lack of control of blood glucose. The development of diabetes becomes more inevitable if the failure of β-islet cells of the pancreas is accompanied by insulin resistance. Weight gain and body mass are central to the formation and rising incidence of type 1 and type 2 diabetes. This literature review will demonstrate the facts that link obesity with insulin resistance and pancreatic β-cell dysfunction. In conclusion, new approaches in managing and preventing diabetes in obese individuals must be studied and investigated based on the facts. Keywords: diabetes mellitus, obesity, insulin resistance Go to: Introduction Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a chronic disorder that can alter carbohydrate, protein, and fat metabolism. It is caused by the absence of insulin secretion due to either the progressive or marked inability of the β-Langerhans islet cells of the pancreas to produce insulin, or due to defects in insulin uptake in the peripheral tissue. DM is broadly classified under two categories, which include type 1 and type 2 diabetes.1 Type 1 diabetes occurs most commonly in children, but it can sometimes also appear in adult age groups, particularly in those in their late thirties and early forties. Patients with type 1 diabetes are generally not obese and frequently present with an emergency status known as diabetes ketoacidosis.2 The etio Continue reading >>

Obesity In The Pathogenesis Of Type 2 Diabetes

Obesity In The Pathogenesis Of Type 2 Diabetes

Obesity, and especially visceral adiposity, escalates the development of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. Excess adipose tissue contributes to a chronic increase in circulating fatty acids reducing the usage of glucose as a source of cellular energy. Excess fatty acids also result in increased deposition of fat in muscle and liver, and increased metabolites such as diacylglycerol and ceramide which activate isoforms of protein kinase C that impede cellular insulin signalling. Chronically raised lipid levels also impair islet beta cell function, acting in conjuction with insulin resistance to aggravate hyperglycaemia. The detrimental effects of several adipokines such as TNFα, IL6 and RBP4, which are produced in excess by an increased adipose mass, and reduced production of adiponectin are further mechanisms through which obesity potentiates the development of type 2 diabetes. Continue reading >>

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