Type 2 Diabetes
Introduction Diabetes is a lifelong condition that causes a person's blood sugar level to become too high. The hormone insulin – produced by the pancreas – is responsible for controlling the amount of glucose in the blood There are two main types of diabetes: type 1 – where the pancreas doesn't produce any insulin type 2 – where the pancreas doesn't produce enough insulin or the body's cells don't react to insulin This topic is about type 2 diabetes. Read more about type 1 diabetes Another type of diabetes, known as gestational diabetes, occurs in some pregnant women and tends to disappear after birth. Symptoms of diabetes The symptoms of diabetes occur because the lack of insulin means glucose stays in the blood and isn't used as fuel for energy. Your body tries to reduce blood glucose levels by getting rid of the excess glucose in your urine. Typical symptoms include: feeling very thirsty passing urine more often than usual, particularly at night feeling very tired weight loss and loss of muscle bulk Read more about the symptoms of type 2 diabetes It's very important for diabetes to be diagnosed as soon as possible as it will get progressively worse if left untreated. Causes of type 2 diabetes Type 2 diabetes occurs when the body doesn't produce enough insulin to function properly, or the body's cells don't react to insulin. This means glucose stays in the blood and isn't used as fuel for energy. Type 2 diabetes is often associated with obesity and tends to be diagnosed in older people. It's far more common than type 1 diabetes. Read about the causes and risk factors for type 2 diabetes Treating type 2 diabetes As type 2 diabetes usually gets worse, you may eventually need medication – usually tablets – to keep your blood glucose at normal levels. Read mor Continue reading >>
Type 2 Diabetes
What is type 2 diabetes? In type 2 diabetes a person’s pancreas doesn’t produce enough insulin, or their body doesn't react properly to insulin, called insulin resistance. Type 2 diabetes is the most common type of diabetes, with around 3.6 million people in the UK diagnosed with the condition, according to Diabetes UK. Insulin is used by the body to manage glucose (sugar) levels in the blood and helps the body use glucose for energy. For some people, type 2 diabetes may be managed through diet and exercise. Other people may also need medication, and sometimes insulin, to manage blood sugar. Risk factors for type 2 diabetes include being over 40, having a family history of diabetes, being of South Asian, African-Caribbean or Middle Eastern origin or being overweight or obese. How type 2 diabetes affects the body When glucose builds up in the blood instead of going into cells, the cells are not able to function properly. Other problems associated with the build-up of glucose in the blood include: Dehydration. The build-up of sugar in the blood leads to excess glucose in the urine because the kidneys can’t deal with the high sugar levels. The sugar in the urine draws water with it, causing an increase in urination. When the kidneys lose the glucose through the urine, a large amount of water is also lost, causing dehydration. Diabetic coma (hyperosmolar hyperglycaemic non-ketotic syndrome). When a person with type 2 diabetes becomes severely dehydrated and is not able to drink enough fluids to make up for the fluid losses, they may develop this life-threatening complication. Damage to the body. Over time, the high glucose levels in the blood may damage the nerves and predispose a person to atherosclerosis (narrowing) of the arteries that can cause heart attack and st Continue reading >>
Type 2 Diabetes
Type 2 diabetes occurs mostly in people aged over 40 years. However, an increasing number of younger people, even children, are being diagnosed with type 2 diabetes. The first-line treatment is diet, weight control and physical activity. If the blood sugar (glucose) level remains high despite these measures then tablets to reduce the blood glucose level are usually advised. Insulin injections are needed in some cases. Other treatments include reducing blood pressure if it is high, lowering high cholesterol levels and also using other measures to reduce the risk of complications. Although diabetes cannot be cured, it can be treated successfully. If a high blood sugar level is brought down to a normal level, your symptoms will ease. You still have some risk of complications in the long term if your blood glucose level remains even mildly high - even if you have no symptoms in the short term. However, studies have shown that people who have better glucose control have fewer complications (such as heart disease or eye problems) compared with those people who have poorer control of their glucose level. Therefore, the main aims of treatment are: To keep your blood glucose level as near normal as possible. To reduce any other risk factors that may increase your risk of developing complications. In particular, to lower your blood pressure if it is high and to keep your blood lipids (cholesterol) low. To detect any complications as early as possible. Treatment can prevent or delay some complications from becoming worse. Type 2 diabetes is usually initially treated by following a healthy diet, losing weight if you are overweight, and having regular physical activity. If lifestyle advice does not control your blood sugar (glucose) levels then medicines are used to help lower your Continue reading >>
You Did Not Eat Your Way To Diabetes!
Don't fall for the toxic myth that you caused your diabetes by reckless overeating. While people with Type 2 diabetes often are seriously overweight, there is accumulating evidence that their overweight is a symptom, not the cause of the process that leads to Type 2 Diabetes. Even so, it is likely that you've been told that you caused your diabetes by letting yourself get fat and that your response to this toxic myth is damaging your health. Blaming you for your condition causes guilt and hopelessness. Even worse, the belief that people with diabetes have brought their disease on themselves inclines doctors to give people with diabetes abysmal care. They assume that since you did nothing to prevent your disease, you won't make the effort to control it. So they ignore your high blood sugars until they have lasted long enough to cause complications and then they prescribe the newest, most expensive, potentially dangerous but heavily marketed drugs, though the drug-maker's own Prescribing Information makes it clear that these drugs cannot lower your blood sugar to the levels that reverse or prevent complications. The myth that diabetes is caused by overeating also hurts the one out of five people who are not overweight when they contract Type 2 Diabetes. Because doctors only think "Diabetes" when they see a patient who fits the stereotype--the grossly obese, inactive patient--they often neglect to check people of normal weight for blood sugar disorders even when they show up with classic symptoms of high blood sugar such as recurrent urinary tract infections or neuropathy. Where Did This Toxic Myth Come From? The way this myth originated is this: People with Type 2 Diabetes often are overweight. And manny people who are overweight have a syndrome called "insulin resistance Continue reading >>
Diabetes Mellitus Type 2
Diabetes mellitus type 2 (also known as type 2 diabetes) is a long-term metabolic disorder that is characterized by high blood sugar, insulin resistance, and relative lack of insulin. Common symptoms include increased thirst, frequent urination, and unexplained weight loss. Symptoms may also include increased hunger, feeling tired, and sores that do not heal. Often symptoms come on slowly. Long-term complications from high blood sugar include heart disease, strokes, diabetic retinopathy which can result in blindness, kidney failure, and poor blood flow in the limbs which may lead to amputations. The sudden onset of hyperosmolar hyperglycemic state may occur; however, ketoacidosis is uncommon. Type 2 diabetes primarily occurs as a result of obesity and lack of exercise. Some people are more genetically at risk than others. Type 2 diabetes makes up about 90% of cases of diabetes, with the other 10% due primarily to diabetes mellitus type 1 and gestational diabetes. In diabetes mellitus type 1 there is a lower total level of insulin to control blood glucose, due to an autoimmune induced loss of insulin-producing beta cells in the pancreas. Diagnosis of diabetes is by blood tests such as fasting plasma glucose, oral glucose tolerance test, or glycated hemoglobin (A1C). Type 2 diabetes is partly preventable by staying a normal weight, exercising regularly, and eating properly. Treatment involves exercise and dietary changes. If blood sugar levels are not adequately lowered, the medication metformin is typically recommended. Many people may eventually also require insulin injections. In those on insulin, routinely checking blood sugar levels is advised; however, this may not be needed in those taking pills. Bariatri Continue reading >>
- Women in India with Gestational Diabetes Mellitus Strategy (WINGS): Methodology and development of model of care for gestational diabetes mellitus (WINGS 4)
- Postprandial Blood Glucose Is a Stronger Predictor of Cardiovascular Events Than Fasting Blood Glucose in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus, Particularly in Women: Lessons from the San Luigi Gonzaga Diabetes Study
- Metabolic surgery for treating type 2 diabetes mellitus: Now supported by the world's leading diabetes organizations
Can Thin People Get Type 2 Diabetes?
Almost 90 percent of people with type 2 diabetes are overweight or obese, according to government statistics, and it's known that carrying excess weight ups your diabetes risk. The reason is that fat interferes with your ability to use insulin — insulin moves sugar (glucose) from your blood to your cells, which need the sugar for energy. But don't think you're off the hook if you're thin — you still can be at risk for type 2 diabetes, even if you're not heavy. The risk for developing type 2 diabetes may be smaller if you're thin, but it's still real, especially if you're older, says Christopher Case, MD, who specializes in endocrinology in Jefferson City, Mo. It's not known exactly how many thin or normal-weight people have type 2 diabetes, but part of that may be because there is no standard definition for "thin," Dr. Case says. "They may not look obese," Case says, but any excess weight, especially around the stomach, is a risk factor. One of the reasons people can have high blood sugar and develop diabetes whether they're thin or obese is because weight, though a contributing factor, is not the only factor. Type 2 Diabetes Could Be in Your Genes Genetics plays a role in developing type 2 diabetes. Studies show that people who have a close relative (parent or sibling) with type 2 diabetes have a greater than three times higher risk of developing the disease than those with no family history, Case says. Genetics may explain why some people who are thin develop type 2 diabetes and why an obese person might not, he says. African-Americans, Asians, Hispanics, and Native Americans also are at greater risk for type 2 diabetes. Lifestyle Choices Raise Your Diabetes Risk These other risk factors, often associated with people who are overweight, can plague thin people, too Continue reading >>
What Really Causes Type 2 Diabetes
Learn Which Risk Factors Are Preventable Contrary to popular belief, type 2 diabetes (a chronic disease) isn’t caused by eating lots of sweets. Actually, the cause is still unknown, but there are certain factors that are known to increase a person’s risk of developing this metabolic disorder. There are two main categories of risks that are associated with the development of type 2 diabetes—those that you can't change (uncontrollable), and those that you can (controllable). The more risk factors you have, the higher your risk for developing type 2 diabetes. Uncontrollable Risk Factors Although these factors are out of your control, it is important to know whether you fall into any of these higher-risk categories. Your age. Your risk of developing type 2 diabetes increases as you get older. Diabetes most often affects people over age 40, and people over 65 are at even higher risk. It is recommended that people aged 45 and older be tested for diabetes every three years. Your family history. There is some evidence that diabetes runs in families. If your parent or sibling has type 2 diabetes, for example, your risk of developing diabetes increases. Your race. Certain ethnicities—African Americans, Hispanic/Latino Americans, American Indians, Asian Americans, and Pacific Islander Americans—are at high risk for developing type 2 diabetes. Your health history. Women who had gestational diabetes during pregnancy are 50% more likely to develop type 2 diabetes within 10 years. Giving birth to a baby over nine pounds also increases a woman's risk. Other illnesses and conditions that are risk factors for type 2 diabetes include pre-diabetes and any condition that affects the ability of the pancreas to produce insulin, such as pancreatitis, PCOS (polycystic ovarian syndrome Continue reading >>
Type 2 Diabetes In Seniors: Symptoms & Care
My career working with older people began 25 years ago at Community Services for the Blind, where friends, staff, volunteers and clients had lost their sight due to complications from diabetes. Some died at an early age. Today we know much more about the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of type 2 diabetes than we did then. Nevertheless, the disease has reached epidemic proportions in the U.S., afflicting more and more people at younger and younger ages. Type 1 diabetes affects 5% of all people with diabetes and occurs mostly in people under the age of 20. In this condition, the pancreas produces insufficient insulin to maintain normal glucose (blood sugar) levels. The vast majority of people with diabetes have type 2 diabetes, which is characterized by hyperglycemia (excess blood sugar) and insulin resistance. It can cause not only vision loss, but kidney failure, nerve damage, cardiovascular (heart and other artery blockage) disease, as well as increased infections and slowed healing, sometimes resulting in the need for amputation. Type 2 diabetes in seniors is particularly problematic. Type 2 Diabetes Symptoms The most common initial symptoms of type 2 diabetes are increased thirst and frequent urination. Excess glucose in your bloodstream sucks water from tissues, forcing you to want to take in more liquid. Type 2 diabetes is frequently asymptomatic for many years, before initial tell-tale signs of the disease emerge. These include: Flu-like Fatigue Feeling lethargic, tired or chronically weak can be a sign of type 2 diabetes. When your body can't process sugar properly, you'll have chronically low energy. Weight Loss or Weight Gain Because your body is trying to make up for lost fluid and fuel, you may eat more. The opposite can also happen. Even though you eat m Continue reading >>
Common Questions About Type 2 Diabetes
What is type 2 diabetes? Type 2 diabetes is a chronic condition in which the body fails to properly use and store glucose. Instead of converting sugar into energy, it backs up in the bloodstream and causes a variety of symptoms. Type 2 (formerly called 'adult-onset' or 'non insulin-dependent') diabetes results when the body doesn’t produce enough insulin and/or is unable to use insulin properly (this is also referred to as ‘insulin resistance’). This form of diabetes usually occurs in people who are over 40 years of age, overweight, and have a family history of diabetes, although today it is increasingly found in younger people. What causes type 2 diabetes? Type 2 diabetes can be caused by a variety of factors: being overweight, being physically inactive, or your body’s inability to properly use the insulin it produces. In addition, those who have been previously identified as having impaired fasting glucose (IFG) or impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) are also at risk. What are the symptoms of type 2 diabetes? People with type 2 diabetes frequently experience certain symptoms. These include: being very thirsty frequent urination blurry vision irritability tingling or numbness in the hands or feet frequent skin, bladder or gum infections wounds that don't heal extreme unexplained fatigue In some cases of type 2 diabetes, there are no symptoms. In this case, people can live for months, even years, without knowing they have the disease. This form of diabetes comes on so gradually that symptoms may not even be recognized. Who gets type 2 diabetes? Risk factors for type 2 diabetes include obesity, high cholesterol, high blood pressure, and physical inactivity. The risk of developing type 2 diabetes also increases as people grow older. People who are over 40 and overwei Continue reading >>
Type 2 Diabetes Trigger: Does Eating Sugar Really Cause It?
Since 1996 the number of people with diabetes has doubled, and soon the UK’s total will reach five million, according to Diabetes UK. The condition happens when glucose - a simple sugar found in many carbohydrates - can’t enter the body’s cells to be used as fuel. For type 1 diabetes, an autoimmune condition, the body attacks and destroys insulin-reducing cells, causing glucose to quickly rise in the blood. In type 2 diabetes - which is what 90 per cent of diabetics have - glucose levels go up because the body doesn’t make enough insulin, or the insulin it makes doesn’t work properly. Many experts argue sugar alone does not trigger the condition, but new research suggests there might be a link. Unsurprisingly, high sugar consumption has been associated with diabetes. Many experts argue sugar alone does not trigger the condition, but new research suggests there might be a link. According to Diabetes UK, no amount of sugar in your diet has caused or can cause you to develop type 1. Sugar doesn’t directly cause type 2 diabetes either, but you are more likely to get it if you’re overweight. Fri, August 19, 2016 Diabetes is a common life-long health condition. There are 3.5 million people diagnosed with diabetes in the UK and an estimated 500,000 who are living undiagnosed with the condition. In fact, almost 90 per cent of those with type 2 are overweight or obese. This mean that because sugary food and drink can cause weight gain, it may also lead to diabetes. There’s other evidence to suggest increased availability of sugar makes diabetes more common - a 2013 study found more sugar in a country’s food supply increased diabetes rates. Importantly, they discovered for every additional 150 calories of sugar available per day per person diabetes levels rose o Continue reading >>
Articles Ontype 2 Diabetes
Diabetes is a life-long disease that affects the way your body handles glucose, a kind of sugar, in your blood. Most people with the condition have type 2. There are about 27 million people in the U.S. with it. Another 86 million have prediabetes: Their blood glucose is not normal, but not high enough to be diabetes yet. Your pancreas makes a hormone called insulin. It's what lets your cells turn glucose from the food you eat into energy. People with type 2 diabetes make insulin, but their cells don't use it as well as they should. Doctors call this insulin resistance. At first, the pancreas makes more insulin to try to get glucose into the cells. But eventually it can't keep up, and the sugar builds up in your blood instead. Usually a combination of things cause type 2 diabetes, including: Genes. Scientists have found different bits of DNA that affect how your body makes insulin. Extra weight. Being overweight or obese can cause insulin resistance, especially if you carry your extra pounds around the middle. Now type 2 diabetes affects kids and teens as well as adults, mainly because of childhood obesity. Metabolic syndrome. People with insulin resistance often have a group of conditions including high blood glucose, extra fat around the waist, high blood pressure, and high cholesterol and triglycerides. Too much glucose from your liver. When your blood sugar is low, your liver makes and sends out glucose. After you eat, your blood sugar goes up, and usually the liver will slow down and store its glucose for later. But some people's livers don't. They keep cranking out sugar. Bad communication between cells. Sometimes cells send the wrong signals or don't pick up messages correctly. When these problems affect how your cells make and use insulin or glucose, a chain reac Continue reading >>
- American Diabetes Association® Releases 2018 Standards of Medical Care in Diabetes, with Notable New Recommendations for People with Cardiovascular Disease and Diabetes
- Leeds diabetes clinical champion raises awareness of gestational diabetes for World Diabetes Day
- Diabetes doctors: Which specialists treat diabetes?
Type 2 Diabetes Symptoms, Signs, Diet, And Treatment
Type 2 diabetes is a condition in which cells cannot use blood sugar (glucose) efficiently for energy. This happens when the cells become insensitive to insulin and the blood sugar gradually gets too high. There are two types of diabetes mellitus, type 1 and type 2. In type 2, the pancreas still makes insulin, but the cells cannot use it very efficiently. In type 1 diabetes, the pancreas cannot make insulin due to auto-immune destruction of the insulin-producing beta cells. Type 2 can be caused by: Lack of activity (sedentary behavior) Genetics Risk factors include: Being overweight Being sedentary including watching more than 2 hours of TV per day Drinking soda Consuming too much sugar and processed food The signs and symptoms of this type of this type of diabetes are sometimes subtle. The major symptom is often being overweight. Other symptoms and signs include: Urinating a lot Gaining or losing weight unintentionally Dark skin under armpits, chin, or groin Unusual odor to urine Blurry vision Often there are no specific symptoms of the condition and it goes undiagnosed until routine blood tests are ordered. A blood sugar level more than 125 when fasting or more than 200 randomly is a diagnosis for diabetes. Treatment is with diet and lifestyle changes that include eating less sugary foods, and foods that are high in simple carbohydrates (sugar, bread, and pasta.) Sometimes a person will need to take drugs, for example, metformin (Glucophage). People with both types of diabetes need monitor their blood sugar levels often to avoid high (hyperglycemia) and low blood sugar levels (hypoglycemia). Complications include heart and kidney disease, neuropathy, sexual and/or urinary problems, foot problems, and eye problems. This health condition can be prevented by following a Continue reading >>
Poverty A Leading Cause Of Type 2 Diabetes, Studies Say
New research has shown that it’s not just about the lack of physical activity and a family history of diabetes that are the top risks. Earning less than $15,000 per year doubles the risk of developing Type 2 diabetes…. In fact it is living in poverty that can double or even triple the likelihood of developing the disease. Prof. Dennis Raphael, one of the researchers, states that, “What we know about Type 2 diabetes is not only are low-income and poor people more likely to get it, but they’re also the ones that, once they get it, are much more likely to suffer complications. And the complications from Type 2 diabetes when they’re bad are really bad, whether it’s amputations, or blindness, or cardiovascular disease.” Researchers from York University, Toronto, analyzed two sets of data: the Canadian Community Health Survey (CCHS) and the National Population Health Survey (NPHS). The first set of data showed that for men, being in the lowest-income category (earning less than $15,000 per year), doubles the risk of developing Type 2 diabetes compared to being in one of the highest-income brackets (earning more than $80,000 per year). The risk remains the same when other risk factors are taken into account, such as education, body mass index and physical activity levels. The findings are even more striking for women in the lowest-income category. For them, the risk of developing Type 2 diabetes is more than triple the risk of women in the highest-income category. When education, body mass index and physical activity levels are taken into account, the risk is still well more than double. Results from the NPHS analysis are just as striking. Researchers found that living in poverty in the two years prior to diagnosis increased the risk of developing Type 2 diabetes Continue reading >>
- A vegan diet could prevent, treat and even reverse type 2 diabetes, say leading experts this Diabetes Week (12-18 June).
- Intermittent Fasting Reduces Your Diabetes and Heart Disease Risk, Studies Say
- Metabolic surgery for treating type 2 diabetes mellitus: Now supported by the world's leading diabetes organizations
Diabetes: Symptoms, Causes And Treatments
Diabetes, often referred to by doctors as diabetes mellitus, describes a group of metabolic diseases in which the person has high blood glucose (blood sugar), either because insulin production is inadequate, or because the body's cells do not respond properly to insulin, or both. Patients with high blood sugar will typically experience polyuria (frequent urination), they will become increasingly thirsty (polydipsia) and hungry (polyphagia). Here are some key points about diabetes. More detail and supporting information is in the main article. Diabetes is a long-term condition that causes high blood sugar levels. In 2013 it was estimated that over 382 million people throughout the world had diabetes (Williams textbook of endocrinology). Type 1 Diabetes - the body does not produce insulin. Approximately 10% of all diabetes cases are type 1. Type 2 Diabetes - the body does not produce enough insulin for proper function. Approximately 90% of all cases of diabetes worldwide are of this type. Gestational Diabetes - this type affects females during pregnancy. The most common diabetes symptoms include frequent urination, intense thirst and hunger, weight gain, unusual weight loss, fatigue, cuts and bruises that do not heal, male sexual dysfunction, numbness and tingling in hands and feet. If you have Type 1 and follow a healthy eating plan, do adequate exercise, and take insulin, you can lead a normal life. Type 2 patients need to eat healthily, be physically active, and test their blood glucose. They may also need to take oral medication, and/or insulin to control blood glucose levels. As the risk of cardiovascular disease is much higher for a diabetic, it is crucial that blood pressure and cholesterol levels are monitored regularly. As smoking might have a serious effect on c Continue reading >>
Type 2 Diabetes
Print Overview Type 2 diabetes, once known as adult-onset or noninsulin-dependent diabetes, is a chronic condition that affects the way your body metabolizes sugar (glucose), your body's important source of fuel. With type 2 diabetes, your body either resists the effects of insulin — a hormone that regulates the movement of sugar into your cells — or doesn't produce enough insulin to maintain a normal glucose level. More common in adults, type 2 diabetes increasingly affects children as childhood obesity increases. There's no cure for type 2 diabetes, but you may be able to manage the condition by eating well, exercising and maintaining a healthy weight. If diet and exercise aren't enough to manage your blood sugar well, you also may need diabetes medications or insulin therapy. Symptoms Signs and symptoms of type 2 diabetes often develop slowly. In fact, you can have type 2 diabetes for years and not know it. Look for: Increased thirst and frequent urination. Excess sugar building up in your bloodstream causes fluid to be pulled from the tissues. This may leave you thirsty. As a result, you may drink — and urinate — more than usual. Increased hunger. Without enough insulin to move sugar into your cells, your muscles and organs become depleted of energy. This triggers intense hunger. Weight loss. Despite eating more than usual to relieve hunger, you may lose weight. Without the ability to metabolize glucose, the body uses alternative fuels stored in muscle and fat. Calories are lost as excess glucose is released in the urine. Fatigue. If your cells are deprived of sugar, you may become tired and irritable. Blurred vision. If your blood sugar is too high, fluid may be pulled from the lenses of your eyes. This may affect your ability to focus. Slow-healing sores o Continue reading >>