Fruit For Diabetes – Is It Actually Safe To Eat?
If you are living with diabetes, you've probably been told to minimize or eliminate your intake of fruit because "fruit is high in sugar." And if this is the case, maybe you refrain from eating fruits because it causes your blood glucose to spike. Attracted by the smell, color and taste, you may find yourself asking a simple question: "Should I avoid fruit in the long-term? And if so, will I ever be able to eat fruit again?” It turns out that this ant-fruit message is a perfect example of pseudoscience at its best. A recent study published in PLOS medicine tracked the health of 512,891 Chinese men and women between the ages of 30 and 79 for an average of 7 years, in order to understand the effect that their diet had on their overall health (1). We like these types of studies because they are: For those who did not have diabetes at the beginning of the study, those who had a higher fruit consumption were 12% less likely to develop diabetes, compared with those who ate zero pieces of fruit per day. The researchers found a dose-response relationship, which means that the more frequently these nondiabetic individuals ate fruit, the lower the risk for developing diabetes. Amongst those living with diabetes at the beginning of the study, those who ate fruit 3 times per week reduced their risk of all-cause mortality (death from any cause) by 17%, compared with diabetic individuals who ate zero pieces of fruit per day. In addition, researchers uncovered that those who ate fresh fruit 3 days per week were 13-28% less likely to experience macrovascular complications (heart disease and stroke) and microvascular damage (kidney disease, retinopathy and neuropathy). Even though this study was observational, the results of the study have profound implications for people living with Continue reading >>
Fructose Not So Bad For Diabetes When Consumed In Moderation: Study
New research suggests fructose may not be so bad after all for diabetics — rather, it’s having too much of it that may wreak havoc. St. Michael’s Hospital researchers in Canada found that people with Type 1 and Type 2 diabetes actually experienced blood sugar control benefits when they consumed fructose, as well as a decrease in blood pressure, cholesterol, body weight and uric acid. These health benefits were similar to those that would be seen on medications, researchers noted. The Diabetes Care review included an analysis of 18 different studies that, in total, surveyed 209 people with diabetes with age groups ranging from teens to the elderly. While amounts and method of fructose intake ranged per study (whether it was just sprinkled onto their food, or incorporated in another way), all of the trials involved consuming fructose for anywhere from seven days to 12 weeks. “We’re seeing that there may be benefit if fructose wasn’t being consumed in such large amounts,” study researcher Adrian Cozma, a research assistant at St. Michael’s Hospital, said in a statement. “All negative attention on fructose-related harm draws further away from the issue of eating too many calories.” Fructose naturally occurs in honey, fruit and vegetables. Together with glucose, it makes table sugar (sucrose), researchers said. It’s also in high-fructose corn syrup. However, the results of this study refer only to pure fructose. It does not imply that our bodies react the same to fructose-containing table sugar and high-fructose corn syrup. In fact, a 2010 Princeton University study published in Pharmacology, Biochemistry and Behavior study showed that high-fructose corn syrup is associated with increased weight gain in mice compared with table sugar. And the Mayo Clini Continue reading >>
Fructose And Diabetes
As part of the overall diabetes discussion, there lurks the misconception that somehow fructose does not contribute to diabetes. This is a major misunderstanding. Fructose is directly associated with diabetes, especially high-fructose corn syrup. When one is cellularly addicted to glucose, sucrose, and/or fructose, they become stuck in sugar metabolism for making energy. For years, limited and conventional “wisdom” has held that fructose does not affect your blood sugar. This is accurate on a superficial level but unscientific in its assumption that because fructose does not raise blood sugar, it does not affect insulin resistance and cause many metabolic disease problems from the metabolic abnormalities associated with metabolizing an excess amount of fructose. It is therefore falsely deemed a safer sugar than glucose. None of this has been proven to be true. A primary difference is that fructose is metabolized differently than glucose. Fructose is metabolized much more rapidly than any other sugar into fat via the liver. It is also primarily metabolized in the liver. Because of this it has also been associated with a high level of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and a rapid accumulation of a particular kind of fat (triglycerides) that is stored in both the liver and general fat tissue. This is related not only to NAFLD but also to heart disease and hypertension. Glucose, when combined with fructose (as in sucrose and high-fructose corn syrup), accelerates fructose absorption. These metabolic differences are further enhanced in light of recent research reported in the March 2011 Diabetes, Obesity and Metabolism, which found that cortical areas around hypothalamus in the brain responded differently to fructose than to glucose. They found that in brain scans Continue reading >>
Fructosecontaining Sugars Do Not Raise Blood Pressure Or Uric Acid At Normal Levels Of Human Consumption
FructoseContaining Sugars Do Not Raise Blood Pressure or Uric Acid at Normal Levels of Human Consumption Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, TN Hypertension Institute and Division of Human Nutrition, Saint Thomas Hospital, Nashville, TN Address for correspondence: Mark Houston, MD, MS, MSc, Associate Clinical Professor of Medicine, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Director, Hypertension Institute and Division of Human Nutrition, Saint Thomas Hospital, Nashville, TN 37069 University of Western States, Portland, OR Institute for Functional Medicine, Federal Way, WA Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, TN Hypertension Institute and Division of Human Nutrition, Saint Thomas Hospital, Nashville, TN Address for correspondence: Mark Houston, MD, MS, MSc, Associate Clinical Professor of Medicine, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Director, Hypertension Institute and Division of Human Nutrition, Saint Thomas Hospital, Nashville, TN 37069 University of Western States, Portland, OR Institute for Functional Medicine, Federal Way, WA Please review our Terms and Conditions of Use and check box below to share full-text version of article. I have read and accept the Wiley Online Library Terms and Conditions of Use. Use the link below to share a full-text version of this article with your friends and colleagues. Learn more. The article by Angelopoulos and colleagues 1 published in this month's issue of The Journal of Clinical Hypertension brings to the forefront the continued debate regarding the role of dietary sweeteners in health and disease, specifically that of fructose and its relationship with hypertension. The study consisted of 268 weightstable, normotensive individuals (blood pressure [BP] <140/90mmHg) whose BP and uric acid m Continue reading >>
The Trouble With Fructose For Diabetes
Now that our doctors and scientists have begun to realize how big a danger that fructose is for us we can hope that the twin epidemics of diabetes and obesity can finally be halted. But for each of us individually the more important message is that we can still save our health if we avoid added fructose. The phrase “added fructose” means the fructose that we add to what we eat. The sugar in fruit is of course fructose, but essentially all experts agree that it isn’t a problem because we get that fructose along with fiber, antioxidants, and the other good stuff in whole foods. But added fructose includes what we simply call sugar, table sugar, or sucrose. These three terms all mean the same thing — sugar that is half fructose and half glucose. Added fructose also includes high fructose corn syrup (HFCS), the sweetener that we usually get in soft drinks. In HFCS, fructose is nearly 50 percent of its weight, while the fructose in a fresh peach, for example, is only about 1 percent of its weight. The new review also suggests that 100 percent fruit juice, although it technically is not a sugar-sweetened drink, has such high concentrations of fructose that it also provides fuel for the diabetes and obesity epidemics. Reducing how much fructose you eat without compromising your fruit intake may be the best way to start managing your diabetes if your blood sugar levels are higher than you would like them to be. These are the main messages of a special article written by a cardiovascular research scientist at Saint Luke’s Mid America Heart Institute in Kansas City, Missouri, and by two M.D. co-authors in a mainstream professional diabetes journal. The results of the study take direct aim at the lax standards of the American Diabetes Association and the 2010 Dietary Gui Continue reading >>
Fructose And Diabetes
Sarah Davis has worked in nutrition in the clinical setting and currently works as a licensed Realtor in California. Davis began writing about nutrition in 2006 and had two chapters published in "The Grocery Store Diet" book in 2009. She enjoys writing about nutrition and real estate and managing her website, RealtorSD.com. She earned her bachelor's degree in nutrition from San Diego State University. The fructose found in fruit may actually increase the risk of diabetes.Photo Credit: Stockbyte/Stockbyte/Getty Images Diabetes is a chronic disease in which a persons body cannot produce insulin or cannot use insulin to move sugar from the bloodstream to the cells. The dietary intake of sugar is generally limited for diabetics because eating sugars can raise their blood sugar levels to dangerously high levels. Diabetics have several types of sugar to look out for in the foods they eat, and some are worse than others in terms of their effect on blood sugar. Fructose is a type of sugar which, according to the Weston A. Price Foundation, has been recommended for diabetics as opposed to other types of sugar. Fructose is the type of sugar naturally found in fruits and honey, but it is also crystallized and used in the making of many candies and commercialized food products. The Price foundation says fructose does not raise blood sugar levels as quickly as other types of sugar, such as sucrose. Even though fructose has been promoted as one of the better sweeteners for diabetics to use, an article from 2009 says it may not be a good idea for non-diabetics to use too much fructose. According to Reuters Health, consumption of fructose may lead to a greater risk of diabetes in individuals who are not already diabetic. They says the intake of a particular type of sugar made from fru Continue reading >>
Fructose: Good Or Bad For Diabetes? - Dlife
Long thought to be the better sugar for people with diabetes, fructose may not be so great after all. Most people think of fructose as a natural fruit sugar. After all, its one of the main sugars (along with glucose and sucrose) in fruits. In fact, the amount of fructose in most fruits is relatively small, compared with other sources. Fruit also contains a host of greatnutrients, including fiber, which slows the absorption of sugars. The fructose found in processed foods, however, is another story. Between 1980 and 2000, Americans decreased their intake of sucrose (table sugar), but the amount of fructose consumption more than tripled. The reason for this was that food makers replaced sucrose (table sugar) with high-fructose corn syrup (HFCS) to sweeten foods and beverages. HFCS does not come from fruit. Its a highly processedblend of sugars (typically 55 percent fructose and 45 percent glucose) derived from corn. Because the fructose in HFCS is part of a man-made blend (as opposed to the natural compound of sugars found in fruit), the body metabolizes it very differently from other sugars. Also, people with diabetes were told that because fructose doesnt raise blood glucose levels, it was a good alternative to sugar. Therefore, they began using fructose-rich agave nectar under the mistaken assumption that itposed no diabetes-related risk. Unlike glucose, which enters the bloodstream and raises blood sugar levels, fructose is taken up directly to the liver. Sugar and honey contain about 50percentglucose and 50 percentfructose, so regardless of which is consumed, blood glucose will rise. By contrast, agave nectar contains about 85percentfructose, on average, so it has less of an impact on blood sugar and is considered a low glycemic sweetener. However, high fructose int Continue reading >>
How Safe Is Fructose For Persons With Or Without Diabetes?
How safe is fructose for persons with or without diabetes? From the Division of Nephrology, Hypertension and Transplantation, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL Search for other works by this author on: From the Division of Nephrology, Hypertension and Transplantation, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL Search for other works by this author on: From the Division of Nephrology, Hypertension and Transplantation, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL Search for other works by this author on: From the Division of Nephrology, Hypertension and Transplantation, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL Address reprint requests and correspondence to RJ Johnson, Division of Nephrology, Hypertension and Transplantation, University of Florida, PO Box 100224, Gainesville, FL 32610. E-mail: [email protected] . Search for other works by this author on: The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, Volume 88, Issue 5, 1 November 2008, Pages 11891190, Laura Gabriela Snchez-Lozada, MyPhuong Le, Mark Segal, Richard J Johnson; How safe is fructose for persons with or without diabetes?, The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, Volume 88, Issue 5, 1 November 2008, Pages 11891190, In this issue of the journal, Livesey and Taylor ( 1 ) present a meta-analysis of clinical trials evaluating the effects of fructose intake. They concluded that fructose is safe at doses of <90 g/d and that it may have the added benefit of lowering concentrations of glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c). This meta-analysis is difficult to interpret, because it involves randomized and nonrandomized studies of differing designs, mixed populations (diabetic and nondiabetic, lean and obese), different control diets (including some sucrose-based diets that contained fructose), different study durations, and limited Continue reading >>
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Is Fructose Bad For You?
One of many controversies mixing up the field of nutrition is whether the use of high-fructose corn syrup in soft drinks and other foods is causing the paired epidemics of obesity and diabetes that are sweeping the United States and the world. I’ve ignored this debate because it never made sense to me—high-fructose corn syrup is virtually identical to the refined sugar it replaces. A presentation I heard yesterday warns that the real villain may be fructose—a form of sugar found in fruits, vegetables, and honey. It may not matter whether it’s in high-fructose corn syrup, refined sugar, or any other sweetener. Sounding the alarm is Dr. Robert H. Lustig, a professor of pediatrics and an obesity specialist at the University of California, San Francisco. He is a key figure in a recent New York Times article called “Is Sugar Toxic?” Here’s some background and the gist of the presentation Lustig gave as part of a weekly seminar sponsored by Harvard School of Public Health’s Department of Nutrition. (You can watch Lustig’s entire talk or a view a similar version on YouTube.) When fructose is joined to glucose, it makes sucrose. Sucrose is abundant in sugar cane, sugar beets, corn, and other plants. When extracted and refined, sucrose makes table sugar. In the 1800s and early 1900s, the average American took in about 15 grams of fructose (about half an ounce), mostly from eating fruits and vegetables. Today we average 55 grams per day (73 grams for adolescents). The increase in fructose intake is worrisome, says Lustig, because it suspiciously parallels increases in obesity, diabetes, and a new condition called nonalcoholic fatty liver disease that now affects up to one-third of Americans. (You can read more about nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in a Harvard Continue reading >>
Dietary Fructose And Metabolic Syndrome And Diabetes1–3
Go to: Introduction When ingested by humans, fructose is absorbed by an active transport system but at a slower rate than is glucose (1). Coingestion of glucose increases intestinal absorptive capacity for fructose. In the absence of glucose, human intestinal capacity to absorb fructose appears to be quite variable with some people unable to completely absorb 30- to 40-g quantities (1). Those individuals unable to completely absorb ingested fructose are at risk for diarrhea and other gastrointestinal side effects. The first several steps in fructose and glucose metabolism differ significantly. Fructose stimulates only modest insulin secretion and does not require the presence of insulin to enter cells (2). Avidly taken up by hepatic cells, fructose is rapidly converted to fructose-1-phosphate and bypasses the early, rate-limiting steps of glucose metabolism. Fructose-1-phosphate is mainly converted to lactate, glucose, and glycogen (3). Gluconeogenesis from fructose is increased by starvation and poorly controlled diabetes. Fructose may also form acetyl-CoA, which is used in fatty acid synthesis. Enhanced activity of lipogenic enzymes with chronic fructose feeding may promote hepatic triglyceride production and output of VLDL particles. If energy intake is excessive, the potential for fructose to stimulate lipogenesis is presumably increased substantially. Fructose is the sweetest-tasting naturally occurring carbohydrate. Advances in technology in the 1960s made possible the production of inexpensive high-fructose syrups from corn starch (4). The taste and sweetness of 55% high-fructose corn syrup are equivalent to those of sucrose. Because of sweetness and low cost, high-fructose syrups found commercial application. In the mid-1980s, 55% high-fructose syrup was adopted Continue reading >>
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Fructose Causes Insulin Resistance – Hormonal Obesity Xxxii
The metabolism of excessive amounts of fructose leads to fatty liver, which is a key step in the development of insulin resistance, as we saw in our last post. Is there evidence that consumption of fructose leads to insulin resistance? In a word – yes. As far back as 1980, there were studies linking the use of fructose, but not glucose to the development of insulin resistance in humans. The study “Impaired cellular insulin binding and insulin sensitivity induced by high-fructose feeding in normal subjects” examined the effect of adding 1000 kcal/day of excess calories as glucose vs fructose in healthy young people. Body weight over the duration of the test did not change in either group. Intravenous insulin was injected into the subjects after the overfeeding period and blood glucose was measured. The group with excessive glucose intake did not show any statistical difference in sensitivity to insulin. The fructose group, however, showed a 25% worsening of their insulin sensitivity. After 7 days! Remember that both groups had been overfed by the same amount of calories. Fructose also caused a decrease in the binding of insulin to cells and this paralleled the increase in insulin resistance. A more recent study “Effect of Fructose Overfeeding and Fish Oil Administration on Hepatic De Novo Lipogenesis and Insulin Sensitivity in Healthy Men” showed much the same effect. Normal healthy subjects were overfed fructose. De novo Lipogenesis (DNL) – or the production of new fat in the liver increased six fold accompanied by a 79% increase in plasma triglycerides. A measure of insulin resistance in the liver increased by 28%. After 6 days! Muscle insulin resistance was not changed. Since insulin resistance is the hallmark of type 2 Diabetes, this means that these prev Continue reading >>
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Effect Of Fructose On Glycemic Control In Diabetes
OBJECTIVE The effect of fructose on cardiometabolic risk in humans is controversial. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of controlled feeding trials to clarify the effect of fructose on glycemic control in individuals with diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Library (through 22 March 2012) for relevant trials lasting ≥7 days. Data were aggregated by the generic inverse variance method (random-effects models) and expressed as mean difference (MD) for fasting glucose and insulin and standardized MD (SMD) with 95% CI for glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) and glycated albumin. Heterogeneity was assessed by the Cochran Q statistic and quantified by the I2 statistic. Trial quality was assessed by the Heyland methodological quality score (MQS). RESULTS Eighteen trials (n = 209) met the eligibility criteria. Isocaloric exchange of fructose for carbohydrate reduced glycated blood proteins (SMD −0.25 [95% CI −0.46 to −0.04]; P = 0.02) with significant intertrial heterogeneity (I2 = 63%; P = 0.001). This reduction is equivalent to a ∼0.53% reduction in HbA1c. Fructose consumption did not significantly affect fasting glucose or insulin. A priori subgroup analyses showed no evidence of effect modification on any end point. CONCLUSIONS Isocaloric exchange of fructose for other carbohydrate improves long-term glycemic control, as assessed by glycated blood proteins, without affecting insulin in people with diabetes. Generalizability may be limited because most of the trials were <12 weeks and had relatively low MQS (<8). To confirm these findings, larger and longer fructose feeding trials assessing both possible glycemic benefit and adverse metabolic effects are required. The number of people with type 2 diabetes is l Continue reading >>
Does Fruit Make Your Blood Sugar Go Up?
Carbohydrates are your body's most important source of energy. Fruit is one of the healthiest sources of carbohydrates, providing you with many vitamins and minerals. But most fruits contain sugar that can raise your blood sugar and increase the demand for insulin from your pancreas. Choosing certain fruits over others and managing portion size can limit this effect and help keep you healthy. Fruits can and will make your blood sugars rise, but you can manage their impact by choosing fruits with a low glycemic index or reducing portion size. Blood Sugar All carbohydrate-based foods contain sugar in some form, either as simple sugars such as fructose, found in fruit, or as complex molecules such as starch, which is made up of chains of sugar molecules. When your body digests carbohydrate, it converts it into glucose, a simple but important sugar that travels in your blood to reach all your cells. Your cells use glucose as an energy source, and certain types such as brain cells depend on it exclusively. But when your blood sugar increases quickly and reaches high levels, this puts a major demand on your pancreas to release insulin, the hormone that lowers blood sugar. Over time, frequent episodes of high blood sugar can raise your risk of Type 2 diabetes. Fruit and the Glycemic Index The glycemic index classifies foods by how quickly they raise blood sugar and to what extent. Because most fruits are sweet and contain simple sugar, or fructose, you might expect that they all raise blood sugar rapidly and dramatically, and that every type of fruit has a high glycemic index. But this is not always the case, according to the American Diabetes Association, which says that high-fiber fruit tends to have a lower glycemic index. This is because dietary fiber slows uptake of gluco Continue reading >>
Questions And Answers About Fructose
What is fructose? Fructose is a monosaccharide, or single sugar, that has the same chemical formula as glucose but a different molecular structure. Sometimes called fruit sugar, fructose is found in fruit, some vegetables, honey, and other plants. Fructose and other sugars are carbohydrates, an important source of energy for the body. What other types of sugars are there? The food supply contains a variety of sugars called monosaccharides (single sugar units like fructose and glucose) and disaccharides (two monosaccharides linked together). Glucose is the main source of energy for the body because most complex sugars and carbohydrates break down into glucose during digestion. Starches contain many single sugar units linked together. The various sugars perform different functions in the body, but they all can provide energy. Sucrose is a disaccharide that contains equal parts of glucose and fructose. Known as table or white sugar, sucrose is found naturally in sugar cane and sugar beets. Other sugars in foods and beverages include: Lactose Disaccharide containing glucose and galactose Naturally occurring in milk Maltose Disaccharide containing two glucoses Crystallized from starch Dextrose Another name for glucose Crystallized from sugar cane, sugar beets and starches Corn Syrup Primarily single glucose units Produced from corn starch High Fructose Corn Syrup Primarily a mixture of glucose and fructose single units Produced from corn starch Is fructose safe? High fructose corn syrup and all other sugars are “generally recognized as safe” by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). The Surgeon General's Report on Nutrition and Health, the National Academy of Sciences report Diet and Health, and Healthy People 2000: National Health Promotion and Disease Prevention Objec Continue reading >>
The Dark Nasty Truth About Fructose And Type 2 Diabetes
If you have type 2 diabetes, there's one food you want to avoid at all costs – fructose. Consumption of fructose has been linked to increased weight gain, higher triglyceride levels (cholesterol), high blood pressure, insulin resistance, higher small dense LDL cholesterol and fatty liver, not to mention, it is a form of sugar so may send your blood sugar soaring also. Is that enough to raise your curiosity? Read on to discover the dark and nasty truth about this common food ingredient. What is Fructose? Fructose is a simple sugar that is naturally found in fruits. It is easy to remember this, because the word “fructose” actually sounds similar to the word “fruit.” Different fruits contain different levels of fructose and some vegetables also contain small amounts of it. If you’ve ever turned over a can of soda and looked at the label, you've probably noticed a different kind of fructose listed on it, called high fructose corn syrup (HFCS). This is a processed form of fructose that is used as a sweetener to replace sugar. On labels it can be labelled as HFCS or it may simply be labelled as fructose—either way, it's the same thing. The bad news is, you will find fructose in most processed foods from pizza sauce to crackers to breakfast cereal, just to name a few. And soon you'll find out that fructose is the worst of the worst when it comes to healthy eating… we'll get to that in just a moment. Fructose Nutrition Facts As mentioned earlier, the amount of fructose in fruits and vegetables varies greatly. Here are several examples of food that contain various amounts of natural fructose: 1 medium-sized apple w/skin = 13g of fructose 10 cherries = 4g of fructose 1 medium sized banana = 7g of fructose 1 sweet potato = 0.7g of fructose 5 medium strawberries = 5 Continue reading >>