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Which Type Of Diabetes Is More Common In Children?

Children And Diabetes

Children And Diabetes

Tweet Throughout the world, incidences of diabetes are on the rise, and consequently so is diabetes amongst children. Most children are affected by type 1 diabetes in childhood. However, the number of children and young adults affected by type 2 diabetes is beginning to rise, particularly in America. Approximately 90% of young people with diabetes suffer from type 1 and the number of patients who are children varies from place to place. A figure of 17 per 100,000 children developing diabetes each year has been reported. As metabolic syndrome, obesity and bad diets spread, so too have the first incidences of type 2 diabetes, previously incredibly rare. Further relevant pages Diabetes & pregnancy Juvenile diabetes Keeping your kids free from diabetes Teenage diabetes and blood glucose testing How is diabetes caused in children? The actual causes of the diabetic condition are little understood, in both children and adults. It is widely speculated that diabetes occurred when inherited genetic characteristics are triggered by environmental factors such as diet or exercise. Many type 1 diabetic children do not have diabetes in their families however, so the exact cause remains a mystery. Type 2 diabetes amongst children is usually caused by an extremely bad diet from a very young age, coupled with a sedentary lifestyle without exercise. Tweet Type 2 diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disorder that results in hyperglycemia (high blood glucose levels) due to the body: Being ineffective at using the insulin it has produced; also known as insulin resistance and/or Being unable to produce enough insulin Type 2 diabetes is characterised by the body being unable to metabolise glucose (a simple sugar). This leads to high levels of blood glucose which over time may damage the organs of Continue reading >>

Pediatric Diabetes, Type 1 And Type 2

Pediatric Diabetes, Type 1 And Type 2

Prevention & Risk Assessment What is prediabetes? Type 2 diabetes is commonly preceded by prediabetes. In prediabetes, blood glucose levels are higher than normal but not high enough to be defined as diabetes. However, many people with prediabetes develop type 2 diabetes within 10 years, states the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases. Prediabetes also increases the risk of heart disease and stroke. With modest weight loss and moderate physical activity, people with prediabetes can delay or prevent type 2 diabetes. How does diabetes affect blood glucose? For glucose to be able to move into the cells of the body, the hormone insulin must be present. Insulin is produced in the pancreas, and, normally, is readily available to move glucose into the cells. However, in people who have diabetes, either the pancreas produces too little or no insulin, or certain cells in the body do not respond to the insulin that is produced. This causes a build up of glucose in the blood, which passes into the urine where it is eventually eliminated, leaving the body without its main source of fuel. What is maturity-onset diabetes in the young (MODY)? Although often misdiagnosed initially as the more common type 1 or type 2 diabetes, maturity-onset diabetes of the young (MODY) is a group of diseases characterized by inherited early-onset diabetes (usually in adolescence or early adulthood) from a single gene mutation. Severity of the diabetes symptoms associated with MODY vary depending on the type of MODY diagnosed. MODY 2 appears to be the mildest form of the disease, often only causing mild hyperglycemia and impaired glucose tolerance. MODY 1 and 3 may require treatment with insulin, much like type 1 diabetes. MODY accounts for about 1 to 5 percent of all cases o Continue reading >>

Rising Incidence Of Type 2 Diabetes In Children In The U.k.

Rising Incidence Of Type 2 Diabetes In Children In The U.k.

Abstract OBJECTIVE—To estimate the incidence of type 2 diabetes in children <17 years of age and to investigate the relationship of diabetes with increasing childhood obesity in the U.K. and the Republic of Ireland (ROI). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS—Active monthly reporting of cases by consultant pediatricians occurred through the framework of the British Pediatric Surveillance Unit, with additional reports from specialist diabetes nurses. All children <17 years of age and diagnosed by their clinician as having non–type 1 diabetes from 1 October 2004 to 31 October 2005 were included. RESULTS—A total of 168 confirmed cases of non–type 1 diabetes were reported, resulting in a national incidence (excluding the ROI) of 1.3 · 100,000−1 · year−1. Of these, 40% were diagnosed with type 2 diabetes giving a minimum incidence of 0.53 · 100,000−1 · year−1. Children of ethnic minorities were greatly overrepresented, with those of black and South-Asian origin (England data only) having an incidence of 3.9 and 1.25 · 100,000−1 · year−1, respectively, compared with 0.35 · 100,000−1 · year−1 in those defined as white. Of those diagnosed with type 2 diabetes, 95% were overweight and 83% obese according to International Obesity Task Force guidelines. Eighty-four percent had a family history of type 2 diabetes. CONCLUSIONS—Type 2 diabetes is still less common than type 1 diabetes in U.K. children. However, compared with previous prevalence data, the frequency of type 2 diabetes appears to be increasing. Incidence among ethnic minorities is far higher than in whites, as previously described in the U.S. Increased adiposity and family history of type 2 diabetes were strongly associated with the diagnosis of type 2 diabetes in U.K. children. The growing pre Continue reading >>

Type 2 Diabetes

Type 2 Diabetes

Type 2 diabetes occurs mostly in people aged over 40 years. However, an increasing number of younger people, even children, are being diagnosed with type 2 diabetes. The first-line treatment is diet, weight control and physical activity. If the blood sugar (glucose) level remains high despite these measures then tablets to reduce the blood glucose level are usually advised. Insulin injections are needed in some cases. Other treatments include reducing blood pressure if it is high, lowering high cholesterol levels and also using other measures to reduce the risk of complications. Although diabetes cannot be cured, it can be treated successfully. If a high blood sugar level is brought down to a normal level, your symptoms will ease. You still have some risk of complications in the long term if your blood glucose level remains even mildly high - even if you have no symptoms in the short term. However, studies have shown that people who have better glucose control have fewer complications (such as heart disease or eye problems) compared with those people who have poorer control of their glucose level. Therefore, the main aims of treatment are: To keep your blood glucose level as near normal as possible. To reduce any other risk factors that may increase your risk of developing complications. In particular, to lower your blood pressure if it is high and to keep your blood lipids (cholesterol) low. To detect any complications as early as possible. Treatment can prevent or delay some complications from becoming worse. Type 2 diabetes is usually initially treated by following a healthy diet, losing weight if you are overweight, and having regular physical activity. If lifestyle advice does not control your blood sugar (glucose) levels then medicines are used to help lower your Continue reading >>

Diabetes In Children And Adolescents

Diabetes In Children And Adolescents

Diabetes mellitus involves absence of insulin secretion (type 1) or peripheral insulin resistance (type 2), causing hyperglycemia. Early symptoms are related to hyperglycemia and include polydipsia, polyphagia, polyuria, and weight loss. Diagnosis is by measuring plasma glucose levels. Treatment depends on type but includes drugs that reduce blood glucose levels, diet, and exercise. The types of diabetes mellitus (DM) in children are similar to those in adults, but psychosocial problems are different and can complicate treatment. Type 1 DM is the most common type in children, accounting for two thirds of new cases in children of all ethnic groups. It is one of the most common chronic childhood diseases, occurring in 1 in 350 children by age 18; the incidence has recently been increasing, particularly in children < 5 yr. Although type 1 can occur at any age, it typically manifests between age 4 yr and 6 yr and between 10 yr and 14 yr. Type 2 DM, once rare in children, has been increasing in frequency in parallel with the increase in childhood obesity (see obesity in children and see Obesity in Adolescents). It typically manifests after puberty, with the highest rate between age 15 yr and 19 yr. Monogenic forms of diabetes, previously termed maturity-onset diabetes of youth (MODY), are not considered type 1 or type 2 (although they are sometimes mistaken for them) and are uncommon (1 to 4% of cases). Prediabetes is impaired glucose regulation resulting in intermediate glucose levels that are too high to be normal but do not meet criteria for diabetes. In obese adolescents, prediabetes may be transient (with reversion to normal in 2 yr in 60%) or progress to diabetes, especially in adolescents who persistently gain weight. Prediabetes is associated with the metabolic syndr Continue reading >>

Diabetes In Children And Teens: Signs And Symptoms

Diabetes In Children And Teens: Signs And Symptoms

With more than a third of diabetes cases in the United States occurring in people over the age of 65, diabetes is often referred to as an age-related condition. But around 208,000 children and adolescents are estimated to have diabetes, and this number is increasing. Type 1 diabetes is the most common form of the condition among children and adolescents. A 2009 report from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) revealed that type 1 diabetes prevalence stands at 1.93 in every 1,000 children and adolescents, while type 2 diabetes affects 0.24 in every 1,000. In 2014, Medical News Today reported that, based on a study published in JAMA, rates of both type 1 and type 2 diabetes have increased significantly among American children and teenagers. The study found that incidence of type 1 diabetes in children aged up to 9 years increased by 21 percent between 2001 and 2009, while incidence of type 2 diabetes among youths aged 10-19 years rose by 30.5 percent. The researchers note: "The increases in prevalence reported herein are important because such youth with diabetes will enter adulthood with several years of disease duration, difficulty in treatment, an increased risk of early complications and increased frequency of diabetes during reproductive years, which may further increase diabetes in the next generation." Contents of this article: Here are some key points about diabetes in children. More detail and supporting information is in the main article. Type 1 and 2 diabetes are both increasing in the youth of America Often, the symptoms of type 1 diabetes in children develop over just a few weeks If type 1 diabetes is not spotted, the child can develop diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) What is diabetes in children? Type 1 diabetes in children, previously called juve Continue reading >>

Type 1 Diabetes In Children

Type 1 Diabetes In Children

Overview Type 1 diabetes in children is a condition in which your child's body no longer produces an important hormone (insulin). Your child needs insulin to survive, so you'll have to replace the missing insulin. Type 1 diabetes in children used to be known as juvenile diabetes or insulin-dependent diabetes. The diagnosis of type 1 diabetes in children can be overwhelming at first. Suddenly you and your child — depending on his or her age — must learn how to give injections, count carbohydrates and monitor blood sugar. Type 1 diabetes in children requires consistent care. But advances in blood sugar monitoring and insulin delivery have improved the daily management of the condition. Symptoms The signs and symptoms of type 1 diabetes in children usually develop quickly, over a period of weeks. These signs and symptoms include: Increased thirst and frequent urination. Excess sugar building up in your child's bloodstream pulls fluid from tissues. As a result your child might be thirsty — and drink and urinate more than usual. A young, toilet-trained child might suddenly experience bed-wetting. Extreme hunger. Without enough insulin to move sugar into your child's cells, your child's muscles and organs lack energy. This triggers intense hunger. Weight loss. Despite eating more than usual to relieve hunger, your child may lose weight — sometimes rapidly. Without the energy sugar supplies, muscle tissues and fat stores simply shrink. Unexplained weight loss is often the first sign of type 1 diabetes to be noticed in children. Fatigue. Lack of sugar in your child's cells might make him or her tired and lethargic. Irritability or behavior changes. In addition to mood problems, your child might suddenly have a decline in performance at school. Fruity-smelling breath. Bu Continue reading >>

5 Ways Type 1 Diabetes Is Different From Type 2

5 Ways Type 1 Diabetes Is Different From Type 2

When people hear that you have diabetes, they start to make assumptions that aren't always accurate. A lot of the confusion stems from the fact that there are two main types, yet many people don't understand how they're different. (Want to pick up some healthier habits? Sign up to get daily healthy living tips delivered straight to your inbox!) As someone with type 1 diabetes—I was diagnosed with it nearly 40 years ago—I'm all too familiar with the disease. I lived with it as a child, teen, and adult, and when I decided to have kids I had to figure out how to manage the condition while being pregnant. (I even wrote a book about it, Balancing Pregnancy With Pre-Existing Diabetes: Healthy Mom, Healthy Baby.) Having type 1 diabetes means I'm in the minority: Of the approximately 29 million Americans who have diabetes, only 1.25 million have type 1. Most have type 2, which is a totally different form. "Comparing type 1 to type 2 is like comparing apples to tractors," says Gary Scheiner, a Pennsylvania-based certified diabetes educator and author of Think Like a Pancreas. "The only thing they really have in common is that both involve an inability to control blood sugar levels." Here are 5 important distinctions. 1. Type 1 is an autoimmune disease; type 2 isn't. Diabetes happens when your body has trouble with insulin, a hormone that helps convert sugar from the food you eat into energy. When there isn’t enough insulin in your body, sugar builds up in the bloodstream and can make you sick. People with type 1 and type 2 both face this problem, but how they arrived there is quite different. If you have type 1, you don't make any insulin at all. That's because type 1 is an autoimmune disease in which your immune system attacks and destroys the insulin-making cells in your Continue reading >>

Children & Type 2 Diabetes

Children & Type 2 Diabetes

Type 2 diabetes is a disease in which the pancreas does not produce enough insulin, or the body does not properly use the insulin it makes. As a result, sugar (glucose) builds up in the blood instead of being used for energy. The body gets sugar from foods like bread, potatoes, rice, pasta, milk and fruit. To use this sugar, the body needs insulin. Insulin is a hormone that helps the body to control the level of sugar in the blood. Type 2 diabetes was once a condition that occurred only in adults. Today we see it more in teens and even in children. Most of these children are from ethnic groups at high risk for type 2 diabetes (African, Hispanic, Asian, South Asian and Aboriginal). In Canada 44% of children who are diagnosed with type 2 diabetes are of Aboriginal heritage. Who is at risk? Type 2 diabetes in children has increased around the world over the past 20 years. Factors that increase a child’s risk for developing type 2 diabetes include: Being overweight or inactive Being a member of an ethnic group at high risk for type 2 diabetes (African, Hispanic, Asian, South Asian and Aboriginal) Having a family history of type 2 diabetes Being born to a mother who had diabetes during pregnancy Having any of the following: Dark, velvety patches of skin on the neck and under the arms (a skin condition known as acanthosis nigricans) High blood pressure Polycystic ovarian syndrome (a condition in females that can include no menstrual periods, unusual hair growth and being overweight) High levels of fatty deposits in the liver Taking certain medications for mental health conditions Symptoms of type 2 diabetes Symptoms of type 2 diabetes include: Increased thirst Going to the bathroom more Blurred vision Yeast infections Tiredness However, many children with type 2 diabetes do Continue reading >>

Diabetes Overview

Diabetes Overview

Type 1 and type 2 diabetes are lifelong conditions. You can minimise the long-term risks and complications for your child. diabetes is a condition where the level of glucose (also known as sugar) in the blood is too high that's because the body is not using the glucose properly in type 1 diabetes, the main problem is that the insulin making cells in the pancreas are destroyed and not able to make enough insulin in type 2 diabetes, the main problem is that the body is not able to use the insulin effectively due to resistance to insulin both forms of diabetes are lifelong conditions - once diagnosed as having type 1 or type 2 diabetes, your child will always have it you can minimise the long term risks and complications for your child What is diabetes? Diabetes is a condition where the level of glucose (also known as sugar) in the blood is too high. That's because the body is not using the glucose properly. Insulin is a hormone that is needed to allow glucose from food to move from the blood into cells in the body where it can be used for fuel for energy. Insulin is produced by the pancreas. Diabetes occurs when the insulin making cells in the pancreas are unable to make enough insulin or when there is resistance to the effects of insulin. You might find it helpful to watch a Diabetes UK animation (8 minutes 44 seconds) about diabetes and the body. © Diabetes UK. This video has been reproduced from the Diabetes UK website with the kind permission of Diabetes UK, the charity for people in the UK with diabetes. What is the difference between type 1 and type 2 diabetes? In type 1 diabetes, the main problem is that the insulin making cells in the pancreas are destroyed and not able to make enough insulin. In type 2 diabetes, the main problem is that the body is not able to u Continue reading >>

Type 1 Diabetes In Children

Type 1 Diabetes In Children

What is type 1 diabetes? Type 1 diabetes is an autoimmune disease that causes an unhealthy amount of a simple sugar (glucose) to build up in a person's blood. Someone with type 1 diabetes can't produce enough insulin, a hormone that moves glucose from the bloodstream into cells throughout the body, where it supplies energy and fuels growth. Normally, a child's immune system protects her body from diseases by destroying unhealthy cells and germs. But when a child has type 1 diabetes, her body also mistakenly attacks the healthy insulin-producing cells of the pancreas (a gland behind the stomach). Without these cells, her pancreas produces very little or no insulin, which leads to an abnormally high amount of sugar in her blood. Without proper care, type 1 diabetes can cause serious, wide-ranging health problems that can damage organs throughout the body over the long-term. If your child has been diagnosed with type 1 diabetes, it's understandable that you might worry. But diabetes can be kept under control by carefully monitoring your child's blood sugar and following her treatment plan. A team of doctors, nurses, and nutritionists can help your child be as healthy as possible and teach her to manage the condition so she stays that way. What are the symptoms of type 1 diabetes in children? Symptoms of type 1 diabetes include: Extreme thirst Peeing more than usual (You might notice more wet diapers if your child is very young, or "accidents" if your child is potty trained.) Extreme hunger Weight loss Unusual tiredness Crankiness Yeast infection or diaper rash If your child has one or more of these symptoms, call his doctor right away. Type 1 diabetes symptoms can start quickly and become very serious without treatment. Get medical care immediately if your child has any of Continue reading >>

Pediatric Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus

Pediatric Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus

Practice Essentials Type 1 diabetes is a chronic illness characterized by the body’s inability to produce insulin due to the autoimmune destruction of the beta cells in the pancreas. Most pediatric patients with diabetes have type 1 and a lifetime dependence on exogenous insulin. [1] The image below depicts the effects of insulin deficiency. Signs and symptoms Signs and symptoms of type 1 diabetes in children include the following: See Clinical Presentation for more detail. Diagnosis Blood glucose Blood glucose tests using capillary blood samples, reagent sticks, and blood glucose meters are the usual methods for monitoring day-to-day diabetes control. Diagnostic criteria by the American Diabetes Association (ADA) include the following [2] : Glycated hemoglobin Measurement of HbA1c levels is the best method for medium-term to long-term diabetic control monitoring. An international expert committee composed of appointed representatives of the American Diabetes Association, the European Association for the Study of Diabetes, and others recommended HbA1c assay for diagnosing diabetes mellitus. [3] See Workup for more detail. Management Glycemic control The ADA recommends using patient age as one consideration in the establishment of glycemic goals, with different targets for preprandial, bedtime/overnight, and hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) levels in patients aged 0-6, 6-12, and 13-19 years. [4] Benefits of tight glycemic control include not only continued reductions in the rates of microvascular complications but also significant differences in cardiovascular events and overall mortality. Insulin therapy All children with type 1 diabetes mellitus require insulin therapy. Most require 2 or more injections of insulin daily, with doses adjusted on the basis of self-monitoring of b Continue reading >>

Type 2 Diabetes In Children & Adolescents

Type 2 Diabetes In Children & Adolescents

Type 2 diabetes was previously seen only in middle age or older adults. However, with the rise of obesity in children, it is now being increasingly diagnosed in young people, particularly Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander youth and children with non- European backgrounds. Type 2 diabetes is serious and can cause long-term complications such as heart and kidney disease, which, with more young people developing type 2 diabetes, are likely to occur at a younger age. Proper treatment is therefore essential to preventing these long-term health problems. Sometimes a young person with type 2 diabetes will be initially mistaken as having type 1 diabetes, until a complete assessment can be done. Type 2 Although there is a stronger inherited tendency to developing type 2 diabetes compared to type 1, type 2 diabetes in young people is largely due to lifestyle habits. Type 1 The development of type 1 diabetes is not usually related to lifestyle habits, obesity or insulin resistance, but to a problem with immunity. Children and adolescents most at risk of developing type 2 diabetes are those who are: overweight or obese AND have any two of the following: blood relatives with type 2 diabetes an Aboriginal or Pacific Islander background or other high risk ethnic groups signs of insulin resistance diagnosed by the doctor. Type 2 diabetes in young people is thought to result from insulin resistance, which means insulin does not work properly. The hormone insulin is made in our bodies by an organ called the pancreas and has an important role in regulating blood glucose levels. Young people with insulin resistance need to make more insulin than is ‘normally’ required to regulate their blood glucose levels. Overweight and obese young people are most likely to have insulin resistanc Continue reading >>

Type 2 Diabetes More Common, More Dangerous In Children

Type 2 Diabetes More Common, More Dangerous In Children

Newswise — Alarming increases of Type 2 diabetes in children are no closer to being managed successfully according to a study in The New England Journal of Medicine showing common diabetes-control medications failed to work in children. The study also found that because children develop Type 2 diabetes at younger ages, there is an increased lifetime risk for serious complications such as heart attack and stroke. Terri H. Lipman, PhD, CRNP, of the University of Pennsylvania School of Nursing, was a co-investigator in this multi-center study. Dr. Lipman, the Miriam Stirl Endowed Term Professor of Nutrition and professor of nursing of children, is an expert in pediatric diabetes. “Increases in childhood obesity have yielded an increased incidence of Type 2 diabetes in children,” said Dr. Lipman, who has a clinical practice at The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia. “It is important to understand that the epidemic of Type 2 diabetes in youth is secondary to high caloric intake and low activity. Both of these causes are a result of a multitude of socioeconomic factors that include food deserts and lack of safe places for activity.” Researchers analyzed 699 overweight children, ages 10 to 17, who were recently diagnosed with Type 2 diabetes, and found that 46 percent of those treated with the drug metformin, commonly used for diabetes control in adults, were not able to maintain healthy blood sugar levels. They needed to begin more powerful insulin injections within slightly less than a year. Among all the study participants, one in five had a serious complication such as very high blood sugar, typically leading to hospitalization. The study also suggested that a healthy lifestyle has little bearing on the effectiveness of treatment. Healthcare providers began noti Continue reading >>

Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus In Children

Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus In Children

What is type 1 diabetes in children? Diabetes is a condition in which the body can't make enough insulin, or can't use insulin normally. Type 1 diabetes is an autoimmune disorder. The body's immune system damages the cells in the pancreas that make insulin. Insulin is a hormone. It helps sugar (glucose) in the blood get into cells of the body to be used as fuel. When glucose can’t enter the cells, it builds up in the blood. This is called high blood sugar (hyperglycemia). High blood sugar can cause problems all over the body. It can damage blood vessels and nerves. It can harm the eyes, kidneys, and heart. It can also cause symptoms such as tiredness. Type 1 diabetes mellitus is a long-term (chronic) condition. It may start at any age. Only 5% of people with diabetes have type 1. Insulin from the pancreas must be replaced with insulin injections or an insulin pump. There are two forms of type 1 diabetes: Immune-mediated diabetes. This is an autoimmune disorder in which the body's immune system damages the cells in the pancreas that make insulin. This is the most common kind of type 1 diabetes. Idiopathic type 1. This refers to rare forms of the disease with no known cause. What causes type 1 diabetes in a child? The cause of type 1 diabetes is unknown. Researchers think some people inherit a gene than can cause type 1 diabetes if a trigger such as a virus occurs. Which children are at risk for type 1 diabetes? A child is more at risk for type 1 diabetes if he or she has any of these risk factors: A family member with the condition Caucasian race Being from Finland or Sardinia Is age 4 to 6, or 10 to 14 What are the symptoms of type 1 diabetes in a child? Type 1 diabetes often appears suddenly. In children, type 1 diabetes symptoms may be like flu symptoms. Symptoms ca Continue reading >>

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