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Why Are Diabetics More Prone To Infections?

Diabetes And Urinary Tract Infections

Diabetes And Urinary Tract Infections

People whose diabetes is not properly controlled have twice the risk of developing infections. In addition to diabetes, you could be more susceptible to urinary tract infections if: Your blood glucose (sugar) levels are not properly controlled. Sugar in the urine promotes bacterial growth. Your nervous system is already affected by diabetes (neuropathy). You could have a “lazy bladder” that does not empty completely. You are a woman. Certain anatomical traits, such as having a shorter urethra, increase the risk of bacterial contamination. You already have diabetes complications in your kidneys or blood vessels. This could be a sign that your diabetes is not properly controlled. You have had a urinary tract infection within the last year. People who have had infections within the last year are more at risk of a recurrence. When to consult? To avoid urinary tract infections, consult your doctor if one or more of these symptoms occur: Fever More frequent urination Burning sensation when urinating Urine has an unpleasant odour False urge to urinate Blood in the urine Abdominal pain when urinating Prevention As is the case for all types of infections if you have diabetes, it is crucial that you maintain your blood glucose (sugar) levels within the target range. Wash your hands often. Do not ignore the urge to urinate. Be sure to stay well hydrated. Quit smoking if you are a smoker. What about cranberry juice? Although studies on cranberry juice seem promising, none has clearly shown that cranberry juice can be used to treat or prevent urinary tract infections. If you nevertheless decide to drink cranberry juice, be aware of the amount of sugar in the juice or cocktail, especially if you are diabetic. Research and text: Diabetes Québec Team of Health Care Professionals S Continue reading >>

Why Are South Asians More Prone To Diabetes And High Blood Pressure? Is It Because Of The Curries?

Why Are South Asians More Prone To Diabetes And High Blood Pressure? Is It Because Of The Curries?

When you leave your doctor’s office, do you ever wonder what he’s not telling you? Every appointment, he tells you to eat less sugar and go on more walks, but aren’t there other ways to get your diabetes under control? Here’s 3 tricks to manage your diabetes that your doctor won’t tell you: Eat More Fat You read that right. Eat more fat. That’s because fat helps your body absorb insulin. That means the more fat you eat, the easier it’ll be to manage your blood sugar. But here’s the kicker: It’s got to be the right type of fat. You’re looking for Unsaturated Omega-3 Fat. Here’s some great sources: Fish Eggs (Any eggs labeled “enriched” have plenty of omega-3) Grass-fed beef (There’s lots of omega-3 in the grass) Do Some Pushups… Or any kind of strength exercises. All the cardio your doctor tells you to do will increase your insulin absorption a little, but to really keep your body regulated you’ve got to get your entire body moving. The best way to do that is any exercise that focuses on strength. You want to avoid straining yourself, but make a habit of doing a few pushups every day, throw in some body squats, and soon you’ll be taking tighter control of your blood sugar. Not to mention it’ll get rid of stress, and give you plenty of energy. Relax Laying back and keeping cool are vital to regulating your blood sugar. Stress causes physical distress on the body which affects blood glucose levels. Not to mention, when you’re stressed out it’s easy to overeat, which obviously wreaks havoc on your blood sugar. For easy relaxation, try out simple meditation or breathing exercises. These tricks will help, but… If You Want to REVERSE your Type 2 Diabetes and never worry about your blood sugar again, here’s what you need: A recent med Continue reading >>

Increased Risk Of Common Infections In Patients With Type 1 And Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

Increased Risk Of Common Infections In Patients With Type 1 And Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

Background. Clinical data on the association of diabetes mellitus with common infections are virtually lacking, not conclusive, and often biased. We intended to determine the relative risks of common infections in patients with type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM1 and DM2, respectively). Methods. In a 12-month prospective cohort study conducted as part of the Second Dutch National Survey of General Practice, we compared 705 adult patients who had DM1 and 6712 adult patients who had DM2 with 18,911 control patients who had hypertension without diabetes. Outcome measures were medically attended episodes of infection of the respiratory tract, urinary tract, and skin and mucous membranes. We applied multivariable and polytomous logistic regression analysis to determine independent risks of infections and their recurrences in patients with diabetes, compared with control patients. Results. Upper respiratory infections were equally common among patients with diabetes and control patients. Patients with diabetes had a greater risk of lower respiratory tract infection (for patients with DM1: adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 1.42 [95% confidence interval {CI}, 0.96–2.08]; for patients with DM2: AOR, 1.32 [95% CI, 1.13–1.53]), urinary tract infection (for patients with DM1: AOR, 1.96 [95% CI, 1.49–2.58]; for patients with DM2: AOR, 1.24 [95% CI, 1.10–1.39]), bacterial skin and mucous membrane infection (for patients with DM1: AOR, 1.59 [95% CI, 1.12–2.24]; for patients with DM2: AOR, 1.33 [95% CI, 1.15–1.54]), and mycotic skin and mucous membrane infection (for patients with DM1: AOR, 1.34 [95% CI, 0.97–1.84]; for patients with DM2: AOR, 1.44 [95% CI, 1.27–1.63]). Risks increased with recurrences of common infections. Conclusions. Patients with DM1 and DM2 are at in Continue reading >>

Sepsis And Diabetes

Sepsis And Diabetes

Diabetes is a chronic (life-long) autoimmune disease that has a significant impact on your life. Having diabetes means you must work to control your blood glucose (sugar) levels to be sure that they don’t get too high or too low. The amount of glucose in your blood is important. Your body needs glucose for energy, but too much of it can destroy body tissues and too little can starve your body of nutrients. People who have diabetes are also at risk of developing wounds and sores that don’t heal well. While the wounds are present, they are at high risk of developing infection. And, again because of the diabetes, the infections can get severe quickly. When infection overwhelms the body, the body can respond by developing sepsis and going into septic shock. Sometimes incorrectly called blood poisoning, sepsis is the body’s often deadly response to infection. Sepsis kills and disables millions and requires early suspicion and rapid treatment for survival. Sepsis and septic shock can result from an infection anywhere in the body, such as pneumonia, influenza, or urinary tract infections. Worldwide, one-third of people who develop sepsis die. Many who do survive are left with life-changing effects, such as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), chronic pain and fatigue, organ dysfunction (organs don’t work properly) and/or amputations. What is diabetes? Your pancreas is a small organ (about 6” by 1.5”) that is part of your digestive system. It is connected to your small intestine and it lies just below your stomach towards the back. Your pancreas has a few roles, one is to help digest the food you eat and another is to secrete (send out) insulin, which stimulates your cells to use the glucose in the food and drink you consume. When a person has diabetes, the pancre Continue reading >>

Diabetes And Infection: How To Spot The Signs

Diabetes And Infection: How To Spot The Signs

Diabetes can slow down your body's ability to fight infection. The high sugar levels in your blood and tissues allow bacteria to grow and help infections develop more quickly. Common sites for these problems are your bladder, kidneys, vagina, gums, feet, and skin. Early treatment can prevent more serious issues later on. What to Look For Most infections in people with diabetes can be treated. But you have to be able to spot the symptoms. Tell your doctor immediately if you have any of the following: Fever over 101 F Pain, tenderness, redness, or swelling Wound or cut that won't heal Red, warm, or draining sore Sore throat, scratchy throat, or pain when you swallow Sinus drainage, nasal congestion, headaches, or tenderness along upper cheekbones White patches in your mouth or on your tongue Flu-like symptoms (chills, aches, headache, or fatigue) or generally feeling "lousy" Painful or frequent peeing or a constant urge to go Bloody, cloudy, or foul-smelling pee *CGM-based treatment requires fingersticks for calibration, if patient is taking acetaminophen, or if symptoms/expectations do not match CGM readings, and if not performed, may result in hypoglycemia. Please see important risk and safety information. Continue reading >>

Infections In Diabetics

Infections In Diabetics

Diabetes and Infections One on the common problems faced by Diabetics with high blood sugar levels are the common infections like, cold, influenza, sinusitis, Ear ache and discharge, pimples, abcesses, Gum infections and Urinary tract infections - which refuse to go. Compromised immune system Our body fights these infections through a variety of mechanisms, Either with help of speciallized cells which first of all 'recognize' then 'catch' these disease causing agents, subsequently some chemical reactions- complement cascade- take place which finally neutralize these infecting culprits. With high blood sugar levels immune system is affected at all levels. Macrophages are not able to engulf 'catch' bacterias or viruses as they generally would, complement cascade also malfuntions so the bacterias or viruses even if 'caught' may not be neutralized. Glucose itself is a rich medium which promotes the growth of bacterias and viruses, infact it is used in all laboratories as a culture medium to grow bacterias. High blood glucose levels make us prone to infections. Our body is actively fighting against infections all the time, even when we may not have any obvious symptoms. Most of the infections are healed by the body itself without any medicines or other interventions. Most frequent and common are viral infections like influenza (flu, grippe or common cold), cuts and scratches. If the immune mechanisms mentioned earlier are impaired, healing is delayed, illness prolonged and more severe. H1N1 influenza or the swine flu is just another example of influenza which may become severe in and uncontrolled Diabetic. Fungal infections- occur more frequently in diabetics. Fungus are ubiquitous organisms present everywhere and always, they only need fertile soil to grow. The only reason Continue reading >>

Infection In Patients With Diabetes Mellitus

Infection In Patients With Diabetes Mellitus

Practice Essentials Diabetes increases susceptibility to various types of infections. The most common sites of infection in diabetic patients are the skin and urinary tract. Ear, Nose, and Throat Infections Malignant otitis externa and rhinocerebral mucormycosis are 2 head-and-neck infections seen almost exclusively in patients with diabetes. Malignant or necrotizing otitis externa principally occurs in diabetic patients older than 35 years and is almost always due to Pseudomonas aeruginosa. [1] Infection starts in the external auditory canal and spreads to adjacent soft tissue, cartilage, and bone. Patients typically present with severe ear pain and otorrhea. Rhinocerebral mucormycosis collectively refers to infections caused by various ubiquitous molds. [2] Invasive disease occurs in patients with poorly controlled diabetes, especially those with diabetic ketoacidosis. Organisms colonize the nose and paranasal sinuses, spreading to adjacent tissues by invading blood vessels and causing soft tissue necrosis and bony erosion. Urinary Tract Infections Patients with diabetes have an increased risk of asymptomatic bacteriuria and pyuria, cystitis, and, more important, serious upper urinary tract infection. [3, 4] Intrarenal bacterial infection should be considered in the differential diagnosis of any patient with diabetes who presents with flank or abdominal pain. Pyelonephritis makes control of diabetes more difficult by causing insulin resistance; in addition, nausea may limit the patient's ability to maintain normal hydration. Treatment of pyelonephritis does not differ for patients with diabetes, but a lower threshold for hospital admission is appropriate. Skin and Soft Tissue Infections Sensory neuropathy, atherosclerotic vascular disease, and hyperglycemia all predis Continue reading >>

Can Diabetes Cause Vaginal Yeast Infections?

Can Diabetes Cause Vaginal Yeast Infections?

How common are yeast infections? A yeast infection, also known as candidiasis, is a type of fungal infection. It can cause irritation, itchiness, and discharge. Vaginal yeast infections are most common. 3 in 4 women will have at least one vaginal yeast infection in their lifetime. About half of all women will experience two or more. A number of things can increase your risk of yeast infection, including conditions such as diabetes. Keep reading to learn why this happens and what you can do to prevent it. Researchers in a 2013 study found a significant link between high blood sugar and vaginal yeast infections. This study focused on women and children with type 1 diabetes. According to a 2014 study, women with type 2 diabetes may be at an even higher risk of vaginal yeast infection. It’s unclear whether this is due to higher overall levels of blood sugar or another factor. Yeast feeds off of sugar. If your diabetes isn’t well-controlled, your blood sugar levels can spike to unreasonably high levels. This increase in sugar can cause yeast to overgrow, particularly in the vaginal area. Your body may develop a yeast infection in response. Maintaining your blood sugar levels may help reduce your risk of infection. If you have diabetes, you should undergo periodic screening for vaginal yeast infections. Some types of candidiasis can lead to serious health complications if left untreated. Talk with your doctor about the best screening schedule for you. Your vagina naturally contains a mix of yeast and bacteria. The yeast will remain in check as long as the balance between the two isn’t disrupted. A number of things can interfere with this balance and cause your body to produce an excessive amount of yeast. This includes: taking certain antibiotics undergoing hormone ther Continue reading >>

Diabetics Are More Prone To Skin Infections

Diabetics Are More Prone To Skin Infections

Statistics say that 10 per cent of Indians are diabetic and 20 per cent pre-diabetic. The staggering number of people dealing with this disease undergo a vast range of related problems and skin infections is one of the top ones in that list. Our skin, the largest organ in our body, is affected by this disease in many different ways. Experts say that one-third of diabetic patients have to deal with some kind of skin infection or the other. There are conditions that are unique and others that are common among people with diabetes. Why does it happen Dermatologist and laser surgeon, Dr Apratim Goel says, "It is true that diabetics are more prone to skin infections especially during the hot summer months. This happens due to a combination of heat and humidity. Also, factors in a diabetic patient (see box) make them prone to skin diseases and infections more than others." Itchy skin is a common symptom of diabetes, and if one has been suffering from long-standing diabetes, it can lead to dry skin as well. Consultant diabetologist Dr Pradeep Gadge explains, "This is because high blood sugar provides a favourable condition for fungal growth, thereby increasing the risk of skin problems like fungal and bacterial infections." Check for skin problems regularly Experts say that it is very important for people who are suffering from diabetes to check for skin problems regularly. They should check for rashes or bumps, especially in the areas where they inject their insulin. Effect of uncontrolled blood glucose Dr Gadge says, "Uncontrolled blood glucose affects sebaceous glands or sweat glands, leading to itching in feet and legs, which is attributed to fungal infection. When coupled with other risk factors of diabetes like eczema, stress and anxiety, it gets aggravated." Treatment B Continue reading >>

Diabetes And Being Ill - Diabetes And Illness

Diabetes And Being Ill - Diabetes And Illness

Tweet Having an illness or infection can make it particularly hard to control blood sugar levels. A little knowledge of how illnesses affect diabetes can go a long way towards helping you through. It’s hard to go a year without catching a cold, virus, flu or stomach bug so it pays to be prepared as to how to manage during periods of sickness. How does illness affect diabetes? During an illness or infection the body will release extra glucose into your blood stream in a bid to help combat the illness. In people without diabetes, this is an effective strategy as their pancreas will release extra insulin to cope with the extra blood glucose. In people with diabetes, though, the release of glucose presents an unwanted extra difficulty in managing the rise in blood glucose levels - in addition to feeling less than 100%. Illness and very high blood sugar levels The NHS recommends that people with diabetes with a sugar level over 28 mmols/L should seek emergency advice from their healthcare team or, during out-of-hours times, contact NHS Direct on 0845 4647. Coping with diabetes and illness To keep a track of how much your sugar levels are rising, it’s recommended to test your blood more often than usual. Test for ketones If you have type 1 diabetes, it is advisable to follow up any high blood sugar readings with a test for ketones. Read: Testing for ketones Keep hydrated Keep yourself well hydrated. High blood glucose levels can lead to dehydration so make sure you are regularly drinking fluids to stay hydrated. Keep eating It may be tempting to not eat whilst unwell but this could lead to more ketones as the body may need to break down fat to make fuel. If eating is difficult, or if you are vomiting and cannot keep food down, it is advisable to have drinks with carbohydr Continue reading >>

What Infections Are You At Risk For With Diabetes?

What Infections Are You At Risk For With Diabetes?

People with diabetes are more susceptible to developing infections, as high blood sugar levels can weaken the patient's immune system defenses. In addition, some diabetes-related health issues, such as nerve damage and reduced blood flow to the extremities, increase the body's vulnerability to infection. What Kinds of Infections Are Most Likely If You Have Diabetes? When you have diabetes, you are especially prone to foot infections, yeast infections, urinary tract infections, and surgical site infections. In addition, yeast cells (Candida albicans) are more likely to colonize the mucous membranes (e.g., mouth, vagina, nose) in people with diabetes. These Candida cells then interfere with the normal infection-fighting action of white blood cells. With white blood cells impaired, Candida can replicate unchecked, causing yeast infections. High blood sugar levels contribute to this process. Other Sources of Diabetes-Related Infection Diabetic neuropathy (nerve damage) causes problems with sensation, particularly in the feet. This lack of sensation sometimes means foot injuries go unnoticed. Untreated injuries can lead to infection. Some types of neuropathy can also lead to dry, cracked skin, which allows a convenient entry point for infection into the body. People with diabetes often have low blood flow to the extremities. With less blood flow, the body is less able to mobilize normal immune defenses and nutrients that promote the body's ability to fight infection and promote healing. Why Are Infections Risky for People With Diabetes? People with diabetes are more adversely affected when they get an infection than someone without the disease, because you have weakened immune defenses in diabetes. Studies have shown that even those who have minimally elevated blood sugar le Continue reading >>

Susceptibility To Infections In Persons With Diabetes Mellitus

Susceptibility To Infections In Persons With Diabetes Mellitus

INTRODUCTION It is widely accepted by both the medical profession and the general public that diabetics have an increased propensity to develop infections. Although several epidemiologic studies have shown that diabetics receive treatment for infections more often than non-diabetics, the magnitude of the effect of diabetes on the risk of infection remains an active research question. Host- and organism-specific factors that may explain why people with DM are more susceptible to particular infections will be reviewed here. The clinical features, diagnosis, and treatment of specific infections that appear either to be more prevalent in diabetics or to have unique features when they occur in diabetics are discussed separately. These infections include: Foot infections (see "Clinical manifestations, diagnosis, and management of diabetic infections of the lower extremities") Superficial fungal infections, such as oral candidiasis, onychomycosis, and intertrigo (see "Clinical manifestations of oropharyngeal and esophageal candidiasis" and "Onychomycosis: Epidemiology, clinical features, and diagnosis" and "Candidal intertrigo") Continue reading >>

Diabetes Mellitus And Infection

Diabetes Mellitus And Infection

Some types of infection occur more frequently in patients with diabetes. This increased risk is largely attributable to an altered immune response due to chronic hyperglycaemia, but increased susceptibility to infection may also result from diabetic complications such as diabetic neuropathy and vascular insufficiency. Risk of most common infections is only modestly increased (e.g. 1.2 fold), but a number of rare but potentially fatal infections occur primarily or even almost exclusively in patients with diabetes. These include mucormycosis, emphysematous urinary tract infections, emphysematous cholecystitis, necrotizing fasciitis and malignant otitis externa. Immediate antimicrobial and/or surgical treatment is needed to prevent serious complications from these infections, including death. In general, antimicrobial treatment of infections in patients with diabetes is not different than in patients without diabetes. Glucose lowering therapy often needs to be increased to counter the loss of control associated with infection. Vaccinations against influenza and pneumococcal infections are recommended for patients with diabetes. Incidence and contributing factors People with diabetes are reported to experience 21% more infections than the general population[1]. Several factors may contribute to this, for example possible ‘reporting bias’: more frequent medical visits due to diabetes may lead to better recording of infectious complications. Even so, it seems clear that the risk of many common infections increases in proportion to hyperglycemia. Special problems may also arise in relations to diabetic nephropathy, which may undermine host defences against infection, and peripheral vascular disease which may impair tissue nutrition, oxygen supply and the ability to mount a Continue reading >>

Diabetes Mellitus And Infectious Diseases: Controlling Chronic Hyperglycemia

Diabetes Mellitus And Infectious Diseases: Controlling Chronic Hyperglycemia

As the incidence of diabetes mellitus continues to rise, common focus areas for diabetes control are blood glucose levels, diet, and exercise. Addressing and controlling these factors as well as other factors associated with diabetes are essential for a better quality of life; however, awareness of an increased risk of infections is also warranted in diabetes patients with chronic hyperglycemia. The immune system is comprised of two subcategories: innate immunity and adaptive immunity. Innate immunity, the first line of defense, is activated when a pathogen initially presents itself. This portion of immunity is inherited at birth and is not specific in its mechanism of defense. In addition, it serves the overall immune system by alerting specific cells of pathogen invasion to activate the adaptive immune system. The innate immune system has physical and chemical mechanisms of response. These include but are not limited to sneezing, coughing, sweating, maintenance of normal body temperature, and gram-positive normal flora on the skin. Adaptive immunity is a very specific aspect of a properly functioning immune system that provides protection against previous infections experienced by the host. These responses are mediated by lymphocytes, which consist of natural killer (NK) cells, B cells and T cells. Vaccinations and exposure to pathogens benefit the adaptive immune system by establishing immunologic memory. In the event of another attack by the same foreign organism, the adaptive immune system is able to provide a more efficient response. Complications of Chronic Hyperglycemia Patients with uncontrolled diabetes are considered immunosuppressed due to the negative effects of elevated blood sugars on the immune system. Hyperglycemia impairs overall immunity through diffe Continue reading >>

Why Do Diabetics Lose Their Feet And Legs?

Why Do Diabetics Lose Their Feet And Legs?

First, a disclosure: I am not an MD, just a medicine enthusiast. Tl;Dr : diabetics "lose" their feet because of tissue necrosis, infection and slow/non-recovering wounds, all of which are long term complications of diabetes. Other than that, diabetics stands at a higher risk of loss of feeling in peripheral limbs. Diabetes is an abnormally high level of glucose in the blood. the excess glucose damages all the functions of the circulatory system. The basic oxygen distribution is restricted and limited due to the formation of plaque in the arteries, essentially lowering the blood flow in them. In smaller arteries, the blood flow isn't slowed, it is stopped altogether, starving and eventually killing the cells down the line, making the tissue necrotic. Once a part of a limb turns necrotic, there is no other option but to remove it. Another function of the circulatory system that is severely weakened by diabetes is the delivery of immune system, more specifically, the ability of white blood cells to reach a wound in peripheral areas clogged up by plaque. This results in a more serious infection of the hurt limb. These infections are often aggravated because of the low oxygen supply to the infected area, since enough oxygen is paramount for quick wound recovery. Some diabetics show another symptom that puts them at an even higher risk of losing their feet. Advanced diabetes can cause numbness and even complete loss of sensation in toes and feet. Such inflicted person can accidentally hurt his feet, say step on a nail, and not be aware of that. Such person will discover and clean his wound later than he would wish, and experience unnecessary blood loss and increased chance of infection. His wound will also heal a hell of a lot slower than that of a healthy person. Losing a li Continue reading >>

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