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Who Invented The First Blood Glucose Meter?

Diabetes1.org - Timeline For Blood Glucose Monitoring, Glucose Meters, Type 1, Type 2, Institute Of Diabetes

Diabetes1.org - Timeline For Blood Glucose Monitoring, Glucose Meters, Type 1, Type 2, Institute Of Diabetes

Ames Company releases Dextrostix, which work by applying a drop of blood onto a strip of paper that would change color according to the patients glucose level. Anton Hubert Clemens received the first patent for a blood glucose meter called the Ames Reflectance Meter on September 14, 1971. This meter was able to interpret Dextrostix more accurately by interpreting the light reflected by a color on the Dextrostix into a readable number. First home literature on diabetic blood glucose becomes available The Glucometer, made by Bayer, becomes the first home Glucose Monitoring device. The FDA, CDC, and American Diabetes Association convene to discuss Self Monitoring of Blood Glucose. They find that Self-Monitoring is a key tool in diabetes treatment, allowing patients to track their glucose levels over time, monitor their daily glucose levels, and to recognize emergency situations. The medical industry begins to produce lower cost home glucose meters, allowing more patients better access to care. National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases publishes study which shows that patients who self-monitored their glucose reduced chances for complications by 76% for eye disease, 50% for kidney disease, and 60% for nerve disease. The race to find a non-invasive continuous glucose monitoring system heats up as one company claims to have invented such a device. It is later found that their glucose monitor often causes skin irritation, and thus cannot truly be called non-invasive. The first continuous glucose monitoring via a device implanted under the skin is released. Continue reading >>

The Advent Of Do-it-yourself Blood Glucose Monitoring

The Advent Of Do-it-yourself Blood Glucose Monitoring

Innovations in Participatory Medicine: The Advent of Do-It-Yourself Blood Glucose Monitoring The American Diabetes Association (ADA) currently recommends that people injecting insulin for diabetes test their blood sugar three or more times a day.[ 1 ] The notion that self-monitoring is instrumental in controlling blood glucose is now well understood.[ 2 ] But this was not always the case. Prior to widespread use of insulin from the 1930s, people with type 1 diabetes were treated with a regimen of semi-starvation.[ 3 ] Even when insulin injections became a widespread treatment, people did not know their actual blood glucose levels, making injections more dangerous and the incidence of hypo- and hyperglycemic episodes common. The advent of blood glucose self-monitoring is a representative case study in participatory medicine. It illustrates how technological developments and patient advocacy combined to produce a treatment breakthrough that represented a major improvement in the life expectancy and quality of life for the millions of people living with insulin-dependent diabetes.[ 4 ] It is a story of innovations in monitoring technology and the efforts of one particularly determined patient to gain access to this technology and realize its potential, going on to advocate for widespread access to it for patients. Prior to the invention of the blood glucose monitor, it was impossible to measure anything less than very high blood sugars. In ancient China, diabetes was recognized after people observed that ants would gather around the urine of those affected because it was sweet. In 1776, the sweetness was definitely identified as sugar.[ 5 ] Although Frederick Banting and Charles Best discovered insulin in 1935, and patients were able to inject insulin to lower their blood Continue reading >>

How The Glucometer Came To Be Invented | My Blood Sugar Test

How The Glucometer Came To Be Invented | My Blood Sugar Test

Control Your Blood Sugar, Before It CONTROLS You! A glucose meter (or glucometer) is a medical device for measuring the approximate concentration of glucose in the blood. A strip of glucose paper dipped into a substance and measured to the glucose chart could also be considered a glucose meter. The first blood glucose monitor was an Ames Reflectance Meter, invented by Anton Hubert (Tom) Clemens with the patent issued on September 14, 1971. In 1965 Ames introduced a product called Dextrostix, a paper strip to which a drop of blood was added, timed for 1 minute and washed off. A blue color that developed on the strip was compared to a color chart to give an approximate blood glucose level. But to most people this strip was difficult to read and was used primarily in Doctors offices which was their primary design purpose. Realising that Dextrostix were difficult to use, in 1970 a scientist named Anton H Clemens developed a reflectance meter, a light meter that was able to read reflected light. The Dextrostix were still used and a beam of light was directed at the blue strip, the result being the darker the blue the less light that would be reflected. This reflected light was transferred to a photoelectric cell which gave a read out which in the case of the Ames Reflectance Meter was a meter with a swinging needle. The meter was able to read the minor changes in the lightness and darkness of the of the blue color on the strip therefore giving a reading with a certain degree of accuracy. So with the Dexostrix being out in the marketplace for approximately 5 years, now someone had invented an instrument that was able to read them. Since the early days of the first blood glucose meter back in 1971 when the only offering was the Ames Reflectance Meter (which resembled the size Continue reading >>

The History And Future Of Blood Glucose Monitoring

The History And Future Of Blood Glucose Monitoring

Looking back It wasn’t that long ago that home blood glucose monitoring wasn’t possible for people with diabetes. The first forays into potential home meters began in the late ’60s and early ’70s, but these machines were very complex beasts that required multistep sequences to obtain a reading that only yielded a very approximate range. In the case of the first “Ames” meter, the user had to match a strip to a color chart, but only after applying a droplet of blood, waiting a precise 50 seconds, then washing off the blood droplet with warm water. There was also a multistep process for preparing the strip before that droplet of blood was applied. A later model replaced the color chart with a needle that would indicate a more accurate range, but it was still not something most people used at home. The first easy-to-use home glucose meters really didn’t arrive on the scene until around 1981 with the Glucometer and a few others. These meters used the same basic process we still use today, in which blood is exposed to an enzyme (the two main types being glucose oxidase and glucose dehydrogenase — the latter being a little more accurate but also more prone to interfering reactions with other substances). Once the blood is exposed to this enzyme, it oxidizes (loses electrons), and it is then passed through an electrode, which reads the current, which is proportional to the amount of oxidized glucose. The more glucose is in the blood sample, the higher the oxidation will be, causing a higher current, and hence a higher number. This is where coding comes into play — something I talked about in last week’s blog entry. Over the years, the instruments have become better and better, and the ability to control the consistency of the enzymes in the test strips has g Continue reading >>

Us8357107b2 - Blood Glucose Meter Having Integral Lancet Device And Test Strip Storage Vial For Single Handed Use And Methods For Using Same - Google Patents

Us8357107b2 - Blood Glucose Meter Having Integral Lancet Device And Test Strip Storage Vial For Single Handed Use And Methods For Using Same - Google Patents

US8357107B2 - Blood glucose meter having integral lancet device and test strip storage vial for single handed use and methods for using same - Google Patents Blood glucose meter having integral lancet device and test strip storage vial for single handed use and methods for using same US8357107B2 US11980651 US98065107A US8357107B2 US 8357107 B2 US8357107 B2 US 8357107B2 US 11980651 US11980651 US 11980651 US 98065107 A US98065107 A US 98065107A US 8357107 B2 US8357107 B2 US 8357107B2 Legal status (The legal status is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the status listed.) Current Assignee (The listed assignees may be inaccurate. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation or warranty as to the accuracy of the list.) Priority date (The priority date is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the date listed.) A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE A61B5/00Detecting, measuring or recording for diagnostic purposes; Identification of persons A61B5/145Measuring characteristics of blood in vivo, e.g. gas concentration, pH value; Measuring characteristics of body fluids or tissues, e.g. interstitial fluid, cerebral tissue A61B5/14532Measuring characteristics of blood in vivo, e.g. gas concentration, pH value; Measuring characteristics of body fluids or tissues, e.g. interstitial fluid, cerebral tissue for measuring glucose, e.g. by tissue impedance measurement A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE A61B5/00Detecting, measuring or recording for diagnostic purposes; Identification of persons A61B5/15Devices for taking samples of blood A61B5/150022Source

Fda Approves First-ever Blood Sugar Monitor That Doesn't Require A Fingerstick

Fda Approves First-ever Blood Sugar Monitor That Doesn't Require A Fingerstick

In a milestone for Americans with diabetes, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has cleared the first-ever continuous blood sugar monitoring device that doesn’t require patients to take potentially painful and invasive blood tests that require pricking their fingertips to collect samples. The approval was granted to Abbott Diabetes Care, Inc. The device, Abbott’s FreeStyle Libre Flash Glucose Monitoring System, is approved for adult diabetes patients 18 years of age and older, and the approval sent Abbott stock up 3.5% in Thursday trading. It slashes the need for the so-called fingerstick tests that people with diabetes regularly endure to figure out whether their blood sugar levels are too high or too low, and to monitor general fluctuation in blood glucose so they can adjust their diets or medication. The device itself uses an under-the-skin sensor wire which keeps tabs on sugar levels. In order to get a gauge on where those glucose levels are at, users simply have to wave an accompanying, specialized mobile reader device over the sensor like a wand. “The FDA is always interested in new technologies that can help make the care of people living with chronic conditions, such as diabetes, easier and more manageable,” said the FDA’s Donald St. Pierre in a statement. “This system allows people with diabetes to avoid the additional step of fingerstick calibration, which can sometimes be painful, but still provides necessary information for treating their diabetes—with a wave of the mobile reader.” Medical device and tech companies alike have shown growing interest in diabetes management and monitoring devices. Last year, the FDA approved an artificial pancreas from device giant Medtronic to treat people with type 1 diabetes with a largely automated glucos Continue reading >>

Diabetes Before Glucose Meters: Not So Long Ago

Diabetes Before Glucose Meters: Not So Long Ago

and by Susan Pierce, MPT, CDE I am truly honored to interview one of my most treasured friends and colleagues, Susan Pierce, MPT, CDE, who has worked with me since 2002. Q. You were diagnosed with type 1 diabetes at age 10 in 1981. Your dad was a doctor and your mom was a dietician. Was it harder for you or your parents to accept your diabetes? A. Initially, they were probably more in shock than I was because they worked in healthcare and knew the ravages of uncontrolled diabetes. I didn’t know anything about the disease, so when the pediatrician gave us the diagnosis, I thought, “How long do I have until I die?” Once I stayed in the hospital for a few days and learned how to take my own injections, I thought I knew what it took to keep my sugars stable, so I faced this disease head on, whether I was ready or not. Over the years, my parents and I, both, experienced a great deal of denial. I tried to do the best I could, but the tools that were available at the time were not the best. The only testing available to approximate glucose was urine testing. NPH and Regular insulin were the only insulin options that I had and these were clearly insufficient for managing blood sugars, so I quickly stopped trying, rather than face failure day after day. For me, better sugars didn’t become a real possibility until Humalog became available for me to use in 1997. Q. We see adolescents and teenagers with type 1 in our practice who are pretty angry about having diabetes. I remember one teenager who threw his pump in the toilet. Did you find that there was a point of diabetes overload when you couldn’t bear to hear anything else about your diabetes? A. Absolutely, but I seem to have tried not to remember so many of the difficult times. When I was in high school, I clearly di Continue reading >>

A Brief History Of Diabetes Part 2

A Brief History Of Diabetes Part 2

This is a continuation of A Brief History of Diabetes In the 1957, research seemed to gain momentum as the first urine paper testing was invented. Measuring the flaws in urine samples Physicians began pointing to blood samples as a more accurate way to measure blood sugar. Finally in 1965 Ernie Adams led a team from the Ames Research Team developed the first blood glucose test strip which were called Dextrostix. The Dextrostix was a step in the right direction yet it required a large blood sample (50-100 uL) and took an hour from start to finish. The physician would place the blood sample on the Dextrostix test strip and after a minute, he/she would gently wash the blood away. After an hour, the physician would then be able to determine the blood glucose value by a pre-determined color chart in which was difficult to decipher. In correlation to the Dextrostix, a German company named Boehringer Manheim began distributing their test strips named the Chemstrip bG. This was a better alternative to the Dextrostix due to an improved color chart for the physician to determine the glucose level. In addition to the color chart improvement, the wiping of the blood sample was improved by being able to use a cotton ball to remove the blood from the strip. In 1974, Boehringer Manheim introduced the Reflomat, a meter that used a reagent strip which required a smaller blood sample (20-30 uL) yet still larger by todays standard. The Reflomat still used the wiping process and improved the reading by allowing the machine to do the diagnostics rather than the color test which greatly improved results. Around the mid to late 1970s is when talks and discussions began about at-home testing and in 1980 the Dextrometer was the first at home blood glucose meter. The Dextrometer had a digital d Continue reading >>

The Smallest Meter In Its Class

The Smallest Meter In Its Class

David Mendosa / @davidmendosa , Patient Expert The smallest blood glucose meter can make the biggest splash. That was part of the strategy that the French multinational pharmaceutical company followed when it jumped into the U.S. meter market. Sanofi s headquarters are in Paris, and it is the third largest pharma company in the world. Its Lantus is the worlds number one selling insulin. But it hadnt made blood glucose meters before. **The U.S. Food and Drug Administration approved this outstanding new meter, called the iBGStar , in December. And just this month you can buy one. When Sanofi decided to broaden its outreach to Americans who have diabetes it did something both smart and unusual. It forged an international partnership with two other top companies, one on Americas East Coast and another in Asia. Sanofi itself is handling the sales and marketing of the iBGStar. But it turned to one of the best meter companies to design, develop, and manufacture the iBGStar. AgaMatrix in Salem, New Hampshire, "invented" the iBGStar, according to the companys website . Earlier, AgaMatrix invented some of the most accurate blood glucose meters that I have ever reviewed, including the WaveSense Jazz, which I wrote about here four years ago in " The Ultimate Meter ." The new iBGStar builds on the accuracy technology that AgaMatrix has developed over the years. The test strips come from i-SENS , Koreas leader in blood glucose technology. In November 2010 I had the good fortune to visit the immaculate factory where they make blood glucose test strips and wrote about it at that time in " At Work in Korea ." On Americas West Coast a fourth company also plays a big role in making this meter possible. That company is new to diabetes, but is the largest publicly traded company in the wor Continue reading >>

The History Of Diabetes

The History Of Diabetes

For 2,000 years diabetes has been recognized as a devastating and deadly disease. In the first century A.D. a Greek, Aretaeus, described the destructive nature of the affliction which he named “diabetes” from the Greek word for “siphon.” Eugene J. Leopold in his text Aretaeus the Cappodacian describes Aretaeus’ diagnosis: “…For fluids do not remain in the body, but use the body only as a channel through which they may flow out. Life lasts only for a time, but not very long. For they urinate with pain and painful is the emaciation. For no essential part of the drink is absorbed by the body while great masses of the flesh are liquefied into urine.” Physicians in ancient times, like Aretaeus, recognized the symptoms of diabetes but were powerless to effectively treat it. Aretaeus recommended oil of roses, dates, raw quinces, and gruel. And as late as the 17th century, doctors prescribed “gelly of viper’s flesh, broken red coral, sweet almonds, and fresh flowers of blind nettles.” Early Discoveries-Human Guinea Pigs In the 17th century a London physician, Dr. Thomas Willis, determined whether his patients had diabetes or not by sampling their urine. If it had a sweet taste he would diagnose them with diabetes mellitus- “honeyed” diabetes. This method of monitoring blood sugars went largely unchanged until the 20th century. Despite physicians’ valiant efforts to combat diabetes, their patients remained little more than human guinea pigs. In the early 20th century, diabetologists such as Dr. Frederick Allen prescribed low calorie diets-as little as 450 calories per day for his patients. His diet prolonged the life of people with diabetes but kept them weak and suffering from near starvation. In effect, the most a person afflicted with diabetes coul Continue reading >>

The Evolution Of T1d Technology

The Evolution Of T1d Technology

WRITTEN BY: Alexi Melvin Considering how quickly Type 1 diabetes technology has been advancing over the recent years, it is very easy to get comfortable with those tools available to us today. There isn’t much of a reason to think back on how it was in the early days of T1D management, but wouldn’t it be fun? Let’s pay homage to where all of our gadgets got their start – how they were born – who their ancestors were, if you will. Looking back can only give us more to look forward to. So let’s do some comparisons: T1D “firsts” vs. Now! The first blood glucose meter was invented in 1971 by Anton Hubert Clemens. The meter was able to give an approximate BG number by reading reflecting light from a test strip (Dextrostix) that would produce a color after applying a drop of blood. The meter itself would indicate the number with a swinging needle mechanism. These machines were only available in doctors’ offices and hospitals. NOW Blood sugar meters available to us today are small, easy to use, and give us an accurate reading within seconds, with so many models to choose from depending on preference and insurance. Some even come in snazzy colors! The first insulin pen was simply referred to as a “painless diabetes syringe,” invented by Swedish manufacturer Helinos, and sold from 1954 to 1986. NOW Today, we can choose from many different insulin pen options, both fast acting and long acting, i.e.: NovoLog, Humalog, Lantus, and Levemir. All pens are very small and easy to use! We can choose between using disposable pens or changing the cartridges. Most pens can dial up by unit and/or half unit increments. The first insulin pump, invented in 1974, was called the Biostator. It was approximately the size of a microwave oven, and it was able to measure blood gl Continue reading >>

Glucose Sensor - Openwetware

Glucose Sensor - Openwetware

Glucose sensors have been in use since the 1960's in order to test the blood glucose levels in patients with diabetes mellitus, which is the most popular endocrine disorder of carbohydrate metabolism. Globally, the disease is a dominant source of mortality, especially in most of the developed countries. Cited by WHO (The World Health Organization), 171 million of people around the world had diabietes and predicted to reach 366 million by 2030. A published research announced the number of 6.4% of adults among 20-76 years old affected by diabetes in 2010, that is 285 million individuals. And this statistic will boost to 7.7%, that is 439 million by 2030. Inactive lifestyle mixed with unpleasant eating routine and the rising cases of obesity is determined to be the primary explanation for such upsurge. Diabetes patients who require insulin, that being all patients with Type 1 diabetes and many with Type 2, need to closely monitor their blood glucose levels to prevent them from going into either hyperglycemia (blood sugar too high) or hypoglymecia (too low). Type 1 diabetics have a defect in their pancreas that causes the pancreas to stop producing insulin, which makes insulin injections a must for Type 1 diabetics. Because of the complete lack of insulin created by their body, Type 1 diabetics will often have to test their blood glucose levels over ten times a day. On the other hand Type 2 diabetics produce insulin but it is often inefficient because of insulin resistance or some other deficiency. As their bodies actually do produce some insulin they do not have to check their blood glucose levels as often, only having to use a glucose sensor between one and four times a day. The two types of glucose sensors that are currently in use today are the blood glucose meter, whi Continue reading >>

The Fda Has Approved A Blood Sugar Monitor That Doesn’t Require A Finger Prick

The Fda Has Approved A Blood Sugar Monitor That Doesn’t Require A Finger Prick

Further proof the U.S. Food and Drug Administration has been warming up to modern technology — it has just approved the first continuous blood sugar monitor that doesn’t require the user to prick themselves over and over for a blood sample. Today, the FDA cleared Abbot’s FreeStyle Libre Flash Glucose Monitoring System, a device that uses a small sensor wire inserted under the skin to determine glucose levels in adult diabetics. Another wand-like device is then waved over the sensor to measure and give a readout of those glucose levels. This is a milestone move for the FDA as diabetes affects nearly 30 million people in the United States who currently have to test their blood sugar by pricking themselves several times throughout the day and every time they eat. However, the idea for a prickless blood sugar monitor isn’t new. Tech companies have increasingly shown an interest in the massive diabetics market over the past few years. Apple is rumored to be working on such a device and its CEO Tim Cook has even been spotted wearing a possible prototype that could connect to the Apple Watch. Other companies endeavor to build something similar, including Glucowise, which has a device still under development. However, it seems it’s not so easy to create a needleless blood sugar detector. Google tried to build a contact lens that could detect glucose but it seems the project has gone nowhere since drug company Novartis licensed the tech in 2014. Another FDA-approved device for glucose monitoring without the prick called the GlucoWatch was approved in the early 2000’s, but consumers found it cumbersome and it happened to cause a bad rash in some. But there’s new hope today that the Freestyle monitor has worked out all the kinks. The device is intended for those 18 a Continue reading >>

Inventor Eased Diabetes Burden

Inventor Eased Diabetes Burden

Stanley Clark was an electronics engineer and inventor who won praise from the medical profession in Australia for improving the quality of life for thousands of diabetics - particularly children - through his development of the first portable battery-operated blood-glucose monitor. The machine allowed people with diabetes to monitor their own sugar levels rather than having to go to a hospital. According to Dr Martin Silink, the then head of the endocrinology department at the Royal Alexandra Hospital for Children, the machine helped keep children out of hospital and increased diabetics' feeling of well-being and security at work, school and play. Good cause ... engineer Stanley Clark's machine was revolutionary in the field of diabetes. Clark was recognised for his successful invention with many awards, including the Order of Australia Medal for his distinguished service to diabetes, in 2001; the inaugural Diabetes Australia (National) Award in 1997; featured in the television program What'll They Think of Next; the Diabetes Australia-NSW Diamond Jubilee Award; Inventor of the Year 1978; the Australian Small Business Award 1981; and a bronze medal at the ninth international inventors' convention in Geneva in 1980. He was also acclaimed in two international publications - Great Minds of the 21st Century, published in the US, and the prestigious British Dictionary of International Biography. Stanley Clark was born in Sheffield, England, on April 16, 1934, the son of Charles Clark, an electrical and mechanical engineer, and his wife, Lily. Following his tertiary education, Stanley did postwar national service with the Royal Air Force and was posted to Berlin in 1953-54 as part of the Allied peacekeeping forces. After discharge, he quickly embraced the world of electroni Continue reading >>

Glucose Meter

Glucose Meter

Four generations of blood glucose meter, c. 1993–2005. Sample sizes vary from 30 to 0.3 μl. Test times vary from 5 seconds to 2 minutes (modern meters typically provide results in 5 seconds). A glucose meter is a medical device for determining the approximate concentration of glucose in the blood. It can also be a strip of glucose paper dipped into a substance and measured to the glucose chart. It is a key element of home blood glucose monitoring (HBGM) by people with diabetes mellitus or hypoglycemia. A small drop of blood, obtained by pricking the skin with a lancet, is placed on a disposable test strip that the meter reads and uses to calculate the blood glucose level. The meter then displays the level in units of mg/dl or mmol/l. Since approximately 1980, a primary goal of the management of type 1 diabetes and type 2 diabetes mellitus has been achieving closer-to-normal levels of glucose in the blood for as much of the time as possible, guided by HBGM several times a day. The benefits include a reduction in the occurrence rate and severity of long-term complications from hyperglycemia as well as a reduction in the short-term, potentially life-threatening complications of hypoglycemia. History[edit] Leland Clark presented his first paper about the oxygen electrode, later named the Clark electrode, on 15 April 1956, at a meeting of the American Society for Artificial Organs during the annual meetings of the Federated Societies for Experimental Biology.[1][2] In 1962, Clark and Ann Lyons from the Cincinnati Children’s Hospital developed the first glucose enzyme electrode. This biosensor was based on a thin layer of glucose oxidase (GOx) on an oxygen electrode. Thus, the readout was the amount of oxygen consumed by GOx during the enzymatic reaction with the substra Continue reading >>

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