diabetestalk.net

Which Type Of Diabetes Is More Common In Children?

Increasing Incidence Of Type 1 Diabetes In Children

Increasing Incidence Of Type 1 Diabetes In Children

Philadelphia youth see rise in diagnosis; especially for African Americans, by 70%. A study was conducted in all children ages 0-14 years with a diagnosis code of type 1 or type 2 diabetes mellitus in Philadelphia from 2000–2004. The study aimed to describe the increasing incidence of type 1 diabetes in children. Researchers then used these data to compare to the previous three cohorts in the Philadelphia Pediatric Diabetes Registry to determine an increase in incidence over 20 years. In addition, these data describe the first cohort of youth with type 2 diabetes. The records of all children from 0-14 years old with type 1 or type 2 diabetes were obtained through a retrospective population-based registry. Researchers reviewed inpatient and outpatient records from World Health Organization (WHO) diabetes registry to identify diabetes cases diagnosed from 1 January 2000 to 31 December 2004. In addition, data on length, height, weight, and BMI were collected for children ages 0-14 years. The completeness of validation was ascertained through a survey of nurses who worked for the School District of Philadelphia. The changing pattern of the yearly incidence of type 1 diabetes over 20-year period was evaluated using time series analysis. The overall incidence rate of type 1 diabetes was 17.2 per 100,000 per year (95% CI 15.2–19.3) and the age-adjusted incidence was 17.0 per 100,000 per year (95% CI 15.8–18.3). The incidence was higher than that of previous cohorts by an average of 1.5% annually and an average 5-year cohort was increased by 7.8% (P = 0.025). The racial/ethnic data showed that the highest age-adjusted rate was in Hispanic children (19.6; 95% CI 15.9–23.3) which had increased 27%, followed by non-Hispanic whites (19.2 [16.8–21.5]) with an increase of 4 Continue reading >>

Rising Incidence Of Type 2 Diabetes In Children In The U.k.

Rising Incidence Of Type 2 Diabetes In Children In The U.k.

Abstract OBJECTIVE—To estimate the incidence of type 2 diabetes in children <17 years of age and to investigate the relationship of diabetes with increasing childhood obesity in the U.K. and the Republic of Ireland (ROI). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS—Active monthly reporting of cases by consultant pediatricians occurred through the framework of the British Pediatric Surveillance Unit, with additional reports from specialist diabetes nurses. All children <17 years of age and diagnosed by their clinician as having non–type 1 diabetes from 1 October 2004 to 31 October 2005 were included. RESULTS—A total of 168 confirmed cases of non–type 1 diabetes were reported, resulting in a national incidence (excluding the ROI) of 1.3 · 100,000−1 · year−1. Of these, 40% were diagnosed with type 2 diabetes giving a minimum incidence of 0.53 · 100,000−1 · year−1. Children of ethnic minorities were greatly overrepresented, with those of black and South-Asian origin (England data only) having an incidence of 3.9 and 1.25 · 100,000−1 · year−1, respectively, compared with 0.35 · 100,000−1 · year−1 in those defined as white. Of those diagnosed with type 2 diabetes, 95% were overweight and 83% obese according to International Obesity Task Force guidelines. Eighty-four percent had a family history of type 2 diabetes. CONCLUSIONS—Type 2 diabetes is still less common than type 1 diabetes in U.K. children. However, compared with previous prevalence data, the frequency of type 2 diabetes appears to be increasing. Incidence among ethnic minorities is far higher than in whites, as previously described in the U.S. Increased adiposity and family history of type 2 diabetes were strongly associated with the diagnosis of type 2 diabetes in U.K. children. The growing pre Continue reading >>

Diabetes Overview

Diabetes Overview

Type 1 and type 2 diabetes are lifelong conditions. You can minimise the long-term risks and complications for your child. diabetes is a condition where the level of glucose (also known as sugar) in the blood is too high that's because the body is not using the glucose properly in type 1 diabetes, the main problem is that the insulin making cells in the pancreas are destroyed and not able to make enough insulin in type 2 diabetes, the main problem is that the body is not able to use the insulin effectively due to resistance to insulin both forms of diabetes are lifelong conditions - once diagnosed as having type 1 or type 2 diabetes, your child will always have it you can minimise the long term risks and complications for your child What is diabetes? Diabetes is a condition where the level of glucose (also known as sugar) in the blood is too high. That's because the body is not using the glucose properly. Insulin is a hormone that is needed to allow glucose from food to move from the blood into cells in the body where it can be used for fuel for energy. Insulin is produced by the pancreas. Diabetes occurs when the insulin making cells in the pancreas are unable to make enough insulin or when there is resistance to the effects of insulin. You might find it helpful to watch a Diabetes UK animation (8 minutes 44 seconds) about diabetes and the body. © Diabetes UK. This video has been reproduced from the Diabetes UK website with the kind permission of Diabetes UK, the charity for people in the UK with diabetes. What is the difference between type 1 and type 2 diabetes? In type 1 diabetes, the main problem is that the insulin making cells in the pancreas are destroyed and not able to make enough insulin. In type 2 diabetes, the main problem is that the body is not able to u Continue reading >>

Pediatric Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus

Pediatric Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus

Practice Essentials Type 1 diabetes is a chronic illness characterized by the body’s inability to produce insulin due to the autoimmune destruction of the beta cells in the pancreas. Most pediatric patients with diabetes have type 1 and a lifetime dependence on exogenous insulin. [1] The image below depicts the effects of insulin deficiency. Signs and symptoms Signs and symptoms of type 1 diabetes in children include the following: See Clinical Presentation for more detail. Diagnosis Blood glucose Blood glucose tests using capillary blood samples, reagent sticks, and blood glucose meters are the usual methods for monitoring day-to-day diabetes control. Diagnostic criteria by the American Diabetes Association (ADA) include the following [2] : Glycated hemoglobin Measurement of HbA1c levels is the best method for medium-term to long-term diabetic control monitoring. An international expert committee composed of appointed representatives of the American Diabetes Association, the European Association for the Study of Diabetes, and others recommended HbA1c assay for diagnosing diabetes mellitus. [3] See Workup for more detail. Management Glycemic control The ADA recommends using patient age as one consideration in the establishment of glycemic goals, with different targets for preprandial, bedtime/overnight, and hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) levels in patients aged 0-6, 6-12, and 13-19 years. [4] Benefits of tight glycemic control include not only continued reductions in the rates of microvascular complications but also significant differences in cardiovascular events and overall mortality. Insulin therapy All children with type 1 diabetes mellitus require insulin therapy. Most require 2 or more injections of insulin daily, with doses adjusted on the basis of self-monitoring of b Continue reading >>

Type 1 Diabetes In Children

Type 1 Diabetes In Children

The most common type of diabetes in children is type 1 diabetes. In fact, according to the American Diabetes Association, type 1 diabetes is one of the most common chronic diseases in children. Type 1 diabetes accounts for 5 percent of all diagnosed cases of diabetes in the U.S. What is type 1 diabetes? Type 1 diabetes may also be known by a variety of other names, including: Insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) Juvenile diabetes Brittle diabetes Sugar diabetes There are two forms of type 1 diabetes: Idiopathic type 1. This refers to rare forms of the disease with no known cause. Immune-mediated diabetes. An autoimmune disorder in which the body's immune system destroys, or attempts to destroy, the cells in the pancreas that produce insulin. Immune-mediated diabetes is the most common form of type 1 diabetes and is generally referred to as type 1 diabetes. What causes type 1 diabetes? The cause of type 1 diabetes is unknown. However, it is believed that people inherit a tendency to develop diabetes, and that some outside trigger may be involved. Type 1 diabetes is the result of the body's failure to produce insulin, the hormone that allows glucose to enter the cells of the body to provide fuel. This is the result of an autoimmune process in which the body's immune system attacks and destroys the insulin producing cells of the pancreas. When glucose cannot enter the cells, it builds up in the blood, depriving the cells of nutrition. People with type 1 diabetes must take daily insulin injections and regularly monitor their blood sugar levels. What are the symptoms of type 1 diabetes? Type 1 diabetes often appears suddenly. In children, type 1 diabetes symptoms may resemble flu symptoms. The following are the most common symptoms for type 1 diabetes. However, each ch Continue reading >>

Signs Of Diabetes In Children

Signs Of Diabetes In Children

What to look for: Symptoms of type 1 diabetes in children One of the early signs of diabetes in children is increased urination and thirst. When blood-sugar is high it triggers a reaction in the body that pulls fluid from tissues. This will leave your son or daughter constantly thirsty, resulting in a need for more bathroom breaks throughout the day. Below are some other warning signs that you should be aware of. Fatigue: If your child is constantly tired it may be a sign that his or her body is having trouble turning sugar in the bloodstream into energy. Changes in vision: High blood sugar levels can lead to blurred vision or other eyesight problems. Fruity smelling breath: If your kid’s breath smells fruity, it could be a result of excess sugar in the blood. Extreme hunger and unexplained weight loss: When your son or daughter’s muscles and organs aren’t receiving enough energy, it can trigger extreme hunger. And sudden weight loss—especially if he or she is eating more—should not be ignored. Unusual behavior: If your child seems more moody or restless than normal—and it’s in conjunction with the symptoms above—it could be cause for concern. Other symptoms of diabetes in children Be on the lookout if your child is lethargic, shows heavy breathing, or experiences nausea and vomiting. When it goes untreated, type 1 diabetes can be life-threatening. If you’re concerned that your son or daughter is showing signs of childhood diabetes it’s important that you schedule a doctor’s appointment as soon as possible. So what are the low blood sugar symptoms you should look out for? It’s important to realize that the signs of… Polyuria occurs when your body urinates more frequently—and often in larger amounts—than normal… The reality is that signs o Continue reading >>

What You Need To Know About Diabetes In Children

What You Need To Know About Diabetes In Children

Ask the Experts Diabetes is not just an adult disease. Diabetes can affect people of all ages, including infants and children. There are two primary forms: Type 1, which is an autoimmune disease, and Type 2, which is associated with increased body weight. Pediatric endocrinologists, Thomas A. Wilson, MD, and Jennifer Osipoff, MD, discuss diabetes in children and the treatments available at Stony Brook Children’s Service. Isn’t diabetes rare in children? Recent studies have shown that Type 1 diabetes is increasing in the pediatric population. Right now, approximately one out of every 400 children is diagnosed with Type 1 diabetes, which makes it a fairly common disease. The other main form of diabetes, Type 2, is also becoming more common in children, and is likely related to increased body weight. What are the symptoms? As with adults, the symptoms are increased thirst and increased urination. With Type 1 diabetes, there may be weight loss despite adequate food intake. Unfortunately, both parents and pediatricians can easily overlook diabetes symptoms in babies and children. If diabetes develops and is left untreated, a dangerous dehydration state called diabetic ketoacidosis can occur. What happens with diabetes ketoacidosis? When the body is not able to produce insulin it can’t process sugar, so it looks for other sources of energy. It starts to break down fat, which produces ketones, a form of acid. Symptoms of diabetic ketoacidosis can include nausea, vomiting, respiratory distress, abdominal pain, dehydration and altered mental status. Diabetes ketoacidosis is a lifethreatening condition that requires immediate emergency care. What’s the treatment for children with diabetes? The most important goal is to get and keep the blood sugar under control. For Type Continue reading >>

Type 1 Diabetes In Children

Type 1 Diabetes In Children

Overview Type 1 diabetes in children is a condition in which your child's body no longer produces an important hormone (insulin). Your child needs insulin to survive, so you'll have to replace the missing insulin. Type 1 diabetes in children used to be known as juvenile diabetes or insulin-dependent diabetes. The diagnosis of type 1 diabetes in children can be overwhelming at first. Suddenly you and your child — depending on his or her age — must learn how to give injections, count carbohydrates and monitor blood sugar. Type 1 diabetes in children requires consistent care. But advances in blood sugar monitoring and insulin delivery have improved the daily management of the condition. Symptoms The signs and symptoms of type 1 diabetes in children usually develop quickly, over a period of weeks. These signs and symptoms include: Increased thirst and frequent urination. Excess sugar building up in your child's bloodstream pulls fluid from tissues. As a result your child might be thirsty — and drink and urinate more than usual. A young, toilet-trained child might suddenly experience bed-wetting. Extreme hunger. Without enough insulin to move sugar into your child's cells, your child's muscles and organs lack energy. This triggers intense hunger. Weight loss. Despite eating more than usual to relieve hunger, your child may lose weight — sometimes rapidly. Without the energy sugar supplies, muscle tissues and fat stores simply shrink. Unexplained weight loss is often the first sign of type 1 diabetes to be noticed in children. Fatigue. Lack of sugar in your child's cells might make him or her tired and lethargic. Irritability or behavior changes. In addition to mood problems, your child might suddenly have a decline in performance at school. Fruity-smelling breath. Bu Continue reading >>

Children And Diabetes

Children And Diabetes

Tweet Throughout the world, incidences of diabetes are on the rise, and consequently so is diabetes amongst children. Most children are affected by type 1 diabetes in childhood. However, the number of children and young adults affected by type 2 diabetes is beginning to rise, particularly in America. Approximately 90% of young people with diabetes suffer from type 1 and the number of patients who are children varies from place to place. A figure of 17 per 100,000 children developing diabetes each year has been reported. As metabolic syndrome, obesity and bad diets spread, so too have the first incidences of type 2 diabetes, previously incredibly rare. Further relevant pages Diabetes & pregnancy Juvenile diabetes Keeping your kids free from diabetes Teenage diabetes and blood glucose testing How is diabetes caused in children? The actual causes of the diabetic condition are little understood, in both children and adults. It is widely speculated that diabetes occurred when inherited genetic characteristics are triggered by environmental factors such as diet or exercise. Many type 1 diabetic children do not have diabetes in their families however, so the exact cause remains a mystery. Type 2 diabetes amongst children is usually caused by an extremely bad diet from a very young age, coupled with a sedentary lifestyle without exercise. Tweet Type 2 diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disorder that results in hyperglycemia (high blood glucose levels) due to the body: Being ineffective at using the insulin it has produced; also known as insulin resistance and/or Being unable to produce enough insulin Type 2 diabetes is characterised by the body being unable to metabolise glucose (a simple sugar). This leads to high levels of blood glucose which over time may damage the organs of Continue reading >>

Diabetes In Children And Teens

Diabetes In Children And Teens

Until recently, the common type of diabetes in children and teens was type 1. It was called juvenile diabetes. With Type 1 diabetes, the pancreas does not make insulin. Insulin is a hormone that helps glucose,or sugar, get into your cells to give them energy. Without insulin, too much sugar stays in the blood. Now younger people are also getting type 2 diabetes. Type 2 diabetes used to be called adult-onset diabetes. But now it is becoming more common in children and teens, due to more obesity. With Type 2 diabetes, the body does not make or use insulin well. Children have a higher risk of type 2 diabetes if they are overweight or have obesity, have a family history of diabetes, or are not active. Children who are African American, Hispanic, Native American/Alaska Native, Asian American, or Pacific Islander also have a higher risk. To lower the risk of type 2 diabetes in children Have them maintain a healthy weight Be sure they are physically active Have them eat smaller portions of healthy foods Limit time with the TV, computer, and video Children and teens with type 1 diabetes may need to take insulin. Type 2 diabetes may be controlled with diet and exercise. If not, patients will need to take oral diabetes medicines or insulin. A blood test called the A1C can check on how you are managing your diabetes. Continue reading >>

Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus In Children

Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus In Children

What is type 1 diabetes in children? Diabetes is a condition in which the body can't make enough insulin, or can't use insulin normally. Type 1 diabetes is an autoimmune disorder. The body's immune system damages the cells in the pancreas that make insulin. Insulin is a hormone. It helps sugar (glucose) in the blood get into cells of the body to be used as fuel. When glucose can’t enter the cells, it builds up in the blood. This is called high blood sugar (hyperglycemia). High blood sugar can cause problems all over the body. It can damage blood vessels and nerves. It can harm the eyes, kidneys, and heart. It can also cause symptoms such as tiredness. Type 1 diabetes mellitus is a long-term (chronic) condition. It may start at any age. Only 5% of people with diabetes have type 1. Insulin from the pancreas must be replaced with insulin injections or an insulin pump. There are two forms of type 1 diabetes: Immune-mediated diabetes. This is an autoimmune disorder in which the body's immune system damages the cells in the pancreas that make insulin. This is the most common kind of type 1 diabetes. Idiopathic type 1. This refers to rare forms of the disease with no known cause. What causes type 1 diabetes in a child? The cause of type 1 diabetes is unknown. Researchers think some people inherit a gene than can cause type 1 diabetes if a trigger such as a virus occurs. Which children are at risk for type 1 diabetes? A child is more at risk for type 1 diabetes if he or she has any of these risk factors: A family member with the condition Caucasian race Being from Finland or Sardinia Is age 4 to 6, or 10 to 14 What are the symptoms of type 1 diabetes in a child? Type 1 diabetes often appears suddenly. In children, type 1 diabetes symptoms may be like flu symptoms. Symptoms ca Continue reading >>

Pediatric Diabetes, Type 1 And Type 2

Pediatric Diabetes, Type 1 And Type 2

Prevention & Risk Assessment What is prediabetes? Type 2 diabetes is commonly preceded by prediabetes. In prediabetes, blood glucose levels are higher than normal but not high enough to be defined as diabetes. However, many people with prediabetes develop type 2 diabetes within 10 years, states the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases. Prediabetes also increases the risk of heart disease and stroke. With modest weight loss and moderate physical activity, people with prediabetes can delay or prevent type 2 diabetes. How does diabetes affect blood glucose? For glucose to be able to move into the cells of the body, the hormone insulin must be present. Insulin is produced in the pancreas, and, normally, is readily available to move glucose into the cells. However, in people who have diabetes, either the pancreas produces too little or no insulin, or certain cells in the body do not respond to the insulin that is produced. This causes a build up of glucose in the blood, which passes into the urine where it is eventually eliminated, leaving the body without its main source of fuel. What is maturity-onset diabetes in the young (MODY)? Although often misdiagnosed initially as the more common type 1 or type 2 diabetes, maturity-onset diabetes of the young (MODY) is a group of diseases characterized by inherited early-onset diabetes (usually in adolescence or early adulthood) from a single gene mutation. Severity of the diabetes symptoms associated with MODY vary depending on the type of MODY diagnosed. MODY 2 appears to be the mildest form of the disease, often only causing mild hyperglycemia and impaired glucose tolerance. MODY 1 and 3 may require treatment with insulin, much like type 1 diabetes. MODY accounts for about 1 to 5 percent of all cases o Continue reading >>

On World Diabetes Day 2017, What Is Diabetes, What’s The Difference Between Types 1 And 2 And What Are The Signs?

On World Diabetes Day 2017, What Is Diabetes, What’s The Difference Between Types 1 And 2 And What Are The Signs?

DIABETES is a life-long health condition which affects around 3.5 million people in the UK alone. Today is World Diabetes Day, and experts estimate there are up to 549,000 people living with diabetes who don't know it yet. But what is it exactly and what are the difference between the two types? Getty Images What is diabetes? It is a condition caused by high levels of glucose - or sugar - in the blood. Glucose levels are so high because the body is unable to properly use it. In people diagnosed with diabetes, their pancreas doesn't produce any insulin, or not enough insulin. Getty Images Insulin is a hormone typically produced by the pancreas and allows glucose to enter the cells in the body, where it's used for energy. What are the signs to look out for with diabetes? The common signs you may have diabetes include: going to the toilet a lot, especially at night being really thirsty feeling more tired than usual losing weight, without trying to genital itching or thrush cuts and wounds that take longer to heal blurred vision The symptoms are caused by high levels of glucose remaining in the blood, where it cannot be used as energy. These signs are common in children and adults alike. But, adults suffering type 1 diabetes can find it harder to recognise their symptoms. Diabetes UK's four T's campaign aims to raise awareness of the key signs. What is the difference between type 1 and type 2 diabetes? All types of diabetes cause blood glucose levels to be higher than normal, but the two different types do this in different ways. The distinction lies in what is causing the lack of insulin - often described as the key, that allows glucose to unlock the door to the cells. With type 1 diabetes, a person’s pancreas produces no insulin, but in type 2 cells in the body become r Continue reading >>

Type 2 Diabetes In Children

Type 2 Diabetes In Children

For decades, type 2 diabetes was considered an adults-only condition. In fact, type 2 diabetes was once called adult-onset diabetes. But what was once a disease mainly faced by adults is becoming more common in children. Type 2 diabetes is a chronic condition that affects how the body metabolizes sugar (glucose). Over 5,000 people under the age of 20 were diagnosed with type 2 diabetes between 2008 and 2009. Until 10 years ago, type 2 diabetes accounted for less than 3% of all newly diagnosed diabetes cases in adolescents; it now comprises 45% of all such cases. It’s more common in those aged 10-19 and in non-Caucasian populations, including African Americans, Native Americans, Asian/Pacific Islanders, and Hispanics. Being overweight is closely tied to the development of type 2 diabetes. Overweight children have an increased likelihood of insulin resistance. As the body struggles to regulate insulin, high blood sugar leads to a number of potentially serious health problems. In the past 30 years, obesity in children has doubled and obesity in adolescents has quadrupled, according to the CDC. Genetics may also play a role. For instance, the risk of type 2 diabetes increases if one parent or both parents has the condition. Symptoms of type 2 diabetes are not always easy to spot. In most cases, the disease develops gradually, making the symptoms hard to detect. Many people do not feel any symptoms. In other cases, children may not show any obvious signs. If you believe your child has diabetes, keep an eye out for these signs: Excessive fatigue: If your child seems extraordinarily tired or sleepy, their body may not have enough sugar to properly fuel their normal body functions. Excessive thirst: Children who have excessive thirst may have high blood sugar levels. Frequent Continue reading >>

Diabetes In Children And Teens: Signs And Symptoms

Diabetes In Children And Teens: Signs And Symptoms

With more than a third of diabetes cases in the United States occurring in people over the age of 65, diabetes is often referred to as an age-related condition. But around 208,000 children and adolescents are estimated to have diabetes, and this number is increasing. Type 1 diabetes is the most common form of the condition among children and adolescents. A 2009 report from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) revealed that type 1 diabetes prevalence stands at 1.93 in every 1,000 children and adolescents, while type 2 diabetes affects 0.24 in every 1,000. In 2014, Medical News Today reported that, based on a study published in JAMA, rates of both type 1 and type 2 diabetes have increased significantly among American children and teenagers. The study found that incidence of type 1 diabetes in children aged up to 9 years increased by 21 percent between 2001 and 2009, while incidence of type 2 diabetes among youths aged 10-19 years rose by 30.5 percent. The researchers note: "The increases in prevalence reported herein are important because such youth with diabetes will enter adulthood with several years of disease duration, difficulty in treatment, an increased risk of early complications and increased frequency of diabetes during reproductive years, which may further increase diabetes in the next generation." Contents of this article: Here are some key points about diabetes in children. More detail and supporting information is in the main article. Type 1 and 2 diabetes are both increasing in the youth of America Often, the symptoms of type 1 diabetes in children develop over just a few weeks If type 1 diabetes is not spotted, the child can develop diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) What is diabetes in children? Type 1 diabetes in children, previously called juve Continue reading >>

More in diabetes