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Which Type Of Medicine Is Given To The Patients Suffering From Diabetes?

Oral Medicines For Diabetes

Oral Medicines For Diabetes

What medicines could my doctor prescribe? Six kinds of diabetes medicine are available in pill form: metformin (a biguanide), sulfonylureas, thiazolidinediones, meglitinides, biguanides, thiazolidinediones, alpha-glucosidase inhibitors and dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors. Each medicine has good points and bad points. Your doctor will decide which medicine is right for you. Metformin is a type of biguanide and it is currently the only biguanide available in the United States. It is often the first oral medicine prescribed for someone newly diagnosed with diabetes. It has the advantage of not causing low blood sugar. Metformin does not cause your pancreas to make insulin, but it helps your body use insulin better. Metformin can cause side effects such as nausea or diarrhea in some people. Your doctor may prescribe metformin in combination with another oral diabetes medicine. Sulfonylureas Sulfonylureas are the most commonly prescribed diabetes medicines. These medicines help your pancreas make insulin. They are inexpensive and have few side effects. There are 3 types of sulfonyureas: glipizide, glimepiride and glyburide. Side effects may include weight gain and low level of sodium in the blood. Sulfonylureas can be taken alone or with metformin, pioglitazone (a thiazolidinedione) or insulin. If you’re allergic to sulfa, you can’t take a sulfonylurea. This class of medicines includes rosiglitazone and pioglitazone. These medicines help your body respond better to insulin. Rosiglitazone and pioglitazone can be used alone or in combination with other diabetes medicines. Side effects may include weight gain, fluid retention and an increase in LDL (“bad”) cholesterol. People taking rosiglitazone and pioglitazone also need periodic liver tests. Continue reading >>

Diabetes Mellitus Treatment

Diabetes Mellitus Treatment

In patients diagnosed with diabetes mellitus (DM), the therapeutic focus is on preventing complications caused by hyperglycemia. In the United States, 57.9% of patients with diabetes have one or more diabetes-related complications and 14.3% have three or more.[1] Strict control of glycemia within the established recommended values is the primary method for reducing the development and progression of many complications associated with microvascular effects of diabetes (eg, retinopathy, nephropathy, and neuropathy), while aggressive treatment of dyslipidemia and hypertension further decreases the cardiovascular complications associated macrovascular effects.[2-4] See the chapter on diabetes: Macro- and microvascular effects. Glycemic Control Two primary techniques are available to assess a patient's glycemic control: Self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) and interval measurement of hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c). Self-Monitoring of Blood Glucose Use of SMBG is an effective method to evaluate short-term glycemic control. It helps patients and physicians assess the effects of food, medications, stress, and activity on blood glucose levels. For patients with type 1 DM or insulin-dependent type 2 DM, clinical trials have demonstrated that SMBG plays a role in effective glycemic control because it helps to refine and adjust insulin doses by monitoring for and preventing asymptomatic hypoglycemia as well as preprandial and postprandial hyperglycemia.[2,5-7] The frequency of SMBG depends on the type of medical therapy, risk for hypoglycemia, and need for short-term adjustment of therapy. The current American Diabetes Association (ADA) guidelines recommend that patients with diabetes self-monitor their glucose at least three times per day.[8] Those who use basal-bolus regimens should s Continue reading >>

Medication Management

Medication Management

The more you know, the better youll feel. However, if you have type 2 diabetes, treatment plans can change depending on who you are. Some people can manage it with healthy eating and exercise, or with oral medications, while others may also need to use insulin. Its common for your medication needs to change over time. And thats a good thing. The most important thing is to get to feeling your best. There are many different types of drugs that can work in different ways to lower your blood sugar. Sometimes one medication will be enough, but in other cases, your doctor may prescribe a combination of medications. Talking to your doctor to understand what is being prescribed and how it works can be helpful. And keeping an open mind helps, too. If youre just starting out with insulin, it can take a little getting used to. With a little practice, youll be a pro in no time. Insulin is a naturally occurring hormone secreted by your pancreas.If you are prescribed insulin, it may be because your body doesnt produceit (type 1 diabetes) or your body doesnt useitproperly (type 2 diabetes). There are many different types of insulin sold in the United States, which differ in how theyre made, how they work in the body, and how much they cost. Its also available in different strengthsmost commonly, U-100. Your doctor will help you find the right type of insulin for yourhealth needs. When it comes to syringes, your doctor will advise on which capacity you need based on your insulin dose. In general, smaller capacity syringes can be easier to read and draw an accurate dose. Here are some tips: If your largest dose is close to the syringe's maximum capacity, consider buying the next size up in case your dosage changes If you need to measure doses in half units, be sure to choose a syringe Continue reading >>

Medicines For Diabetes

Medicines For Diabetes

If you have diabetes, taking medicines is a major part of staying healthy because they help keep your blood sugar levels under control. Having blood sugar that's out of control can make you feel awful and can damage your body over the years. Whether you have type 1 or type 2 diabetes, it's important to know what medicine to take, when to take it, and how much to take. Insulin is a hormone that lets sugar, or glucose, get into the body's cells where it can be used for energy. All people with type 1 diabetes and many people with type 2 diabetes need to take insulin every day. The overall goal of treatment with insulin (and other diabetes medicines) is to match the amount of insulin given with the amount of insulin a person needs throughout the day and night. Doing this means that blood sugar levels can be kept as close to normal as possible, which helps a person avoid both short- and long-term problems from diabetes. The types of insulin you use and how much you need to take each day depends on your diabetes management plan. Some people with diabetes need to take two injections each day. Others may need several injections or an insulin pump to keep blood sugar levels under control. Your doctor will help you decide what's best for you. There are a few different kinds of insulin. They differ from one another based on: when they work their hardest to lower blood sugar The table below outlines the types of insulin and how they work. The time it takes for insulin to work, when it peaks, and how long it lasts is different from person to person, and even from day to day as the way a person's body reacts to insulin may change. After a while, you'll get to know how insulin works in your body. Works to control glucose between meals and during the night. Looks cloudy or clear and c Continue reading >>

Diabetes Treatment

Diabetes Treatment

Treatment of diabetes depends on which type of diabetes a patient has, either type 1 diabetes or type 2 diabetes. Type 1 diabetes occurs when the body does not produce insulin, so replacement insulin must be delivered by injection, pump, or inhalation. People who have type 1 diabetes need to carefully plan and follow meals, timing of meals, and activity to keep their blood glucose (sugar) in check. It's important to measure blood sugar levels as low blood sugar can be dangerous, too. Type 2 diabetes occurs when either the body makes too little insulin or the cells do not respond to insulin that is produced ("insulin resistance"). Patients with type 2 diabetes or prediabetes may be able to control their blood sugar levels by following a diet, exercise program and losing excess weight. If this first-line treatment does not control blood sugar levels effectively, an oral medication, often metformin first with other medications if needed, can be added to the treatment plan. Patients with type 2 diabetes may also need injected insulin, and in some circumstances it may be used as the first medication. Patients and/or family members must learn to inject insulin if it is prescribed. In addition, patients with diabetes must learn to check and follow their blood sugar levels. In addition to medications to control glucose, many patients with diabetes also need to take medicines to lower their blood pressure and cholesterol levels. When diet and exercise aren't satisfactory, weight loss medications such as Belviq, Contrave, Xenical, or Qsymia can also be used to help with the management of obesity. Statins, such as atorvastatin (Lipitor), rosuvastatin (Crestor), or pravastatin (Pravachol) are typically first-line prescription treatment for high cholesterol, also along with diet and Continue reading >>

Management Of Diabetes Mellitus In Patients With Chronic Kidney Disease

Management Of Diabetes Mellitus In Patients With Chronic Kidney Disease

Abstract Glycemic control is essential to delay or prevent the onset of diabetic kidney disease. There are a number of glucose-lowering medications available but only a fraction of them can be used safely in chronic kidney disease and many of them need an adjustment in dosing. The ideal target hemoglobin A1c is approximately 7 % but this target is adjusted based on the needs of the patient. Diabetes control should be optimized for each individual patient, with measures to reduce diabetes-related complications and minimize adverse events. Overall care of diabetes necessitates attention to multiple aspects, including reducing the risk of cardiovascular disease, and often, multidisciplinary care is needed. Introduction Diabetes mellitus is a growing epidemic and is the most common cause of chronic kidney disease (CKD) and kidney failure. Diabetic nephropathy affects approximately 20–40 % of individuals who have diabetes [1], making it one of the most common complications related to diabetes. Screening for diabetic nephropathy along with early intervention is fundamental to delaying its progression in conjunction with providing proper glycemic control. Given the growing population that is now affected by diabetes and thus, nephropathy, knowledge regarding the safe use of various anti-hyperglycemic agents in those with nephropathy is of importance. In addition, attention to modification of cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors is essential. Altogether, knowledge regarding the prevention and management of diabetic nephropathy, along with other aspects of diabetes care, is part of the comprehensive care of any patient with diabetes. Review Recommendations for nephropathy screening in diabetes Patients with diabetes should be screened on an annual basis for nephropathy. I Continue reading >>

New Erectile Dysfunction Drug Approved

New Erectile Dysfunction Drug Approved

On April 27, pharmaceutical manufacturer Vivus announced the approval of its erectile dysfunction (ED) drug, Stendra (generic name avanafil) by the US Food and Drug Administration. It is the first ED medicine to be approved in over a decade, joining Viagra (sildenafil), Cialis (tadalafil), and Levitra (vardenafil) in the drug class known as phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors, or PDE5 inhibitors. Roughly 30 million men in the United States are affected by erectile dysfunction, and according to at least one estimate, over 50% of men will develop ED within 10 years of developing diabetes. The body produces a chemical called cGMP during sexual stimulation, which causes the blood vessels in the penis to dilate, resulting in an erection. cGMP is broken down by an enzyme known as phosphodiesterase-5 (PDE5). PDE5 inhibitors work by blocking the action of this enzyme, causing levels of cGMP to increase and leading to a better erection. The safety and effectiveness of Stendra was established through three double-blind, placebo-controlled trials that involved a total of 1,267 people assigned to take Stendra for as long as 12 weeks. The medicine — which may be an option for men who do not respond to Viagra, Cialis, or Levitra — will be available in 50-milligram, 100-milligram, and 200-milligram doses and should be taken 30 minutes before sexual activity at the lowest dose necessary to be effective. According to the drug maker, Stendra may work faster for some men than other medicines in its class, potentially becoming effective in as little as 15 minutes. The medicine should not be taken more than once per day. “This approval expands the available treatment options to men experiencing erectile dysfunction, and enables patients, in consultation with their doctor, to choose th Continue reading >>

Type 2 Diabetes Treatments

Type 2 Diabetes Treatments

You have lots of options to manage diabetes. Diet, exercise, and medication work together to bring your blood sugar under control. Your doctor will help you figure out if you need to take medicine, which kind is right for you, and how often you should take it. Over your lifetime, you'll probably handle your disease in different ways. Sometimes medications stop working, and you'll have to switch. You'll need to adjust to changes in your body as you age. And researchers are looking for new diabetes medicines and ways to treat it. Check Your Blood Sugar Your blood glucose number tells you how well your treatment is working. Your doctor will let you know how many times a day you need to check it. It depends on what diabetes medications you're taking. When you're sick, you'll have to check your ketones, too. Diet and Exercise There's no one-size-fits-all diabetes diet. You'll need to pay attention to carbs, fiber, fat, and salt to manage your blood sugar and avoid complications of diabetes. How much and when you eat are important, too. Talk to your diabetes team or a registered dietitian to help you plan your meals and snacks. Physical activity -- from working out to doing chores -- lowers your blood sugar. It helps your cells use insulin. It also helps your muscles use glucose. Make sure you check your blood sugar before and after exercise. Eating right and being active help you lose extra pounds and stay at a healthy weight. That will also help control your blood sugar. Pills Oral medications are often the first kind of medicine people with type 2 diabetes try when diet and exercise alone aren't enough to keep their blood sugar in a healthy range. There are many of them, and they work in different ways. A drug doctors often prescribe tells your liver to hang on to some of Continue reading >>

Preventing Diabetic Kidney Disease: 10 Answers To Questions

Preventing Diabetic Kidney Disease: 10 Answers To Questions

Diabetic kidney disease is a decrease in kidney function that occurs in some people who have diabetes. It means that your kidneys are not doing their job as well as they once did to remove waste products and excess fluid from your body. These wastes can build up in your body and cause damage to other organs. What causes it? The causes of diabetic kidney disease are complex and most likely related to many factors. Some experts feel that changes in the circulation of blood within the filtering apparatus of the kidney (the glomerulus) may play an important role. Are some people more likely to get diabetic kidney disease? Yes. The following risk factors have been linked to increased risk of developing this disease: high blood pressure, poor glucose (sugar) control, inherited tendency and diet. I have diabetes. How do I know if my kidneys are affected? In the early stages, there may not be any symptoms. As kidney function decreases further, toxic wastes build up, and patients often feel sick to their stomachs and throw up, lose their appetites, have hiccups and gain weight due to fluid retention. If left untreated, patients can develop heart failure and fluid in their lungs. Are there tests that can be done to tell if I have kidney disease? Yes. The diagnosis is based on the presence of abnormal amounts of protein in the urine. A wide variety of tests can be done to tell if a person has kidney disease. The most widely used are serum creatinine and BUN (blood urea nitrogen). These are not very sensitive tests because they do not begin to change until the patient develops more severe disease. Other more sensitive tests are: creatinine clearance, glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and urine albumin. In patients with Type I (juvenile-onset or insulin-dependent) diabetes, a diagnos Continue reading >>

Diabetes Medicines

Diabetes Medicines

Diabetes means your blood glucose, or blood sugar, levels are too high. If you can't control your diabetes with wise food choices and physical activity, you may need diabetes medicines. The kind of medicine you take depends on your type of diabetes, your schedule, and your other health conditions. With type 1 diabetes, your pancreas does not make insulin. Insulin is a hormone that helps glucose get into your cells to give them energy. Without insulin, too much glucose stays in your blood. If you have type 1 diabetes, you will need to take insulin. Type 2 diabetes, the most common type, can start when the body doesn't use insulin as it should. If your body can't keep up with the need for insulin, you may need to take pills. Along with meal planning and physical activity, diabetes pills help people with type 2 diabetes or gestational diabetes keep their blood glucose levels on target. Several kinds of pills are available. Each works in a different way. Many people take two or three kinds of pills. Some people take combination pills. Combination pills contain two kinds of diabetes medicine in one tablet. Some people take pills and insulin. NIH: National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases Continue reading >>

Diabetes Medications

Diabetes Medications

While making lifestyle changes can go a long way in managing diabetes, as well as related conditions such as high blood pressure and high cholesterol , your doctor may prescribe medications depending on your health needs. Your diabetes treatment plan may include insulin, oral diabetes medication or a combination approach, as determined by your doctor. In some cases, patients may require multiple-drug therapy if they have additional cardiovascular risk factors with diabetes . Adherence to your medication plan is very important. The pancreas normally secretes a hormone called insulin, which helps the body's cells take in glucose from the blood to use it for energy. When functioning as it should, the pancreas produces the ideal amount of insulin. In people with type 1 diabetes, the pancreas doesn't produce insulin. People with type 2 diabetes produce insulin, but their bodies do not use it properly. Over time peoplewith type 2 diabetes may produce less insulin as well. Insulin may be prescribed for both types of diabetes to help regulate blood glucose so the body can work properly. There are many types of insulin on the market, all of which must be injected into the fat under the skin in order for it to reach the bloodstream. (Insulin is not currently available in pill form because it would be broken down during the digestive process.) Injections can be done using a: Syringe: A needle connected to a hollow tube that holds the insulin and a plunger that pushes the insulin down into and through the needle Insulin pen: A device that looks like a pen and holds insulin but has a needle for its tip Insulin pump: A small machine (worn on a belt or kept in a pocket) that holds insulin, pumps it through a small plastic tube and through a tiny needle inserted under the skin where i Continue reading >>

What Are My Options?

What Are My Options?

If your deductible reset on January 1, there are new programs to help you afford your insulin prescription| Learn more There are different types, or classes, of drugs that work in different ways to lowerblood sugar(also known as bloodsugar) levels: Acarbose (Precose) and miglitol (Glyset) are alpha-glucosidase inhibitors. These drugs help the body to lower blood sugar levels by blocking the breakdown of starches, such as bread, potatoes, and pasta in the intestine. They also slow the breakdown of some sugars, such as table sugar. Their action slows the rise in blood sugar levels after a meal. They should be taken with the first bite of a meal. These drugs may have side effects, including gas and diarrhea. Metformin (Glucophage) is abiguanide. Biguanides lower blood sugar levels primarily by decreasing the amount of glucose produced by theliver. Metformin also helps to lower blood sugar levels by making muscle tissue more sensitive toinsulinsoglucosecan be absorbed. It is usually taken two times a day. A side effect ofmetforminmay be diarrhea, but this is improved when the drug is taken with food. The BAS colesevelam (Welchol) is a cholesterol-lowering medication that also reduces blood sugar levels in patients with diabetes. BASs help remove cholesterol from the body, particularly LDL cholesterol, which is often elevated in people with diabetes. The medications reduceLDL cholesterolby binding with bile acids in the digestive system; the body in turn uses cholesterol to replace the bile acids, which lowerscholesterollevels. The mechanism by which colesevelam lowers glucose levels is not well understood. Because BASs are not absorbed into the bloodstream, they are usually safe for use by patients who may not be able to use other medications because of liver problems. Bec Continue reading >>

Diabetes - Type 2

Diabetes - Type 2

Description An in-depth report on the causes, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of type 2 diabetes. Alternative Names Type 2 diabetes; Maturity onset diabetes; Noninsulin-dependent diabetes Highlights Diabetes Statistics According to the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s (CDC) National Diabetes Fact Sheet, nearly 26 million American adults and children have diabetes. About 79 million Americans aged 20 years and older have pre-diabetes, a condition that increases the risk for developing diabetes. Diabetes and Cancer Type 2 diabetes increases the risk for certain types of cancer, according to a consensus report from the American Diabetes Association and the American Cancer Society. Diabetes doubles the risk for developing liver, pancreatic, or endometrial cancer. Certain medications used for treating type 2 diabetes may possibly increase the risk for some types of cancers. Screening for Gestational Diabetes Mellitus The American Diabetes Association recommends that pregnant women without known risk factors for diabetes get screened for gestational diabetes at 24 - 28 weeks of pregnancy. Pregnant women with risk factors for diabetes should be screened for type 2 diabetes at the first prenatal visit. Aspirin for Heart Disease Prevention The American Diabetes Association now recommends daily low-dose (75 - 162 mg) aspirin for men older than age 50 and women older than age 60 who have diabetes and at least one additional heart disease risk factor (such as smoking, high blood pressure, high cholesterol, family history, or albuminuria). Guidelines for Treatment of Diabetic Neuropathy The anticonvulsant drug pregabalin (Lyrica) is a first-line treatment for painful diabetic neuropathy, according to recent guidelines released by the American Academy of Neurol Continue reading >>

Oral Hypoglycemic Drugs

Oral Hypoglycemic Drugs

Oral hypoglycemic drugs are used only in the treatment of type 2 diabetes which is a disorder involving resistance to secreted insulin. Type 1 diabetes involves a lack of insulin and requires insulin for treatment. There are now four classes of hypoglycemic drugs: Sulfonylureas Metformin Thiazolidinediones Alpha-glucosidase inhibitors. These drugs are approved for use only in patients with type 2 diabetes and are used in patients who have not responded to diet, weight reduction, and exercise. They are not approved for the treatment of women who are pregnant with diabetes. SULFONYLUREAS – Sulfonylureas are the most widely used drugs for the treatment of type 2 diabetes and appear to function by stimulating insulin secretion. The net effect is increased responsiveness of ß-cells (insulin secreting cells located in the pancreas) to both glucose and non-glucose secretagogues, resulting in more insulin being released at all blood glucose concentrations. Sulfonylureas may also have extra-pancreatic effects, one of which is to increase tissue sensitivity to insulin, but the clinical importance of these effects is minimal. Pharmacokinetics – Sulfonylureas differ mainly in their potency & their duration of action. Glipizide, glyburide (glibenclamide), and glimepiride are so-called second-generation sulfonylureas. They have a potency that allows them to be given in much lower doses. Those drugs with longer half-lives (particularly chlorpropamide, glyburide, and glimepiride) can be given once daily. This benefit may be counterbalanced by a substantially increased risk of hypoglycemia. Side effects – Sulfonylureas are usually well tolerated. Hypoglycemia is the most common side effect and is more common with long-acting sulfonylureas. Patients recently discharged from hospit Continue reading >>

Understanding Oral Diabetes Medications

Understanding Oral Diabetes Medications

by Gail Brashers-Krug Today, almost 21 million Americans have diabetes, and more than 90 percent of those have type 2, or insulin resistant diabetes. Doctors often prescribe oral medications to treat type 2 diabetes, either alone or combination with insulin therapy. This article provides a guide to those oral medications. Which Diabetics Use Pills? With a few exceptions, diabetes comes in two types. Type 1 diabetes occurs when the body does not produce enough insulin on its own. To treat type 1, you must restore the proper amount of insulin—either by taking insulin (through injection or inhalation), or by receiving a transplant, either of an entire pancreas or of specialized pancreas cells, called islet cells. Type 1 cannot be treated with oral medications. Type 2 diabetes occurs when the body produces enough insulin, but gradually becomes insulin resistant—that is, loses the ability to process insulin. Type 2 is usually controlled first through diet and exercise, which improve your body’s ability to process its insulin. For most type 2 diabetics, however, diet and exercise changes are not enough. The next step is oral diabetes medication. Moreover, most type 2 diabetics eventually stop producing enough insulin, and often cease insulin production altogether. As a result, many type 2 diabetics will ultimately need insulin therapy in combination with their pills. How Do the Different Pills Work? Oral diabetes medications attack the problem in three ways. More insulin: Some pills stimulate your pancreas to produce more insulin. The first successful “diabetes pills” were the sulfonylureas (glyburide, glipizide, glimepiride, tolazamide, chlorpropamide, and tolbutamide). These are insulin secretagogues, that is, chemicals that cause your pancreas to produce more ins Continue reading >>

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