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Why Do Dogs Get Diabetes

Juvenile Onset Diabetes Mellitus (sugar Diabetes) In Dogs & Puppies

Juvenile Onset Diabetes Mellitus (sugar Diabetes) In Dogs & Puppies

Located near the stomach and small intestine, the pancreas is a small gland that provides two important functions. It produces digestive enzymes, which are necessary for the proper digestion of food within the small intestine. And, it produces hormones, which help regulate the blood sugar (glucose) levels. When starches and carbohydrates are eaten, they are broken down into the sugar glucose. This is absorbed through the wall of the digestive tract and passes into the bloodstream. Insulin allows glucose to leave the bloodstream and enter the body's tissue. Glucose can then be utilized as energy for the cells. When glucose levels are high, glucagon causes it to be stored in the liver and muscles as glycogen. Diabetes mellitus is generally referred to as diabetes or sugar diabetes. Simply put, diabetes mellitus is the result of the pancreas producing insufficient quantities of the hormone insulin. If the pancreas was producing normal amounts of insulin, then failed during adulthood (after one year of age), we refer to this as adult onset diabetes mellitus. When the pancreas does not develop normally in the puppy (usually prior to one year of age) with the result being inadequate insulin production, it is referred to as juvenile onset diabetes mellitus. Regardless of cause or age of onset, the result is, the pancreas does not produce sufficient quantities of the hormone insulin. Insulin is necessary to move glucose into the cells from the bloodstream. Most brain cells, as well as intestinal and red blood cells, do not need high levels of insulin for glucose transport across their walls. It is the body tissues such as the liver and muscles which need insulin to move the glucose into their cells and provide energy. However, with diabetes, the glucose simply builds up in the Continue reading >>

Top Ten Signs Your Pet Has Diabetes

Top Ten Signs Your Pet Has Diabetes

Recognize the Pet Diabetes Epidemic November is nationally recognized as American Diabetes Month, a month focused on raising awareness about diabetes in people. Not as commonly known is that November is also recognized as Pet Diabetes Awareness Month. A growing epidemic amongst our pets, recognizing and spreading awareness about diabetes in dogs and cats is vital to helping pet owners spot and treat the disorder early. Continue reading >>

Can Dogs Get Diabetes?

Can Dogs Get Diabetes?

Can dogs get diabetes? The simple answer is yes, they can. While the two are not conclusively linked, the surge in canine obesity corresponds to the rise in incidence of canine diabetes. Though there are two forms of diabetes — commonly known as sugar diabetes (diabetes mellitus) and water diabetes (diabetes insipidus) — and the first is by far the most frequently diagnosed in dogs. Diabetes mellitus tends to affect dogs later in life, typically between the ages of six and nine, but the rate of incidence seems to be higher in female dogs. While there can be a genetic component, in the vast majority of cases, diabetes mellitus in dogs can be prevented through a combination of diet and exercise. Diabetes in dogs cannot be cured, but diagnosed early, diabetes can be managed in the same ways as in humans: through a modified diet, exercise, and insulin injections. What is diabetes in dogs? There are two major forms of diabetes in dogs, known colloquially by their identifiable sources, to wit, sugar and water. Since diabetes mellitus, or sugar diabetes, is by far the more common, that’s what we’ll focus on here. Put simply, diabetes mellitus in dogs is a condition in which a dog is unable to convert his food into the energy he needs. In a bit more detail, dogs develop diabetes mellitus when the pancreas produces insufficient amounts of insulin. Insulin helps to convert proteins in dog food into glucose. Glucose is a sugar that provides energy to all parts of a dog’s body. When a dog has diabetes mellitus, the excess sugar is voided in the urine. Over time, dogs with diabetes can experience vision loss and an increase in kidney problems. Fortunately, diabetes mellitus in dogs can be both prevented and managed. The rarer form of canine diabetes, known as water diabete Continue reading >>

Diabetes Mellitus In Dogs - Overview

Diabetes Mellitus In Dogs - Overview

This handout provides general information about diabetes mellitus in dogs. For information about its treatment, see the fact sheets "Diabetes Mellitus - Principles of Treatment" and "Diabetes Mellitus - Insulin Treatment". What is diabetes mellitus? Diabetes mellitus is a disease of the pancreas, a small but vital organ located near the stomach. The pancreas has two significant types of cells. One group of cells produces the enzymes necessary for proper digestion. The other group, called beta cells, produces the hormone insulin. Insulin regulates the level of glucose (sugar) in the bloodstream and controls the delivery of glucose to the tissues of the body. In simple terms, diabetes mellitus is caused by the failure of the pancreas to regulate blood sugar. The clinical signs of diabetes mellitus are related to elevated concentrations of blood glucose and the inability of the body to use glucose as an energy source. What are the clinical signs of diabetes and why do they occur? The four main symptoms of uncomplicated diabetes mellitus are increased thirst, increased urination, weight loss, and increased appetite. Glucose is a vital substance that provides much of the energy needed by cells, but it must first be absorbed by the cells. Insulin attaches to receptors on the surface of cells and opens "pores" in the cell wall that allow glucose molecules to leave the bloodstream and enter the cell's interior. Without an adequate amount of insulin to "open the door," glucose is unable to get into the cells, so it accumulates in the blood, setting in motion a series of events that result in diabetes mellitus. "When there isn't enough insulin, the cells of the body become starved for their promary source of energy - glucose." When there isn't enough insulin, the cells of the bod Continue reading >>

Diabetes Complications In Dogs And Cats: Diabetes Ketoacidosis (dka)

Diabetes Complications In Dogs And Cats: Diabetes Ketoacidosis (dka)

Unfortunately, we veterinarians are seeing an increased prevalence of diabetes mellitus in dogs and cats. This is likely due to the growing prevalence of obesity (secondary to inactive lifestyle, a high carbohydrate diet, lack of exercise, etc.). So, if you just had a dog or cat diagnosed with diabetes mellitus, what do you do? First, we encourage you to take a look at these articles for an explanation of the disease: Diabetes Mellitus (Sugar Diabetes) in Dogs Once you have a basic understanding of diabetes mellitus (or if you already had one), this article will teach you about life-threatening complications that can occur as a result of the disease; specifically, I discuss a life-threatening condition called diabetes ketoacidosis (DKA) so that you know how to help prevent it! What is DKA? When diabetes goes undiagnosed, or when it is difficult to control or regulate, the complication of DKA can occur. DKA develops because the body is so lacking in insulin that the sugar can’t get into the cells -- resulting in cell starvation. Cell starvation causes the body to start breaking down fat in an attempt to provide energy (or a fuel source) to the body. Unfortunately, these fat breakdown products, called “ketones,” are also poisonous to the body. Symptoms of DKA Clinical signs of DKA include the following: Weakness Not moving (in cats, hanging out by the water bowl) Not eating to complete anorexia Large urinary clumps in the litter box (my guideline? If it’s bigger than a tennis ball, it’s abnormal) Weight loss (most commonly over the back), despite an overweight body condition Excessively dry or oily skin coat Abnormal breath (typically a sweet “ketotic” odor) In severe cases DKA can also result in more significant signs: Abnormal breathing pattern Jaundice Ab Continue reading >>

Diabetes In Dogs

Diabetes In Dogs

Even dogs eating healthy diets can suffer from diabetes. As with diabetes in humans, sometimes a dog’s body’s stops producing enough insulin or the cells of a dog’s body are unable to use the insulin that is produced. When either condition occurs, the result is diabetes mellitus, which causes excessive thirst and urination and extreme hunger accompanied by weight loss. To stabilize sugar levels, insulin therapy is the treatment at the outset and is usually required for the life of the dog. Summary Diabetes mellitus is a disease that manifests as an inability of the animal’s body to use carbohydrates (sugars) properly. This occurs either because the pancreas does not manufacture sufficient quantities of the hormone the body requires for this function (insulin) or because the body’s cells no longer recognize insulin properly. The downside of this fundamental aberration in carbohydrate utilization is that these basic, energy providing nutrients (sugars) are not able to enter the body’s cells to “feed” them. Instead, they linger in the bloodstream while the body itself literally starves. By way of handling this starvation state, the body does things like start to break down certain tissues, fats for example, and mobilize stored sugar (glucose) in the body to attempt to generate energy with which to feed itself. In the absence of the insulin required to allow sugars to gain entry to the cells, these efforts typically lead to a dangerous metabolic state called ketosis. Moreover, when sensitive tissues like the brain don’t receive the required amount of energy, serious neurologic disruption — and death — can ensue. Diabetes mellitus is considered a multifactorial disease in origin, meaning that a variety of factors play into its individual acquisition. In Continue reading >>

Managing Diabetes In Dogs

Managing Diabetes In Dogs

Dogs can have diabetes just like humans - both Type 1 and Type 2. Diabetic dogs are increasingly common, but the disease is entirely manageable unless left untreated. MY DOG HAS DIABETES: OVERVIEW 1. If your dog shows symptoms of diabetes (described below), seek veterinary care at once. 2. Work with your vet to determine the right type of insulin and the right dose for your individual dog. 3. Take your dog for frequent veterinary checkups. 4. Learn how to give insulin injections and reward your dog for accepting them. 5. Consistently feed your diabetic dog the same type of food at the same time of day. 6. Report any unusual symptoms or reactions to your vet. For years public health officials have reported a diabetes epidemic among America’s children and adults. At the same time, the rate of canine diabetes in America has more than tripled since 1970, so that today it affects about 1 in every 160 dogs. But while many human cases are caused and can be treated by diet, for dogs, diabetes is a lifelong condition that requires careful blood sugar monitoring and daily insulin injections. The medical term for the illness is diabetes mellitus (mellitus is a Latin term that means “honey sweet,” reflecting the elevated sugar levels the condition produces in urine and blood). Diabetes occurs when the body is unable to produce sufficient insulin to metabolize food for energy, or when the body’s cells fail to utilize insulin properly. The pancreas’s inability to produce insulin is known in humans as type 1 (formerly called juvenile or insulin-dependent) diabetes. This is analogous to the type that affects virtually all dogs. Dogs can also develop gestational diabetes during pregnancy. Type 2 (formerly adult onset) diabetes, which is the result of insulin resistance often l Continue reading >>

Diabetes Mellitus In Dogs

Diabetes Mellitus In Dogs

Diabetes mellitus is a common illness in dogs. It is caused by either a decreased production of insulin or decreased functioning of the insulin. Insulin is a hormone produced by the pancreas that helps glucose move from the blood stream into the cells of the body where it can be used for energy. What causes diabetes in dogs? There appear to be many factors that can contribute to the development of diabetes in dogs. Genetics plays a role. Some diabetes may be immune-mediated. This means the dog's immune system works against the pancreas as it tries to produce insulin. What dogs are most at risk of developing diabetes? Dogs of any age can develop diabetes, but most are between 7 and 9 years old. Females appear to be at increased risk. Certain breeds appear to be more at risk, including Samoyeds, Australian terriers, miniature schnauzers, pugs, and miniature and toy poodles. Dogs who have had multiple episodes of pancreatitis also appear to be more likely to develop diabetes mellitus. What are the signs and symptoms of diabetes in dogs? Most dogs with diabetes will have increased thirst and urination. Although the appetite is usually good or increased, there is often weight loss. Some dogs, however, may become obese. In some cases, blindness due to cataracts may be the first indication to an owner that there is a problem. Cataracts would appear as cloudy eyes with vision loss. Several diseases often occur in conjunction with diabetes mellitus, including Cushing's disease (hyperadrenocorticism), urinary tract infections, hypothyroidism, acute pancreatitis and cancer. The presence of these diseases can complicate the diagnosis and effective treatment of diabetes. Dogs may develop a serious complication of diabetes known as ketoacidosis. In this emergency condition, the blood Continue reading >>

About Diabetes Mellitus

About Diabetes Mellitus

If your dog or cat has been diagnosed with diabetes mellitus, it's easy to feel alone—but you're not. It is estimated that 1 out of every 100 dogs that reaches 12 years of age will develop diabetes.1 In cats, it's estimated that between 1 in 50 and 1 in 500 will develop diabetes mellitus.2 Diabetes mellitus occurs when your dog or cat has stopped producing insulin, has inadequate levels of insulin, or has an abnormal response to insulin. Learn more about what insulin is. In dogs, diabetes mellitus is common in middle-aged to older animals, especially in females, but it is also seen in young dogs of both sexes. When seen in younger animals, it can be a sign that your cat or dog is genetically predisposed to diabetes—this can mean that related animals may also be predisposed.3 Certain breeds of dogs also experience above-average rates of diabetes. These include4: In cats, diabetes mellitus is more common in middle- to older-aged animals as well, and also in cats that are overweight. Also, neutered males are at a greater risk than females. Certain breeds, such as Siamese cats, experience an above-average rate of diabetes. Some drugs, when used long-term, may interfere with insulin and lead to diabetes mellitus in your pet. These include glucocorticoids (cortisone-type drugs) and hormones that may be used to control heat cycles in female dogs.3 It is important to note the difference between diabetes mellitus and diabetes insipidus. Diabetes insipidus, also known as water diabetes, occurs when the kidneys are unable to regulate fluids in the body, and large amounts of dilute urine are produced. This condition is far less common than diabetes mellitus. Diabetes insipidus is caused by problems in part of the brain or in the kidneys, and there is no glucose (sugar) present Continue reading >>

What Causes Diabetes In Dogs? The Signs, Symptoms And What To Do About It

What Causes Diabetes In Dogs? The Signs, Symptoms And What To Do About It

Did you know one out of every 300 dogs is diagnosed with diabetes? Especially in senior and middle aged dogs, diabetes is becoming frighteningly common in dogs today. Once your dog gets diabetes, he will most likely need insulin for the rest of his life. So it’s really important to do everything you can to prevent your dog from becoming diabetic. There are many things that can contribute to the risk of your dog getting diabetes … but the good news is, there are also lots of things you can do to help prevent it and minimize the risk. So we called on an expert to tell us how to do that. At Raw Roundup 2017, Dr Jean Hofve gave a talk on canine diabetes and its connection to diet and environmental factors and the best ways to prevent it. But first, what is diabetes and what’s the difference between the two types of the disease? What Is Diabetes? Diabetes is all about glucose and how the body handles it. All cells use glucose as their primary source of energy. The pancreas produces the hormones that control glucose … primarily insulin and glucagon. The pancreas is mostly made up of tissue that secretes digestive enzymes … but about 5% of the pancreas is made up of beta cells that produce insulin.The body’s cells need glucose for energy – it’s their primary fuel. But glucose can’t get into those cells without the help of insulin. Dr Hofve explains insulin as the key to a lock … the cells need the “key” (insulin) to let the glucose in. When glucose can’t get into the cells without insulin, it builds up in the blood. This causes hyperglycemia, meaning too much sugar in the blood (hyper = too much, glyc = sugar and emia = in the blood) This is why the pancreas and its creation of insulin is so important. And when it’s not working right, your dog can b Continue reading >>

Diabetes In Dogs

Diabetes In Dogs

Illustration of a dog's pancreas. Cell-islet in the illustration refers to a pancreatic cell in the Islets of Langerhans, which contain insulin-producing beta cells and other endocrine related cells. Permanent damage to these beta cells results in Type 1, or insulin-dependent diabetes, for which exogenous insulin replacement therapy is the only answer. Diabetes mellitus is a disease in which the beta cells of the endocrine pancreas either stop producing insulin or can no longer produce it in enough quantity for the body's needs. The condition is commonly divided into two types, depending on the origin of the condition: Type 1 diabetes, sometimes called "juvenile diabetes", is caused by destruction of the beta cells of the pancreas. The condition is also referred to as insulin-dependent diabetes, meaning exogenous insulin injections must replace the insulin the pancreas is no longer capable of producing for the body's needs. Dogs can have insulin-dependent, or Type 1, diabetes; research finds no Type 2 diabetes in dogs.[1][2][3] Because of this, there is no possibility the permanently damaged pancreatic beta cells could re-activate to engender a remission as may be possible with some feline diabetes cases, where the primary type of diabetes is Type 2.[2][4][5] There is another less common form of diabetes, diabetes insipidus, which is a condition of insufficient antidiuretic hormone or resistance to it.[6][7] This most common form of diabetes affects approximately 0.34% of dogs.[8] The condition is treatable and need not shorten the animal's life span or interfere with quality of life.[9] If left untreated, the condition can lead to cataracts, increasing weakness in the legs (neuropathy), malnutrition, ketoacidosis, dehydration, and death.[10] Diabetes mainly affects mid Continue reading >>

Preventing And Treating Canine Diabetes

Preventing And Treating Canine Diabetes

The growing diabetes epidemic is not limited to people—diabetes mellitus is increasing among dogs as well. Researchers estimate that one in 200 dogs will develop the disease. Fortunately, treatment has made huge strides in recent years, and as a result, dogs with diabetes are living longer, healthier lives. The mechanism of diabetes is relatively simple to describe. Just as cars use gas for fuel, body cells run on a sugar called glucose. The body obtains glucose by breaking down carbohydrates in the diet. Cells then extract glucose from the blood with the help of insulin, a hormone made by the pancreas in specialized cells called beta cells. (The pancreas, an organ situated behind the stomach, produces several hormones.) In diabetes mellitus, cells don’t take in enough glucose, which then builds up in the blood. As a result, cells starve and organs bathed in sugary blood are damaged. Diabetes is not curable, but it is treatable; a dog with diabetes may live many happy years after diagnosis. Kinds of Diabetes Humans are subject to essentially three kinds of diabetes. By far the most common is Type 2, followed by Type 1 and gestational diabetes. Type 2 diabetes has typically been a disease of middle and old age (though it is being seen increasingly in young people), and has two causes: The beta cells don’t make enough insulin, or muscle cells resist insulin’s help and don’t take in enough glucose (or both). As a result, blood glucose levels climb. Type 1 diabetes usually occurs when the immune system attacks and destroys the beta cells, cutting off insulin production; the reason for this attack is thought to be a combination of genetic predisposition plus exposure to a trigger (research into possible triggers is ongoing). Glucose then stays in the blood and, aga Continue reading >>

Can Dogs Get Diabetes?

Can Dogs Get Diabetes?

For most, your dog quickly becomes the most cuddled and adored member of the family. You shower it with cuddles, left over food, and more presents than you give your partner. But can your dog also suffer with the same illnesses you can? Take diabetes: there are two types, but essentially it’s a condition that causes people’s blood sugar levels to become too high. It can lead to heart disease, kidney failure and blindness. Caution must be taken when managing diabetes because if left untreated the complications can be so severe! Can your beloved dog also suffer from diabetes? Can Dogs Get Diabetes? YES! While many may assume diabetes is an illness that only humans suffer because it can be caused by lifestyle choices and environment, dogs can absolutely suffer from diabetes too. It may be due to genetic predispositions or their environment, but they too are at risk of developing diabetes. Does My Dog Have Diabetes? Diabetes can be a serious, debilitating illness, but how can you tell if your dog might have it? Has your dog’s appetite drastically increased (which I know is challenging when most dogs are always up for eating)? But is your dog losing weight, while its appetite seems to be climbing? Are they excessively thirsty and urinating more frequently? Have they also been suffering with a bladder or kidney infection? All of these symptoms could be signs of diabetes. But what causes your dog to develop diabetes? Whilst the cause is unclear, certain traits seem to increase the dog’s chances of diabetes. If your dog is obese, or if it’s female, it’s much more likely to develop diabetes. Viral infections, pancreatitis and autoimmune disease increase a dog’s chances also. Plus, if your dog is old, aged over 7, their chances of diabetes is much higher. Diagnosing Continue reading >>

Diabetes In Dogs: Symptoms And Treatment

Diabetes In Dogs: Symptoms And Treatment

Diabetes in dogs is a complex disease caused by either a lack of the hormone insulin or an inadequate response to insulin. After a dog eats, his digestive system breaks food into various components, including glucose-which is carried into his cells by insulin, a hormone secreted by the pancreas. When a dog does not produce insulin or cannot utilize it normally, his blood sugar levels elevate. The result is hyperglycemia, which, if left untreated, can cause many complicated health problems for a dog. It is important to understand, however, that diabetes is considered a manageable disorder-and many diabetic dogs can lead happy, healthy lives. Diabetes can be classified as either Type 1 (lack of insulin production) or Type II (impaired insulin production along with an inadequate response to the hormone.) The most common form of the disease in dogs is Type 1, insulin-dependent diabetes, which occurs when the pancreas is incapable of producing or secreting adequate levels of insulin. Dogs who have Type I require insulin therapy to survive. Type II diabetes is found in cats and is a lack of normal response to insulin. The following symptoms should be investigated as they could be indicators that your dog has diabetes: Change in appetite Excessive thirst/increase in water consumption Weight loss Increased urination Unusually sweet-smelling or fruity breath Lethargy Dehydration Urinary tract infections Vomiting Cataract formation, blindness The exact cause of diabetes is unknown. However, autoimmune disease, genetics, obesity, chronic pancreatitis, certain medications and abnormal protein deposits in the pancreas can play a major role in the development of the disease. It is thought that obese dogs and female dogs may run a greater risk of developing diabetes later in life (6-9 Continue reading >>

Dogs With Diabetes

Dogs With Diabetes

Tweet Diabetes is one of the most common hormonal diseases in dogs. Diabetes in dogs can occur as young as 18 months of age. Most dogs are between seven and ten when canine diabetes diagnosis is made. Approximately 70% of dogs with diabetes are female. Any breed can be affected, but dachshunds, poodles, miniature schnauzers, cairn terriers, and springer spaniels are at increased risk. Interestingly, diabetes is seen very infrequently in Cocker Spaniels, shepherds, collies, and boxers. Canine Diabetes Signs What signs might your dog be exhibiting if he/she is diabetic? There are 3 clinical signs to look for: Diabetic patients usually show a marked increase in their water intake, along with an accompanying increase in urination. They frequently have excellent appetites, yet are losing weight. Finally, the sudden appearance of cataracts in the eyes suggests the possibility of underlying diabetes. As with most conditions, it is important to diagnose diabetes early in the disease. If you observe any of the above signs in your dog, don't hesitate to get her to your family veterinarian. Left undiagnosed and untreated, diabetic dogs can develop life-threatening secondary complications due to the metabolic derangements in their body. The diagnosis of diabetes is generally fairly simple. The presence of a high blood sugar level (hyperglycemia) and sugar in the urine (glucosuria) along with the appropriate clinical signs confirms the diagnosis. In dogs, normal blood sugar levels are 80 to 120, I have seen diabetic patients with values as high as 600. Treatment Although diagnosing diabetes is not demanding, treating it certainly is. That said, it is a treatable disease in dogs and most diabetic dogs can lead very high-quality lives. Virtually all dogs with diabetes require insulin Continue reading >>

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