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Which Of The Following Symptoms Are Seen With Diabetes Mellitus Quizlet

Chapter 24 Flashcards | Quizlet

Chapter 24 Flashcards | Quizlet

True or False? Glucagon promotes the oxidation of glucose for ATP production. True or False? A common method of treatment for hyperthyroidism involves the use of radioactive iodine. True or False? It is best for the diabetic athlete to eat complex carbohydrates 1 to 3 hours before exercise and ingest 15 to 30 g of carbohydrates every 30 minutes of intense exercise. True or False? For a rapid recovery, a diet soda should be given to an individual in a diabetic coma. True or False? When fat metabolism is required for energy, dehydration and ketoacidosis can result. True or False? Dermopathy associated with hyperthyroidism often appears as inflammation of the muscles surrounding the eye. True or False? Type 1 diabetes mellitus is usually seen in lean individuals under 30 years of age but requires insulin injections in only 20 to 30% of patients. True or False? In adults, symptoms of hypothyroidism include mental clouding, diminished appetite, and weight gain. True or False? When exercise lasts for several hours, insulin requirements are increased, hence the total insulin intake dose should be increased 20 to 50%. True or False? Diabetes secondary to other conditions includes individuals with pancreatic disease, hormonal disease, and drug or chemical exposure. True or False? Acetone is a by-product of fat metabolism, is volatile, and is blown off during expiration, which gives the breath a sweet or fruity odor. Which of the following is best to give to an individual who is experiencing insulin shock? An athlete reports with excessive polydypsia. What might this symptom indicate? Which of the following is NOT a sign of Graves disease? Signs and symptoms of insulin shock include each of the following EXCEPT C) tingling in the face, tongue, and lips The hormones produced by t Continue reading >>

Oral Path Chap 9 Flashcards | Quizlet

Oral Path Chap 9 Flashcards | Quizlet

Early exofoliation of the deciduous dentition and early eruption of the permanent teeth Hypercalcemia, hypophosphatemia, and abnormal bone metabolism are characteristic of which of the following conditions? Which of the following is typically an acute metabolic complication of uncontrolled diabetes mellitus? Polydipsia, polyuria, and polyphagia are all characteristics of which of the following conditions? Which of the following is not a feature of type 2 diabetes mellitus? Which of the following oral complication is not typically associated with diabetes mellitus? Multilocular radiolucencies with pathologic fracture Which one of the following is false concerning Addison disease? The patient may experience pathologic fracture Which of the following statements is false regarding diabetes mellitus? Diabetes mellitus is not considered a syndrome Which of the following statements is false? All primary immodeficiencies are combined B-lymphocyte and T-lymphocyte deficiencies Which one of the following is not a cause of iron deficiency anemia? Associated with a severe hemolytic anemia Achlorhydria, failure to absorb vitamin B12, and megaloblastic anemia are characteristic features of which of the following? Which of the following is not a characteristic of sickle cell anemia? Which of the following is characterized by a decrease in platelets? Secondary aplastic anemia can be caused by: Which of the following is characterized by an abnormal increase in circulating red blood cells? Leukopenia most often involves which type? If a patient's white blood cell count is 1000 cells/microfilter, the patient has: Excessive numbers of abnormal white blood cells are characteristic of: More accurate than the prothrombin time because it is standardized from the patient's ability to form a cl Continue reading >>

Diabetes

Diabetes

Sort Complications: Patients with DM have Ophthalmologic disease unrelated to diabetic retinopathy (e.g., cataracts, glaucoma, corneal abrasions, optic neuropathy); hepatobiliary diseases(e.g., nonalcoholic fatty liver disease [steatosis and steatohepatitis], cirrhosis, gallstones); and dermatologic disease (e.g., tinea infections, lower extremity ulcers, diabetic dermopathy, diabeticscleroderma, vitiligo, granuloma annulare, Insulin secretion Insulin secretion in beta cells is triggered by rising blood glucose levels. Starting with the uptake of glucose by the GLUT2 transporter, the glycolytic phosphorylation of glucose causes a rise in the ATP:ADP ratio. This rise inactivates the potassium channel that depolarizes the membrane, causing the calcium channel to open up allowing calcium ions to flow inward. The ensuing rise in levels of calcium leads to the exocytotic release of insulin from their storage granule. Insulin: Polypeptide hormone; cannot be swallowed • Injected S.C. (Or IV if needed: regular only) • Secretion triggered by blood glucose • Source: E. coli or Baker's Yeast • Insulin preparations vary by onset of action and duration of activity. • Inactivated by liver and kidney • ADRs: hypoglycemia, weight gain, allergy • Types: Rapid, short, intermediate, long-acting • Standard treatment: BID • Intensive treatment: 3 or more times a day • Insulin combinations Continue reading >>

Diabetes Mellitus

Diabetes Mellitus

Sort List the 6 classes of oral hypoglycaemic mediations 1. sulfonylureas (gliclazide) primary involvement with stimulating the pancreas to secrete insulin 2. biguanides (metformin) enhancing the glucose lower and combined with other oral hypoglycaemic 3. sulfanylureas & biguanide combination (mixed) 4. thiazolidinediones (pioglitazone) enhance insulin action at receptor cite by increasing insulin secretion from beta cells - targets beta cells 5. alpha-glycosidase inhibitors (acarbose) 6. glitinide (novanorm) lowering glucose level agent What is the action of insulin? insulin allows glucose to move into cells to make energy. It does this by: * glycogenisis - promotes production & storage of glycogen * glycogenolysis - inhibits glycogen breakdown into glucose * increases protein and lipid synthesis * inhibits tissue breakdown by inhibiting liver glycogenolysis (ketogenesis - converts fats to acids) and gluconeogenisis (conversion of proteins to glucose) * in muscle, promotes protein and glycogen synthesis * in fat cells, promotes triglyceride storage List the physical signs of DKA * altered mental status without evidence of head trauma * tachycardia * tachypnea or hyperventilation (kussmaul respirations) * normal/low BP Increased capillary refill time - poor perfusion * lethargy and weakness * fever * acetone door of the breath reflecting metabolic acidosis Describe the treatment management of DKA * initial stabilisation: ABCD, 1/2 hourly BP HR urine output, hourly capillary BGL, 2 hourly electrolytes especially potassium * fluids & electrolytes: most pt's have a deficit of several litres (40-80 ml/kg), rapid fluid reuses for hypovolaemia (first 24hrs give 1/3 fluid in the first 5-6 hours of N/saline), potassium replacement (if not above 6mmol/L give 1/2-2g, 6-26mmol/hr Continue reading >>

Focus On Diabetes Mellitus

Focus On Diabetes Mellitus

Sort Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus more common in young persons, can occur at any age S/S abrupt, but disease process may br present for several years 5-10% of all types Virus and Toxins Endogenous insulin is minimal or absent Thin, normal or obese nutritional status Thirst, Polyuria, polyphagia, fatigue and weight loss nutritional therapy essential insulin required for all frequent vascular and neurologic complications Tyoe 2 Diabetes Mellitus ususally 35 and older, can occur at any age, increasing in children may go undiagnosed for years 90-95% of all types obesity and lack of exercise endogenous insulin is probably excessive, adequate but delayed secretion or reduced utilization obes or normal nutritional status nutritional therapy is essential insulin required for some Nursing implementation: Ambulatory and Home care overall goal is to enable patient or caregiver to reach an optimal level of independence insulin therapy and oral agents personal hygiene medical identification and travel card (must carry identifications indicating diagnosis of diabetes) patient and family teaching (educate on disease process, physical activity, medications, monitoring blood glucose, diet, resources) (enable patient to become most active participant in care) Hypoglycemia signs and symptoms low blood glucose under 70 mg/dl too much insulin in proportion to glucose in the blood cold, clammy skin, diaphoresis numbeness of fingers, toes, and mouth rapid heartbeat confusion, irritability headache nervousness, tremors faintness, dizziness unsteady gait, slurred speach hunger changes in vision seizures, coma Gerontoligic considerations prevalence increases with age presence of delayed pscyhomotor function could interfere with treating of hypoglycemia must consider patient's own desire for treatmen Continue reading >>

Diabetes Pathophysiology

Diabetes Pathophysiology

Blood glucose regulation (6) 1. When blood glucose levels rise above a set point, 2. the pancreas secretes insulin into the blood. 3. Insulin stimulates liver and muscle cells to make glycogen, dropping blood glucose levels. 4. When glucose levels drop below a set point, 5. the pancreas secretes glucagon into the blood. 6. Glucagon promotes the breakdown of glycogen and the release of glucose into the blood. (The pancreas signals distant cells to regulate levels in the blood = endocrine function.) Insulin and Glucagon (Regulation) (10) 1. High blood glucose 2. Beta cells 3. Insulin 4. Glucose enters cell 5. Blood glucose lowered 6. Low blood glucose 7. Alpha cells 8. Glucagon 9. Liver releases glucose from glycogen 10. Blood glucose raised What is the manifestations (symptoms) of Type 1? (10) 1. Extreme thirst 2. Frequent urination 3. Drowsiness, lethargy 4. Sugar in urine 5. Sudden vision change 6. Increased appetite 7. Sudden weight loss 8. Fruity, sweet, or wine like odor on breath 9. Heavy, laboured breathing 10. Stupor, unconsciousness DKA Processes (5) 1. sympathetic nervous system response: additional glucose converted from glycogen 2. Glycogen depleted; body burns fat & protein for energy 3. fat metabolisms produce acidic substances called ketone bodies which accumulate in blood and urine and lead to metabolic acidosis 4. protein metabolism results in loss of lean muscle mass and negative nitrogen balance 5. high osmotic pressure created by excess glucose leads to osmotic diuresis (polyuria leads to dehydration and fluid and electrolyte deficits) HHNS Warning Signs (9) 1. Plasma glucose lvl over 600mg/dl 2. Dry, parched mouth 3. Extreme thirst may gradually subside 4. Warm, dry skin (no sweat) 5. High fever 6. Sleepiness or confusion 7. Loss of vision 8. Halluci Continue reading >>

Chapter 18 Final Questions

Chapter 18 Final Questions

Diabetes insipidus, diabetes mellitus (DM), and SIADH share which of the following assessment manifestations? A 50-year-old male patient presents with polyuria and extreme thirst. he was given exogenous ADH. For which of the following conditions would this treatment be effective? A 25-year-old male presents with fatigue, constipation, and sexual dysfunction. Tests reveal all pituitary hormones are normal and no masses are present. The nurse suspects the most likely cause of his symptoms is a dysfunction in the: A 15-year-old female presents with breast discharge, dysmenorrhea, and excessive excitability. Tests reveal that all her pituitary hormones are elevated. What does the nurse suspect as the most likely cause for these assessment findings? What common neurologic disturbances should the nurse assess for in a patient with a pituitary adenoma? A 35-year-old female with Graves disease is admitted to a medical-surgical unit. While the nurse is reviewing the lab tests, which results would the nurse expect to find? High levels of circulating thyroid-stimulating antibodies Which laboratory finding is inconsistent with a diagnosis of absolute insulin deficiency? c) blood glucose level of 210 mg/dL after 1hr following ingestion of 100g glucose While checking the lab results for a patient with Graves disease, the nurse would check the T3 level to be abnormally: A 35-year-old female with Graves disease is admitted to a medical-surgical unit. Which of the following symptoms would the nurse expect to find before treatment? Visual disturbances are a common occurrence in patients with untreated Graves disease. The endocrinologist explains to the patient that the main cause of these complications is: Orbital edema and protrusion of the eyeball A 25-year-old female with Graves dise Continue reading >>

Nur 108 Chapter 57 Drugs For Diabetes Mellitus

Nur 108 Chapter 57 Drugs For Diabetes Mellitus

A. Refer the patient to a diabetes educator because the result reflects poor glycemic control. Glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) is a measure of plasma glucose levels on average over the previous 2- to 3-month period. The target value is 6.5% or lower. If it is greater than 6.5%, a diabetes educator is an additional resource who can facilitate lifestyle, exercise, and medication changes. Hypoglycemia is not a concern, because elevated HbA1c levels indicate poor glycemic control. Exercise should be part of an overall management program, because it counteracts insulin resistance. A patient who has type 2 diabetes has a glycated hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) of 10%. The nurse should make which change to the nursing care plan? A. Refer the patient to a diabetes educator because the result reflects poor glycemic control. B. Glycemic control is adequate; no changes are needed. C. Hypoglycemia is a risk; teach the patient the symptoms. D. Instruct the patient to limit activity and weekly exercise. B. Promotion of insulin secretion Nateglinide is a meglitinide medication that acts to increase pancreatic insulin release. It is used as an adjunct to calorie restriction and exercise to maintain glycemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes. It does not act to reduce insulin resistance or inhibit carbohydrate digestion. It should not be used to manage diabetic ketone formation, because its glucose-lowering effects are too slow to be of benefit. A patient who has type 2 diabetes is taking nateglinide [Starlix]. Which response should a nurse expect the patient to have if the medication is achieving the desired therapeutic effect? A. Inhibition of carbohydrate digestion B. Promotion of insulin secretion C. Decreased insulin resistance D. Inhibition of ketone formation A. "Draw up the clear reg Continue reading >>

Nclex Style Practice Questions - Medsurg Diabetes

Nclex Style Practice Questions - Medsurg Diabetes

The guidelines for Carbohydrate Counting as medical nutrition therapy for diabetes mellitus includes all of the following EXCEPT: a. Flexibility in types and amounts of foods consumed b. Unlimited intake of total fat, saturated fat and cholesterol c. Including adequate servings of fruits, vegetables and the dairy group d. Applicable to with either Type 1 or Type 2 diabetes mellitus b. Unlimited intake of total fat, saturated fat and cholesterol The nurse working in the physician's office is reviewing lab results on the clients seen that day. One of the clients who has classic diabetic symptoms had an eight-hour fasting plasma glucose test done. The nurse realizes that diagnostic criteria developed by the American Diabetes Association for diabetes include classic diabetic symptoms plus which of the following fasting plasma glucose levels? When taking a health history, the nurse screens for manifestations suggestive of diabetes type I. Which of the following manifestations are considered the primary manifestations of diabetes type I and would be most suggestive of diabetes type I and require follow-up investigation? a. Excessive intake of calories, rapid weight gain, and difficulty losing weight b. Poor circulation, wound healing, and leg ulcers, c. Lack of energy, weight gain, and depression d. An increase in three areas: thirst, intake of fluids, and hunger D. An increase in three areas: thirst, intake of fluids, and hunger The primary manifestations of diabetes type I are polyuria (increased urine output), polydipsia (increased thirst), polyphagia (increased hunger). The nurse is working with an overweight client who has a high-stress job and smokes. This client has just received a diagnosis of Type II Diabetes and has just been started on an oral hypoglycemic agent. Continue reading >>

Chapter 45 Flashcards | Quizlet

Chapter 45 Flashcards | Quizlet

Poloyphagia associated with diabetes mellitus means the patient is extremely thirsty Diabetes mellitus type 1 has chronic onset and is seen in patients over 30 The goal of diabetic management is to maintain blood glucose levels slightly above normal Most glucometers have memory function that stores the patients blood glucose levels over time ___ regulates the amount of calcium in the blood and bones D. hyperfunctioning of the adrenal cortex C. a condition in which a childs height is impaired but the head and trunk are normal size Which of the endocrine glands produce epinephrine and norepinephrine Which of the endocrine glands is divided into anterior and posterior lobes? Which endocrine gland requires iodine to produce its hormone? The islets of which endocrine gland regulate the blood glucose levels Disease that results in enlargement of the bones of the hands, feet, jaws, and cheeks is Which endocrine gland regulates electrolyte and fluid homeostasis? Which disorder is common form of hyperthyroidism Which disorder is caused by overactive adrenal gland? which hormone is not produced by the anterior pituitary? The pineal gland excretes which of the following hormones? All of the following are symptoms of diabetes insipidus except Patients with diabetes insipidus are treated wit which of the following medications to prevent fatal dhydration? A patient wit acromegaly has which of the following symptoms A goiter might form because which of the following problems? Patients with hypothyroidism must take which medications Thyrotoxicosis can result in which sympotom B. Polydipsia, polyphagia, and rapid weight loss Typical symptoms of diabetes mellitus include which of the following? You have just received the laboratory results for a patient suspected of having prediabetes. Continue reading >>

Patho Exam 4

Patho Exam 4

Sort Which of the following types of diabetes is controlled primarily through diet, exercise, and oral medications? A. Diabetes insipidus B. Diabetic ketoacidosis C. Type 1 diabetes mellitus D. Type 2 diabetes mellitus D A client presenting with low levels of adrenocortical hormones in the blood or urine may have which of the following conditions? A. Addison's Disease B. Cushing's syndrome C. Hyperthyroidism D. Hypothyroidism A Secretion of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) by which of the following glands controls the rate at which thyroid hormone is released? A. Adrenal gland B. Parathyroid gland C. Pituitary gland D. Thyroid gland C The hormones triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4) affect which of the following body processes? A. Blood glucose level & glyconeogenesis B. Growth & development as well as metabolic rate C. Growth of bones, muscles, & other organs D. Bone resorption, calcium absorption, and blood calcium levels B Which of the following groups of hormones are released by the medulla of the adrenal gland? A. Epinephrine & norepinephrine B. Glucocorticoids, mineralocorticoids, & androgens C. Triiodothyronine (T3), thyroxine (T4) , and calcitonin D. Insulin , glucagon, and somatostatin A Diabetes Mellitus is a group of metabolic disorders in which the body's capacity to utilize glucose, fat, and protein are disturbed due to insulin deficiency or insulin resistance. A. True B. False A Which of the following conditions is caused excessive secretion of ADH (vasopressin)? A. Thyrotoxic crisis (storm) B. Diabetes insipidus C. Primary Adrenocortical insufficiency D. Syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIADH) D Which of the following disease processes releases enough insulin to prevent ketosis but not enough to prevent hyperglycemia? A. Dia Continue reading >>

Chapter 38 Questions

Chapter 38 Questions

regulates the amount of calcium in the blood and bones hyperfunctioning of the pituitary gland after puberty and Aiden almost of the pituitary gland during adulthood a condition in which a child's height is impaired but the head and trunk are normal size which of the induction glands is divided into anterior and posterior lobes which endocrine gland requires iodine to produces hormones the islets if bitching Doctrine gland regulate the blood glucose levels the disease that results in enlargement of the bones in hands feet Joel and cheek sis which disorder is a common form of hyperthyroidism which disorder is caused by an overactive adrenal gland which of the following hormones is not produced by the anterior pituitary the pineal gland secretes which of the following hormones all of the following are symptoms of diabetes insipidus except patients with diabetes insipidus are treated with which following medication to prevent fatal dehydration a patient with acromegaly has which of the following symptoms a goiter might form because of which of the following problems patients with hypothyroidism must take which of the following medications typical symptoms of diabetes mellitus include which of the following polydipsia polyphagia and rapid weight loss you have just received the laboratory results for your patients expected of Heaven prediabetes what would you expect the lab work to show patients with diabetes mellitus must be very careful about foot care to prevent complications which of the following will be a part of a patient education intervention about diabetic foot care cut your new straight across to avoid ingrown toenails and possible injuries which of the following is true about endemic goiters they are caused by a lack of iodine in diet and they are restricted to Continue reading >>

Diabetes Mellitus Flashcards | Quizlet

Diabetes Mellitus Flashcards | Quizlet

Short acting:Regular insulin:onset 30-60 mins peak 2-4 hrs duration 6-8 hrs used for dosing pts with sliding scale only form of insulin that can be given IV monitor for hypoglycemia, have oral carb availible. What are the classic signs and symptoms of Diabetes mellitus the quantity of nitrogen in the blood in the form of urea. The normal concentration is 8 to 25 mg/100 mL; An increase in the BUN level often indicates decreased renal function abnormally high blood sugar usually associated with diabetes abnormally low blood sugar usually resulting from excessive insulin or a poor diet do not mix this insulin with any other medications. It is Clear. Administer Sub Q. Monitor for weight. Monitor for hypoglycemia & redness at injection site., insulin glargine Insulin lispro, Rapid-Acting Insulin, Onset: 15-30 min, Peak: 0.5-2.5 hrs, Duration: 3-6.5 hrs Excessive urination, excessive thirst, dry mouth, and dry skin, acetone breath (fruity smell) blurred vision and headache, rapid pulse, lower blood pressure, and loss of consciousness. Record info let dentis know. More blood sugar in blood level. Why are diabetics more prone to infection Usually occurs during the night, but manifests as an elevated glucose in the morning and may be inadvertently treated with an increase in insulin dosage. Check blood glucose around 3:00 a.m. Adjusting insulin to avoid peaking during the night will correct this effect. Another tx for Diabetes Insipidus (not often used) - 1st generation sulfonuric agent that was used for type II diabetes but is not often used any more. It can increase ADH secretion or it can improve the affect ADH has on the kidneys. Given to pts with nephrogenic DI b/c it improves the use or ability of the existing ADH to have an effect. stimulate release of insulin from pancr Continue reading >>

Pharm Flashcards | Quizlet

Pharm Flashcards | Quizlet

Which of the following stimulates the pancreas to secrete insulin While taking a health history, the nurse should recognize that which of the following is NOT a short term sign of type 1 dm When giving insulin, the nurse knows the most common route of administration is which of the following When planning follow up care, the nurse should know that which of the following is a longer acting form of insulin Which of the following adverse effects does the nurse recognize when too much insulin has been administered When giving oral hypoglycemics, the nurse expects which of the following actions to occur The pancreas is stimulated to secrete more insulin, insulin receptors become more sensitive to target tissues Persons with type 1 or type 2 dm who are not able to achieve glucose control by the use of insulin alone might be administered this insulin adjunct, resembling a natural hormone found in beta cells of the pancreas During oral hypoglycemic therapy, the nurse should assess for which symptoms related to abnormalities in liver function If injection sites are not rotated regularly, the diabetic patient may suffer from which of the following Which of the following nursing diagnoses is not appropriate for the patient receiving insulin therapy When considering glucose regulation in the body, which of the following components of homeostasis would be restored following insulin therapy Effector (responds to the increased levels of glucose in the bloodstream) If a patient is prescribed regular insulin and is also prescribed antihypertensive drugs, which of the following would likely mask symptoms of hypoglycemic reaction due to insulin therapy Which of the following antihypertensives would reverse the hypo glycemic effect of anti-diabetic pharmacotherapy Why must the nurse instr Continue reading >>

Ch. 10 Flashcards | Quizlet

Ch. 10 Flashcards | Quizlet

Which of the following is/are a sign or symptom of hypoglycemia? II. sudden onset IV. fruity odor on breath Practice starts in 30 minutes. One of your diabetic athletes just checked his blood sugar and found it to be 88 gm/dL. What is your recommendation for this athlete? Which of the following are considered a sign or symptom of hyperglycemia? II. pallor and diaphoresis IV. severe thirst What is the underlying pathophysiology of insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus? Which of the following organs secretes thyroid-stimulating hormone and works to regulate During exercise, glucose releases from the liver into the blood ________________. Excessive sweating not associated with activity is referred to as: Which of the following conditions is associated with muscle enzyme leakage and a cascade of potentially life-threatening electrolyte imbalances? Which of the following conditions is associated with cola or tea colored urine? Which of the following signs and symptoms is NOT typically associated with pathology of Which of the following is NOT a sign or symptom of hyperglycemia? Which of the following is the body's primary source of energy? Which of the following hormones decreases blood glucose level? Which of the following hormones is released during exercise? With a change in body temperature, which endocrine gland receives information from the Which gland directly affects overall body metabolism? Which gland secretes antidiuretic hormone? Very high volume endurance exercise increases secretion of which hormone? Very intense exercise decreases secretion of which hormone? Left upper quadrant or generalized epigastric pain can be caused by which endocrine Insulin-dependent diabetes affects which gland? Insulin-dependent diabetes affects metabolism of: What intervention is nec Continue reading >>

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