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Why Are Diabetes Rates Rising

Type 2 Diabetes Is Increasingly Common In Tweens And Teens

Type 2 Diabetes Is Increasingly Common In Tweens And Teens

About 17 percent of young people in the U.S. are considered obese. Now that figure is being reflected in the rise of diabetes among the young. For years, health experts have bemoaned the rise of childhood obesity in the United States. About 17 percent of kids and teens in the U.S. are considered obese, a figure that has more than tripled since the 1970s, according to data from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). A report in The New England Journal of Medicine lays out one of the consequences of all the excess weight: a corresponding increase in childhood cases of type 2 diabetes. Type 2 diabetes occurs when extra body fat makes it hard for cells to use insulin, a hormone that turns sugar into energy. Over time, blood-sugar levels rise and cause blood vessels to become stiff, increasing the risk of life-threatening conditions such as heart attacks, strokes and kidney failure, among others. More than 75,000 Americans die of diabetes each year, the CDC says. Type 2 diabetes used to be called adult-onset diabetes, because it would take years to develop. (That’s in contrast to type 1 diabetes, formerly known as juvenile diabetes, which occurs when the immune system destroys the cells that make insulin.) But these days, doctors are diagnosing type 2 in school-age kids, and occasionally even in toddlers. After reviewing data on 10- to 19-year-olds in primarily five states (California, Colorado, Ohio, South Carolina and Washington), researchers determined that 12.5 of every 100,000 of them had type 2 diabetes in 2011 and 2012. That compares with nine cases per 100,000 young people in 2002 and 2003. After accounting for age, gender, race and ethnicity, the study authors found that the incidence of type 2 diabetes in this age group rose by an average 4.8 perce Continue reading >>

Rates Of New Diagnosed Cases Of Type 1 And Type 2 Diabetes On The Rise Among Children, Teens

Rates Of New Diagnosed Cases Of Type 1 And Type 2 Diabetes On The Rise Among Children, Teens

Fastest rise seen among racial/ethnic minority groups. Rates of new diagnosed cases of type 1 and type 2 diabetes are increasing among youth in the United States, according to a report, Incidence Trends of Type 1 and Type 2 Diabetes among Youths, 2002-2012 (link is external), published today in the New England Journal of Medicine. In the United States, 29.1 million people are living with diagnosed or undiagnosed diabetes, and about 208,000 people younger than 20 years are living with diagnosed diabetes. This study is the first ever to estimate trends in new diagnosed cases of type 1 and type 2 diabetes in youth (those under the age of 20), from the five major racial/ethnic groups in the U.S.: non-Hispanic whites, non-Hispanic blacks, Hispanics, Asian Americans/Pacific Islanders, and Native Americans. However, the Native American youth who participated in the SEARCH study are not representative of all Native American youth in the United States. Thus, these rates cannot be generalized to all Native American youth nationwide. The SEARCH for Diabetes in Youth study (link is external), funded by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and the National Institutes of Health (NIH), found that from 2002 to 2012, incidence, or the rate of new diagnosed cases of type 1 diabetes in youth increased by about 1.8 percent each year. During the same period, the rate of new diagnosed cases of type 2 diabetes increased even more quickly, at 4.8 percent. The study included 11,244 youth ages 0-19 with type 1 diabetes and 2,846 youth ages 10-19 with type 2. “Because of the early age of onset and longer diabetes duration, youth are at risk for developing diabetes related complications at a younger age. This profoundly lessens their quality of life, shortens their life expectanc Continue reading >>

Type 1 Diabetes On The Rise

Type 1 Diabetes On The Rise

For years, public health officials in the United States — and around the world — have been concerned about rising rates of Type 2 diabetes. While the causes of Type 2 diabetes are complex, rising rates of the disease have generally mirrored rising rates of obesity over the last few decades. But earlier this month, researchers reported a landmark discovery: For the first time in decades, the rate of new cases of Type 2 diabetes has been confirmed as falling, not rising. While this is great news, it didn’t take long for bad news about diabetes rates to come along. Even though Type 2 diabetes is apparently on the decline, Type 1 diabetes is on the rise — and researchers have no easy explanations for what might be causing this trend. For a study published earlier this month in the journal Diabetes Care, researchers analyzed a large database of U.S. commercial insurance claims to look for evidence of Type 1 diabetes in children and teenagers. As noted in a HealthDay article on the study, they found that the rate of Type 1 diabetes in this population has risen from 1.5 cases per 1,000 people in 2002 to 2.3 cases per 1,000 people in 2013 — an increase of almost 60%. As the article notes, this rise in Type 1 diabetes in the United States is part of a larger worldwide trend. The researchers also found a large increase in kidney damage among children and teens with Type 1 diabetes, but some or most of this increase can probably be explained by more widespread testing of kidney function at a younger age. Overall rates of Type 1 diabetes, on the other hand, are highly unlikely to be explained by better detection because the disease is so noticeable — and deadly — if it’s left untreated. Initial symptoms of Type 1 diabetes include excessive thirst and urination, fati Continue reading >>

Rising Diabetes Rates In Children: Four Things Health Execs Should Know

Rising Diabetes Rates In Children: Four Things Health Execs Should Know

Rates of newly diagnosed cases of type 1 and type 2 diabetes are increasing among children and teens in the United States, according to a report published in the New England Journal of Medicine (NEJM). The fastest rise is among racial/ethnic minority groups. As reported in Diabetes Care, in the United States in 2009, an estimated 191,986 youth under age 20 had diabetes; 166,984 had type 1 diabetes, 20,262 had type 2 diabetes, and 4,740 had other types. Here are four things MCOs should know about the study and why diabetes rates are increasing in young populations. 1. The drivers of increased diabetes are very different for type 1 and type 2 diabetes The NEJM study is the first one to estimate trends in newly diagnosed cases of diabetes types 1 and 2 in youths from the United States’ five major racial/ethnic groups—non-Hispanic whites, non-Hispanic blacks, Hispanics, Asian Americans/Pacific Islanders, and Native Americans. The study included 11,244 youth ages 0 to 19 with type 1 diabetes and 2,846 youth ages 10 to 19 with type 2 diabetes. “The reason for increasing incidences of diabetes is most likely very different for types 1 and 2 diabetes, because they are very different in their etiologies,” says Elizabeth J. Mayer-Davis, PhD, the lead author of the study and professor and chair, Department of Nutrition, The University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina. “Both involve genetic influences, although the specific genes involved are quite different for the two types, and environmental and behavioral factors are likely very different.” For type 1, the specific environmental or behavioral triggers that push the autoimmune process to destroy cells that produce insulin are unknown. For type 2, it’s believed that childhood obesity—which has increa Continue reading >>

Why Is The Occurrence Of Diabetes So Low In Japan When White Rice Is Staple?

Why Is The Occurrence Of Diabetes So Low In Japan When White Rice Is Staple?

Rice isn’t bad on its own. You could eat rice and fish and veggies all day and you’d be fine — that’s what we do in Japan. Besides, Japanese people often put rice vinegar (in sushi) with their rice, which reduces the initial blood sugar spike. That said, the rate of diabetes is increasing in Japan. I’m not going to single it down to one factor, because there are so many individual, biological variables. But like most of the world, diabetes rates have been rising since the introduction of the Western diet. Coupled with Japan’s stressful work environment, this is a recipe for disaster. This does not mean people are going to be visibly obese. As you know, you can be a skinny diabetic or have metabolic syndrome but not tip the scale. Eating large amounts of carbs causes insulin resistance which can lead to diabetes. Added sugar is often the culprit. Over 80% of foods in American grocery stores have added sugar to them. These products have made their way to Japan. I was eating kaiten sushi (carousel sushi) the other day and noticed the soy sauce had added sugar. Why? Why is this necessary? Continue reading >>

2 Types Of Diabetes On The Rise In Children

2 Types Of Diabetes On The Rise In Children

Two new studies on diabetes deliver good and bad news, but the overall message is that the blood sugar disease remains a formidable public health burden. The first study looked at the incidence of type 1 and type 2 diabetes in U.S. children, and uncovered this troubling trend: From 2002 to 2012, the rates for both types of diabetes increased, especially among racial and ethnic minorities. But a bit of hope was offered up in the second study: Swedish researchers reported a drop in the incidence of heart disease and stroke in adults with both types of diabetes. “These studies highlight our concerns about the increasing prevalence of diabetes. Every 23 seconds, another person is diagnosed with diabetes [in the United States],” said Dr. William Cefalu, chief scientific, medical and mission officer for the American Diabetes Association (ADA). Cefalu added that the Swedish study was encouraging and shows that things are “trending in the right direction. Because of research in diabetes, we’ve been able to improve the lives of millions of people with diabetes around the world, but the disease is still increasing worldwide. We still have a lot of work to do.” In the United States, approximately 29 million people have diabetes, according to the ADA. The vast majority of those have type 2 diabetes. About 1.3 million people have type 1 diabetes. In people with type 2 diabetes, the body doesn’t use insulin properly. This is called insulin resistance. Insulin is a hormone that helps usher sugar from foods into the body’s cells to be used as fuel. When someone has type 2 diabetes, this process doesn’t work well and blood sugar levels rise. Obesity is the main risk factor for type 2 diabetes, though it’s not the only factor involved in the disease. Type 1 diabetes is Continue reading >>

Are You One Of The 33% With Prediabetes? 90% Don't Realize It

Are You One Of The 33% With Prediabetes? 90% Don't Realize It

Developing Type 2 diabetes is a bit like getting dumped in a relationship (only much worse). Even if you are blind-sided when it occurs, it really doesn't occur overnight. Instead, you may miss the many warning signs, until your doctor tells you the bad news (about diabetes, that is, and not about your relationship). The just released 8th Edition of the International Diabetes Federation's (IDFs) Diabetes Atlas confirms that the global diabetes epidemic continues to get worse. This year 10 million more people are living with diabetes than in 2015, meaning that 1 in 11 adults now has diabetes, for a total of 425 million people. Diabetes includes type 1 diabetes (otherwise known as juvenile-onset diabetes) in which you don't make enough insulin and type 2 diabetes (previously known as adult-onset diabetes, although now more and more children are developing it) in which your body doesn't effectively use the insulin you produce. There are other types of diabetes but the vast majority (around 90%) of all diabetes cases are type 2 diabetes. A major aim for World Diabetes Day, which is today, and Diabetes Awareness Month (which is this month, November) is to help "people learn their risk for prediabetes and Type 2 diabetes along with steps to take to potentially reverse course," as Heather Hodge, Director of Chronic Disease Prevention Programs at the YMCA-USA (also known as the Y-USA for short, in case you don't have enough time to say the MCA) explained. The lead up to type 2 diabetes can be missed at two different stages. The first is not properly addressing obesity or being overweight, which are major risk factors for type 2 diabetes. As the American Society for Metabolic and Bariatric Surgery indicates, over 90% of those with type 2 diabetes are overweight or have obesity. Continue reading >>

Diabetes Rates Rising Fastest Among Minority Youth

Diabetes Rates Rising Fastest Among Minority Youth

Type 1 and type 2 diabetes rates continually grew among all U.S. youth, and most notably among racial and ethnic minority groups, researchers reported. Type 1 diabetes rates among U.S. youth showed an adjusted relative incidence increase by 1.8% annually between 2002 and 2012 (P<0.001), while type 2 diabetes increased by 4.8% annually (P<0.001), reported Elizabeth J. Mayer-Davis, PhD, chair of the Department of Nutrition at the University of North Carolina Gillings School of Public Health in Chapel Hill, and colleagues in the study, online in The New England Journal of Medicine,. Using an unadjusted model, the researchers found that the annual estimated incidence rates of type 1 diabetes grew by 1.4%, rising from 19.5 cases for each 100,000 youth annually between 2002 to 2003, up to 21.7 cases per 100,000 youth annually between 2011 to 2012 (P=0.03). Estimated incidence rates for type 2 diabetes among U.S. youth increased by 7.1% during this time period in an unadjusted model, growing from 9 cases per 100,000 youth annually during 2002 to 2003, up to 12.5 cases per 100,000 annually between 2011 to 2012 (P<0.001 for trend across race/ethnic group, sex, and age subgroups). "Data on the trends in incidence are needed to understand the current and potential burden of diabetes more fully," Mayer-Davis and co-authors wrote, referring to the type 1 and type 2 diabetes comorbidities and complications as a "substantial clinical and public health burden." The findings come from a recent analysis from the multicenter, ongoing SEARCH for Diabetes in Youth study, which plans to continue until at least 2020 and was conducted at centers from California, Colorado, Ohio, South Carolina, and Washington state. The researchers identified 2,846 U.S. youth with type 2 diabetes, between ages Continue reading >>

Diabetes Mystery: Why Are Type 1 Cases Surging?

Diabetes Mystery: Why Are Type 1 Cases Surging?

When public health officials fret about the soaring incidence of diabetes in the U.S. and worldwide, they are generally referring to type 2 diabetes. About 90 percent of the nearly 350 million people around the world who have diabetes suffer from the type 2 form of the illness, which mostly starts causing problems in the 40s and 50s and is tied to the stress that extra pounds place on the body’s ability to regulate blood glucose. About 25 million people in the U.S. have type 2 diabetes, and another million have type 1 diabetes, which typically strikes in childhood and can be controlled only with daily doses of insulin. For reasons that are completely mysterious, however, the incidence of type 1 diabetes has been increasing throughout the globe at rates that range from 3 to 5 percent a year. Although the second trend is less well publicized, it is still deeply troubling, because this form of the illness has the potential to disable or kill people so much earlier in their lives. No one knows exactly why type 1 diabetes is rising. Solving that mystery—and, if possible, reducing or reversing the trend—has become an urgent problem for public health researchers everywhere. So far they feel they have only one solid clue. “Increases such as the ones that have been reported cannot be explained by a change in genes in such a short period,” says Giuseppina Imperatore, who leads a team of epidemiologists in the Division of Diabetes Translation at the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. “So environmental factors are probably major players in this increase.” A Challenge of Counting Type 1 and type 2 diabetes share the same underlying defect—an inability to deploy insulin in a manner that keeps blood sugar from rising too high—but they arise out of almos Continue reading >>

Diabetes

Diabetes

Key facts The number of people with diabetes has risen from 108 million in 1980 to 422 million in 2014 (1). The global prevalence of diabetes* among adults over 18 years of age has risen from 4.7% in 1980 to 8.5% in 2014 (1). Diabetes prevalence has been rising more rapidly in middle- and low-income countries. Diabetes is a major cause of blindness, kidney failure, heart attacks, stroke and lower limb amputation. In 2015, an estimated 1.6 million deaths were directly caused by diabetes. Another 2.2 million deaths were attributable to high blood glucose in 2012**. Almost half of all deaths attributable to high blood glucose occur before the age of 70 years. WHO projects that diabetes will be the seventh leading cause of death in 2030 (1). Healthy diet, regular physical activity, maintaining a normal body weight and avoiding tobacco use are ways to prevent or delay the onset of type 2 diabetes. Diabetes can be treated and its consequences avoided or delayed with diet, physical activity, medication and regular screening and treatment for complications. What is diabetes? Diabetes is a chronic disease that occurs either when the pancreas does not produce enough insulin or when the body cannot effectively use the insulin it produces. Insulin is a hormone that regulates blood sugar. Hyperglycaemia, or raised blood sugar, is a common effect of uncontrolled diabetes and over time leads to serious damage to many of the body's systems, especially the nerves and blood vessels. In 2014, 8.5% of adults aged 18 years and older had diabetes. In 2015, diabetes was the direct cause of 1.6 million deaths and in 2012 high blood glucose was the cause of another 2.2 million deaths. Type 1 diabetes Type 1 diabetes (previously known as insulin-dependent, juvenile or childhood-onset) is charact Continue reading >>

5 Reasons Why Type One Diabetes Is On The Rise

5 Reasons Why Type One Diabetes Is On The Rise

A 2009 study in The Lancet found that new cases of type 1 diabetes in kids could double in the next 10 years. Possible reasons for this dramatic rise include: Too big too fast. The "accelerator hypothesis" theorizes that children who are bigger and grow more quickly are more likely to develop type 1 diabetes. Too little sun. The "sunshine hypothesis" comes from data showing that countries situated closer to the equator have lower rates of type 1 diabetes. Too clean. The "hygiene hypothesis" is the notion that cleanliness -- lack of exposure to certain germs and parasites -- may increase susceptibility to diseases like diabetes. Too much cow's milk. The "cow's milk hypothesis" states that exposing babies to infant formula containing cow's milk in the first six months of life damages their immune systems, and can trigger autoimmune diseases such as type 1 diabetes. Too much pollution. The "POP hypothesis" alleges that being exposed to pollutants increases diabetes risk. Unlike type 2 diabetes, which is caused by insulin resistance and faulty leptin signaling due to inappropriate diet and lack of exercise, people with type 1 diabetes do not produce insulin and must therefore inject insulin several times a day if they are to remain alive. Tragically those with type 1 diabetes can have the healthiest lifestyle possible yet still suffer many diseases, as current technology is a poor substitute for a fully functioning pancreas. Type 1 diabetes is actually an autoimmune disease, in which the immune system destroys pancreatic cells that produce insulin. The disease tends to progress rather quickly and therefore needs to be diagnosed early, as it can result in serious long-term complications including blindness, kidney failure, heart disease and stroke. While type 1 diabetes is f Continue reading >>

Factors That Could Explain The Increasing Prevalence Of Type 2 Diabetes Among Adults In A Canadian Province: A Critical Review And Analysis

Factors That Could Explain The Increasing Prevalence Of Type 2 Diabetes Among Adults In A Canadian Province: A Critical Review And Analysis

Abstract The prevalence of diabetes has increased since the last decade in New Brunswick. Identifying factors contributing to the increase in diabetes prevalence will help inform an action plan to manage the condition. The objective was to describe factors that could explain the increasing prevalence of type 2 diabetes in New Brunswick since 2001. A critical literature review was conducted to identify factors potentially responsible for an increase in prevalence of diabetes. Data from various sources were obtained to draw a repeated cross-sectional (2001–2014) description of these factors concurrently with changes in the prevalence of type 2 diabetes in New Brunswick. Linear regressions, Poisson regressions and Cochran Armitage analysis were used to describe relationships between these factors and time. Factors identified in the review were summarized in five categories: individual-level risk factors, environmental risk factors, evolution of the disease, detection effect and global changes. The prevalence of type 2 diabetes has increased by 120% between 2001 and 2014. The prevalence of obesity, hypertension, prediabetes, alcohol consumption, immigration and urbanization increased during the study period and the consumption of fruits and vegetables decreased which could represent potential factors of the increasing prevalence of type 2 diabetes. Physical activity, smoking, socioeconomic status and education did not present trends that could explain the increasing prevalence of type 2 diabetes. During the study period, the mortality rate and the conversion rate from prediabetes to diabetes decreased and the incidence rate increased. Suggestion of a detection effect was also present as the number of people tested increased while the HbA1c and the age at detection decreas Continue reading >>

The Rise Of Childhood Type 1 Diabetes In The 20th Century

The Rise Of Childhood Type 1 Diabetes In The 20th Century

The incidence of childhood type 1 diabetes increased worldwide in the closing decades of the 20th century, but the origins of this increase are poorly documented. A search through the early literature revealed a number of useful but neglected sources, particularly in Scandinavia. While these do not meet the exacting standards of more recent surveys, tentative conclusions can be drawn concerning long-term changes in the demography of the disease. Childhood type 1 diabetes was rare but well recognized before the introduction of insulin. Low incidence and prevalence rates were recorded in several countries over the period 1920–1950, and one carefully performed study showed no change in childhood incidence over the period 1925–1955. An almost simultaneous upturn was documented in several countries around the mid-century. The overall pattern since then is one of linear increase, with evidence of a plateau in some high-incidence populations and of a catch-up phenomenon in some low-incidence areas. Steep rises in the age-group under 5 years have been recorded recently. The disease process underlying type 1 diabetes has changed over time and continues to evolve. Understanding why and how this produced the pandemic of childhood diabetes would be an important step toward reversing it. At the start of the 20th century, childhood diabetes was rare and rapidly fatal. By its end, some 3–4 children per 1,000 in Western countries would require insulin treatment by the age of 20 years, and a steady rise in incidence had been reported from many other parts of the world. This increase has been extensively documented over the past two decades, over which time standard means of data collection have been agreed, central registries have been established, and numerous epidemiological stu Continue reading >>

Why Childhood Diabetes Is On The Increase

Why Childhood Diabetes Is On The Increase

by CHARLOTTE HARDING, femail.co.uk Obesity is big news in Britain. Three out of five UK adults are now dangerously overweight. Almost one in ten under-fours are obese. Doctors have been warning for some time that our increasingly sedentary lifestyles are leading us down the slippery slope towards the huge obesity problem that plagues America - and the associated health risks it brings. And in recent weeks some alarming news has confirmed their worst fears. For the first time ever in Britain scientists have discovered Caucasian children suffering from a dangerous form of diabetes. And obesity is to blame. Type two diabetes normally only affects adults over 40. A handful of Afro-Caribbean and Asian children - who are genetically more prone to the illness - had been discovered with the disease in the UK before. But scientists now believe that the latest findings, from the Royal Hospital for Children in Bristol, indicate that hundreds of children all over the country may be secretly suffering from or developing the disease. The side-effects of the illness are serious. It increases the sufferer's chance of heart disease by up to five times, is the leading cause of blindness in the UK and one of the leading causes of kidney failure. To make matters worse, the symptoms of this form of the illness can be quite mild - and children are less likely to recognise them than adults. Diabetes is a condition where the amount of sugar, or glucose, in the blood is too high because the body cannot convert it into energy. A hormone called insulin normally controls the amount of glucose in the blood, but if your body does not produce enough insulin this can send your blood sugar levels sky high. There are two forms of diabetes, type one and type two. Type one normally occurs in young people Continue reading >>

Diabetes Is On The Rise In America's Kids And Experts Don't Know Why

Diabetes Is On The Rise In America's Kids And Experts Don't Know Why

A new study is the first to look at diabetes diagnosis trends in America's youth. Video provided by Newsy Newslook The rate at which America's kids are diagnosed with diabetes is climbing and researchers don't know why. A first-ever study of new diabetes diagnoses of U.S. youth under age 20 found both Types 1 and 2 diabetes surged from 2002-2012. The diagnosis of new cases of Type 2 diabetes, associated with obesity, increased about 5% each year from 2002 to 2012, the study said, while new cases of Type 1, the most common form for young people, went up about 2% every year. The National Institutes of Health, which funded the study along with the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, said the cause of the rise is "unclear." "These findings lead to many more questions," explained Dr. Barbara Linder, senior advisor for childhood diabetes research at NIH's National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases. "The differences among racial and ethnic groups and between genders raise many questions. We need to understand why the increase in rates of diabetes development varies so greatly and is so concentrated in specific racial and ethnic groups." The study, published Friday in the New England Journal of Medicine, showed higher rates of diabetes diagnoses among minorities. Type 2 diabetes, which the CDC stated makes up about 90% to 95% of diagnosed diabetes cases, rose by 8.5% in Asian Americans ages 10-19. Blacks in the same age group saw a 6.3% increase, followed by a 3.1% bump in Hispanics and whites at fewer than a 1% increase. Hispanics saw the biggest rate increase of Type 1 diabetes with a 4.2% increase, followed by blacks at 2.2% and whites at 1.2% In terms of gender, girls and women 10-19 saw a 6.2% increase in Type 2 diabetes, while men and boys of Continue reading >>

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