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Which Of The Following May Be More Helpful For A Client With Type 1 Diabetes Quizlet

Chapter 17 - Diet And Diabetes Mellitus - Ameritech - Semester 3

Chapter 17 - Diet And Diabetes Mellitus - Ameritech - Semester 3

Damage to small blood vessels in the eyes diabetes occurring suddenly between the ages of 1 and 40. Clients secrete little, if any, insulin and require insulin injections and carefully controlled diet diabetes occurring usually after age 40. Onset is gradual and production of insulin gradually diminishes. Can usually be controlled by diet and exercise. Oral hypoglycemic agent; medication that may be given to type 2 diabetes to be given to type 2 diabetes to lower blood glucose. Blood test to determine how well blood glucose has been controlled for the last 3 months Artificial sweetener made from amino acids. Does not require insulin from metabolism. Hypoglycemia leading to insulin coma caused by too much insulin or too little food 1. Which of the following statements is correct for type 1 diabetes? a. Most clients with diabetes (90-95%) have type 1 b. The pancreases continues to produce insulin; the body simply has difficulty using it c. Cline with type 1 diabetes are often obese d. Diabetes is caused by an autoimmune reaction Answer is Diabetes is caused by an autoimmune reaction 2. Which of the following statements is correct for type 2 diabetes? a. Clients are usually diagnosed at a young age b. Clients may not have obvious symptoms of type 2 diabetes c. Insulin must be used to control blood sugars d. The pancreas no longer produces any insulin Answer is Clients may not have obvious symptoms of type 2 diabetes 3. Damage to the kidneys as a complication is known as Continue reading >>

Chapter 51 Caring For Clients With Diabetes Mellitus

Chapter 51 Caring For Clients With Diabetes Mellitus

A magnifier that fits over the syringe may be used for clients who experience difficulty in preparing insulin for injection, especially older clients. The device is easy to use and relatively inexpensive. An insulin pen, although preloaded, requires the client to select the number of units for injection by dialing in the dose, which may be difficult for the older client to manipulate or see. A jet injector may be helpful, but this device is often expensive; the older client may not be able to afford it. An insulin pump, although advantageous, requires frequent monitoring of blood glucose levels, which may or may be appropriate for the older client. The nurse is describing the action of insulin in the body to a client newly diagnosed with type 1 diabetes. Which of the following would the nurse explain as being the primary action? B) It aids in the process of gluconeogenesis. C) It stimulates the pancreatic beta cells. D) It decreases the intestinal absorption of glucose. Insulin carries glucose into body cells as their preferred source of energy. Besides, it promotes the liver's storage of glucose as glycogen and inhibits the breakdown of glycogen back into glucose. Insulin does not aid in gluconeogenesis but inhibits the breakdown of glycogen back into glucose. Insulin does not have an effect on the intestinal absorption of glucose. The nurse is preparing a presentation for a group of adults at a local community center about diabetes. Which of the following would the nurse include as associated with type 2 diabetes? Type 2 diabetes is characterized by insulin resistance or insufficient insulin production. It is more common in aging adults and now accounts for 20% of all newly diagnosed cases. Type 1 diabetes is more likely in childhood and adolescence; although, it can Continue reading >>

Nutrition Chapter 17, 18

Nutrition Chapter 17, 18

Which of the following clients is at highest risk for developing a peptic ulcer? a. A 44-year-old who takes a proton pump inhibitor agent every day b. A 56-year-old successfully treated four years ago for Helicobacter pylori infection c. A 68-year-old who takes nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs around the clock for arthritis pain d. A 55-year-old who describes his philosophy of life as "live and let live" What is a clinical manifestation specific for a bleeding peptic ulcer? A client with Barrett's esophagus is at increased risk of developing ________ . A client with advanced cancer is started on morphine, an opiate analgesic. The client is also on a tricyclic antidepressant and an aluminum-containing antacid. Which nursing intervention is the priority at this time? a. Initiate bowel program to prevent constipation. c. Establish activity / exercise program. A client is complaining of flatulence. Which of the following factors may be contributing to the problem? a. Drinking 6-8 glasses of flavored water daily b. Attempting to have a bowel movement every morning after breakfast c. Drinking 3-4 cans of cola through a straw every day d. Eat slowly and chewing food well with the mouth closed What instruction would be most appropriate for a client who is experiencing diarrhea? a. "Avoid oatmeal, which may increase peristalsis." b. "Substitute pear juice for the prune juice you enjoy." c. "Sweeten foods with honey instead of raw sugar." d. "Take a bulk-forming agent such as psyllium (Metamucil)." Dietary supplements can help to correct nutrient deficiencies associated with the treatment of bacterial overgrowth, especially deficiencies of the fat-soluble vitamins, vitamin B12, and ________ . Which erroneous belief of a client who is lactose intolerant requires further teach Continue reading >>

Med-surg Exam 4 Nclex

Med-surg Exam 4 Nclex

Classic signs of diabetes mellitus include polydipsia (excessive thirst), polyphagia (excessive hunger), and polyuria (excessive urination). Because the body is starving from the lack of glucose the cells are using for energy, the client has weight loss, not weight gain. Clients with diabetes mellitus usually don't present with constipation. Urine retention is only a problem is the patient has another renal-related condition A client is brought to the emergency department in an unresponsive state, and a diagnosis of hyperglycemic hyperosmolar nonketotic syndrome is made. The nurse would immediately prepare to initiate which of the following anticipated physician's prescriptions? 4. Intravenous infusion of sodium bicarbonate Intravenous infusion of normal saline Rationale: The primary goal of treatment is hyperglycemic hyperosmolar nonketotic syndrome (HHNS) is to rehydrate the client to restore the fluid volume and to correct electrolyte deficiency. Intravenous fluid replacement is similar to that administered in diabetic keto acidosis (DKA) and begins with IV infusion of normal saline. Regular insulin, not NPH insulin, would be administered. The use of sodium bicarbonate to correct acidosis is avoided because it can precipitate a further drop in serum potassium levels. Intubation and mechanical ventilation are not required to treat HHNS. A 55-year-old female patient with type 2 diabetes has a nursing diagnosis of imbalanced nutrition: more than body requirements. Which goal is most important for this patient? A. The patient will reach a glycosylated hemoglobin level of less than 7%. B. The patient will follow a diet and exercise plan that results in weight loss. C. The patient will choose a diet that distributes calories throughout the day. D. The patient will state t Continue reading >>

Prep U Flashcards | Quizlet

Prep U Flashcards | Quizlet

What is the only insulin that can be given intravenously? Explanation: Insulins other than regular are in suspensions that could be harmful if administered IV. Lispro (Humalog) is an example of which type of insulin? Humalog is a rapid-acting insulin. NPH is an intermediate-acting insulin. A short-acting insulin is Humulin-R. An example of a long-acting insulin is Glargine (Lantus). A client is admitted to the unit with diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA). Which insulin would the nurse expect to administer intravenously? Regular insulin is administered intravenously to treat DKA. It is added to an IV solution and infused continuously. Glargine, NPH, and Lente are only administered subcutaneously. A nurse is preparing a client with type 1 diabetes for discharge. The client can care for himself; however, he's had a problem with unstable blood glucose levels in the past. Based on the client's history, he should be referred to which health care worker? The client should be referred to a dietitian, who will help him gain better control of his blood glucose levels. The client can care for himself, so a home health agency isn't necessary. The client shows no signs of needing a psychiatric referral, and referring the client to a psychiatrist isn't in the nurse's scope of practice. Social workers help clients with financial concerns; the scenario doesn't indicate that the client has a financial concern warranting a social worker at this time. A nurse is providing dietary instructions to a client with hypoglycemia. To control hypoglycemic episodes, the nurse should recommend: consuming a low-carbohydrate, high-protein diet and avoiding fasting. To control hypoglycemic episodes, the nurse should instruct the client to consume a low-carbohydrate, high-protein diet, avoid fasting, and avoi Continue reading >>

Diabetes!!

Diabetes!!

Sort The nurse explains that type 1 diabetes mellitus is a disease in which the body does not produce enough insulin; consequently, the blood glucose is elevated because of the: a. Prolonged elevation of stress hormone (cortisol, epinephrine, glucagon, growth hormone) levels. b. Malfunction of the glycogen-storing capabilities of the liver. c. Destruction of the beta cells in the pancreas. d. Insulin resistance of the receptor cells in the muscle tissue. c. Destruction of the beta cells in the pancreas. *Type 1 diabetes mellitus is a disease in which the pancreas does not produce adequate insulin because of the destruction of beta cells. When a patient newly diagnosed with type 2 diabetes mellitus asks the nurse why she has to take a pill instead of insulin, the nurse replies that in type 2 diabetes mellitus, the body still makes insulin. What other information is pertinent for the nurse to relay? a. Overweight and underactive people cannot simply use the insulin produced. b. Metabolism is slowed in some people so they have to take a pill to speed up their metabolism. c. Sometimes the autoimmune system works against the action of the insulin. d. The cells become resistant to the action of insulin. Pills are given to increase the sensitivity. d. The cells become resistant to the action of insulin. Pills are given to increase the sensitivity *Type 2 diabetes mellitus is a disease in which the cells become resistant to the action of insulin and the blood glucose level rises. Oral hyperglycemic agents make the cells more sensitive. A patient tells the nurse that she eats "huge" amounts of food but stays hungry most of the time. The nurse explains that hunger experienced by persons with type 1 diabetes is caused by the: a. Excess amount of glucose b. Need for additional calo Continue reading >>

Diabetes Mellitus Prep U

Diabetes Mellitus Prep U

What is the only insulin that can be given intravenously? During a follow-up visit 3 months following a new diagnosis of type 2 diabetes, a patient reports exercising and following a reduced-calorie diet. Assessment reveals that the patient has only lost 1 pound and did not bring the glucose-monitoring record. Which of the following tests will the nurse plan to obtain? A client with diabetes mellitus has a prescription for 5 units of U-100 regular insulin and 25 units of U-100 isophane insulin suspension (NPH) to be taken before breakfast. At about 4:30 p.m., the client experiences headache, sweating, tremor, pallor, and nervousness. What is the most probable cause of these signs and symptoms? 15 to 20 g of a fast-acting carbohydrate such as orange juice. A nurse is caring for a client with type 1 diabetes who exhibits confusion, light-headedness, and aberrant behavior. The client is conscious. The nurse should first administer: Coma, anxiety, confusion, headache, and cool, moist skin A client's blood glucose level is 45 mg/dl. The nurse should be alert for which signs and symptoms? A nurse expects to find which signs and symptoms in a client experiencing hypoglycemia? -Normally the level of glycosylated hemoglobin is less than 7%. Thus a level of 6.5% would indicate that the client's blood glucose level is well-controlled. A client with diabetes comes to the clinic for a follow-up visit. The nurse reviews the client's glycosylated hemoglobin test results. Which result would indicate to the nurse that the client's blood glucose level has been well-controlled? A nurse is caring for a diabetic patient with a diagnosis of nephropathy. What would the nurse expect the urinalysis report to indicate? -Regular insulin is administered intravenously to treat DKA. It is added to Continue reading >>

Diabetes Nclex Questions And 1 Other

Diabetes Nclex Questions And 1 Other

1, 4, 6 Rationale: Classic signs of diabetes mellitus include polydipsia (excessive thirst), polyphagia (excessive hunger), and polyuria (excessive urination). Because the body is starving from the lack of glucose the cells are using for energy, the client has weight loss, not weight gain. Clients with diabetes mellitus usually don't present with constipation. Urine retention is only a problem is the patient has another renal-related condition. A client is brought to the emergency department in an unresponsive state, and a diagnosis of hyperglycemic hyperosmolar nonketotic syndrome is made. The nurse would immediately prepare to initiate which of the following anticipated physician's prescriptions? 1. Endotracheal intubation 2. 100 units of NPH insulin 3. Intravenous infusion of normal saline 4. Intravenous infusion of sodium bicarbonate CORRECT ANSWER: 3. Intravenous infusion of normal saline Rationale: The primary goal of treatment is hyperglycemic hyperosmolar nonketotic syndrome (HHNS) is to rehydrate the client to restore the fluid volume and to correct electrolyte deficiency. Intravenous fluid replacement is similar to that administered in diabetic keto acidosis (DKA) and begins with IV infusion of normal saline. Regular insulin, not NPH insulin, would be administered. The use of sodium bicarbonate to correct acidosis is avoided because it can precipitate a further drop in serum potassium levels. Intubation and mechanical ventilation are not required to treat HHNS. "A client is taking Humulin NPH insulin daily every morning. The nurse instructs the client that the mostlikely time for a hypoglycemic reaction to occur is: B: Rationale: Humulin is an intermediate acting insulin. The onset of action is 1.5 hours, it peaks in 4-12 hours, and its duration is 24 hours. Continue reading >>

Pharm Test 2 Quizes Flashcards | Quizlet

Pharm Test 2 Quizes Flashcards | Quizlet

19. For the most consistent absorption, into which site should insulin be injected? 20. A patient in the ICU requires intravenous insulin. The nurse is aware that: d. only regular insulin can be administered IV 21. The nurse is counseling a patient who has been started on thyroid replacement therapy for hypothyroidism. Which of the following should be included in patient education 22. Which statement best describes the pharmacodynamics of insulin? d. Insulin lowers blood glucose by promoting use of glucose in the body cells 23. The female client diagnosed with Type 2 diabetes tells the clinic nurse that she started taking ginseng to help increase her memory. Which action should the clinic nurse take? d. Determine if the client is currently taking any type of antidiabetic medications (ginseng and garlic increase hypoglycemic effects) 24. The male client diagnosed with Cushing's disease calls the clinic nurse and informs the nurse that he has a temperature of 100.1 degrees F. Which action should the nurse take? The client has developed Cushing's syndrome as a result of long-term steroid therapy. Which assessment findings would indicate this condition b. The client has a round face and multiple ecchymotic areas on the arms 26. What classic signs and symptoms are present in hypothyroidism? You may select more than one answer. 27. When obtaining a new vial of NPH insulin from refrigeration, the nurse notes that the suspension is partially frozen. The nurse should: Discard the vial and obtain a new one from the pharmacy 28. Glucose is an important molecule in a cell because this molecule is primarily used for: 29. The fuel glucose is delivered to the cells by the blood for production of energy. The hormone controlling use of glucose by the cell is: 30. Ketone bodies appear i Continue reading >>

Diabetes Flashcards | Quizlet

Diabetes Flashcards | Quizlet

4. A client is seen in the health care providers office. What data should alert the nurse as a risk factor associated with the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus? d. History of delivering a baby weighing less than 8 lb 5. The nurse is educating a client newly diagnosed with type 1 diabetes mellitus. What information should the nurse include in client education about ongoing monitoring of glucose levels? a. Urine testing will assist in measuring hypoglycemia. b. Urine testing is only used until glucose goals are achieved. c. Self-monitoring blood glucose is painless and noninvasive. d. Self-monitoring blood glucose should occur three or four times a day. d. Self-monitoring blood glucose should occur three or four times a day. 6. The nurse has completed educating a client diagnosed with type 1 diabetes mellitus about medication, nutrition, and exercise. What statement by the client indicates the client has a good understanding of how to properly treat diabetes mellitus? a. "I will take oral hypoglycemic agents to control my blood glucose." b. "I need to exercise at least 120 minutes each week." c. "I need to learn sick day management rules." d. "I will prevent prolonged sessions of exercise because they cause hyperglycemia." c. "I need to learn sick day management rules." 7. When planning care for a client with diabetes mellitus, the nurse addresses the potential problem of risk for infection. Which intervention will assist in addressing this potential problem? a. Monitor sensation to extremities daily. b. Instruct the client to have an oral examination yearly. c. Teach using lukewarm water and soap for skin care. c. Teach using lukewarm water and soap for skin care. 8. The nurse is admitting a client with diabetes mellitus. Which information should the nurse specif Continue reading >>

Chapter 64 - Diabetes

Chapter 64 - Diabetes

Which explanation best assists a client in differentiating type 1 diabetes from type 2 diabetes? Most clients with type 1 diabetes are born with it. People with type 1 diabetes are often obese. Those with type 2 diabetes make insulin, but in inadequate amounts. People with type 2 diabetes do not develop typical diabetic complications. Those with type 2 diabetes make insulin, but in inadequate amounts. People with type 2 diabetes make some insulin but in inadequate amounts, or they have resistance to existing insulin. Although type 1 diabetes may occur early in life, it may be caused by immune responses. Obesity is typically associated with type 2 diabetes. People with type 2 diabetes are at risk for complications, especially cardiovascular complications. The nurse receives report on a 52-year-old client with type 2 diabetes: Physical Assessment Diagnostic Findings Provider Prescriptions Lungs clear Glucose 179 mg/dL Regular insulin 8 units if blood glucose 250 to 275 mg/dL and cold to touch Right great toe mottled Hemoglobin A1c 6.9% Regular insulin 10 units if glucose 275 to 300 mg/dL Which complication of diabetes does the nurse report to the provider? A cold, mottled toe may indicate arterial occlusion secondary to arterial occlusive disease or embolization; this must be reported to avoid potential gangrene and amputation. Although one glucose reading is elevated, the hemoglobin A1c indicates successful glucose control over the past 3 months. After the age of 40, reading glasses may be needed due to difficulty in accommodating to close objects. Lungs are clear and no evidence of distress is noted. Awarded 0.0 points out of 1.0 possible points. A client with type 1 diabetes mellitus received regular A client with type 1 diabetes mellitus received regular insulin at 7 Continue reading >>

Adult Health Exam 2 Diabetes

Adult Health Exam 2 Diabetes

A nurse is developing a teaching plan for a client with diabetes mellitus. A client with diabetes mellitus should Which of the following would be included in the teaching plan for a patient diagnosed with diabetes mellitus? Elevated blood glucose levels contribute to complications of diabetes, such as diminished vision The client newly diagnosed with type 2 diabetes asks how diabetes type 1 and diabetes type 2 are different. What is the nurse's best response? A. "Diabetes type 1 develops in people younger than 40 years and diabetes type 2 develops only in older people." B. "Diabetes type 2 develops in people younger than 40 years and diabetes type 1 develops only in older people." C. "Patients with type 1 diabetes are at higher risk for obesity and heart disease, whereas patients with type 2 diabetes are at higher risk for strokes." D. "Patients with type 1 diabetes produce no insulin and patients with type 2 diabetes produce insulin but their insulin receptors are not very sensitive to it." Rationale: The main problem with type 1 diabetes is that the person can no longer make insulin. Without insulin, the client's blood glucose level becomes very high, but glucose cannot enter many cells. Clients with type 1 diabetes must use insulin daily for the rest of their lives or receive a pancreas transplant. With type 2 diabetes, the person still has beta cells that make some insulin. In fact, some people with type 2 diabetes have normal levels of insulin; however, the insulin receptors are not very sensitive to it. As a result, insulin does not bind as tightly to its receptors as it should, and less glucose moves from the blood into the cells A client with type 2 diabetes who also has heart failure is prescribed metformin extended-release (Glucophage XR) once daily. On asses Continue reading >>

Test 2 Nurs 310 Flashcards | Quizlet

Test 2 Nurs 310 Flashcards | Quizlet

-BID to QID dosing immediately prior to a meal or snack -SIDE EFFECTS: Hypoglycemia (less often that with sulfonylureas) -Prevent the absorption of fructose and sucrose from the intestine. -BID to QID dosing immediately prior to a meal or snack -SIDE EFFECTS: primarily gastrointestinal including bloating, abdominal cramping, nausea and diarrhea -If you have a patient that is taking these medications, you must treat hypoglycemia with glucose or lactose. -Inhibit gluconeogenesis in the liver, increases insulin sensitivity in the muscle cell. -Most frequently prescribed diabetes medication. -SIDE EFFECTS: primarily gastrointestinal - usually helped by taking the medication with food. -CONTRAINDICATIONS: renal failure, CHF, alcoholism, creatinine >1.4 in women/>1.5 in men. -A rare side effect of therapy is lactic acidosis. This build up of lactic acid in the muscle tissue can be fatal. Can cause lactic acidosis -All patients taking Biguanides should have the medication discontinued immediately prior to and for 48 hours following any study using radiological dye. Examples: Glucophage, Glucophage XR, Metformin Improve insulin sensitivity in the fat cells. SIDE EFFECTS: edema, may cause liver toxicity, weight gain. CONTRAINDICATIONS: CHF, liver failure or elevated liver enzymes, renal failure. LFT's need to be done prior to initiation therapy and periodically thereafter. What are the Special Considerations When Initiating Insulin Therapy Number of times per day the patient will need to take the medication Assessment for visual, cognitive, fine motor deficits. Will they remember that they need to give the insulin or if they have given t already- cognitive. Visual- can they see the insulin lines on the needles. Fine motor- do they have the ability to do this, arthritis Most pat Continue reading >>

Prep U Diabetes Flashcards | Quizlet

Prep U Diabetes Flashcards | Quizlet

A client with type 1 diabetes mellitus is receiving short-acting insulin to maintain control of blood glucose levels. In providing glucometer instructions, the nurse would instruct the client to use which site for most accurate findings? A client with diabetes is receiving an oral anti diabetic agent that acts to help the tissues use available insulin more efficiently. Which of the following agents would the nurse expect to administer? Metformin is a biguanide and, along with the thiazolidinediones (rosiglitazone and pioglitazone), are categorized as insulin sensitizers; they help tissues use available insulin more efficiently. Glyburide and glipizide, which are sulfonylureas, and repaglinide, a meglitinide, are described as being insulin releasers because they stimulate the pancreas to secrete more insulin. After being sick for 3 days, a client with a history of diabetes mellitus is admitted to the hospital with diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA). The nurse should evaluate which diagnostic test results to prevent arrhythmias? Which of the following clinical characteristics is associated with type 2 diabetes (previously referred to as non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus [NIDDM])? Can control blood glucose through diet and exercise The nurse is preparing a presentation for a group of adults at a local community center about diabetes. Which of the following would the nurse include as associated with type 2 diabetes? A nurse is preparing a client with type 1 diabetes for discharge. The client can care for himself; however, he's had a problem with unstable blood glucose levels in the past. Based on the client's history, he should be referred to which health care worker? A nurse is developing a teaching plan for a client with diabetes mellitus. A client with diabetes mellitus Continue reading >>

Nclex Med-surg Diabetes

Nclex Med-surg Diabetes

The guidelines for Carbohydrate Counting as medical nutrition therapy for diabetes mellitus includes all of the following EXCEPT: a. Flexibility in types and amounts of foods consumed b. Unlimited intake of total fat, saturated fat and cholesterol c. Including adequate servings of fruits, vegetables and the dairy group d. Applicable to with either Type 1 or Type 2 diabetes mellitus b. Unlimited intake of total fat, saturated fat and cholesterol The nurse working in the physician's office is reviewing lab results on the clients seen that day. One of the clients who has classic diabetic symptoms had an eight-hour fasting plasma glucose test done. The nurse realizes that diagnostic criteria developed by the American Diabetes Association for diabetes include classic diabetic symptoms plus which of the following fasting plasma glucose levels? When taking a health history, the nurse screens for manifestations suggestive of diabetes type I. Which of the following manifestations are considered the primary manifestations of diabetes type I and would be most suggestive of diabetes type I and require follow-up investigation? a. Excessive intake of calories, rapid weight gain, and difficulty losing weight b. Poor circulation, wound healing, and leg ulcers, c. Lack of energy, weight gain, and depression d. An increase in three areas: thirst, intake of fluids, and hunger D. An increase in three areas: thirst, intake of fluids, and hunger The primary manifestations of diabetes type I are polyuria (increased urine output), polydipsia (increased thirst), polyphagia (increased hunger). The nurse is working with an overweight client who has a high-stress job and smokes. This client has just received a diagnosis of Type II Diabetes and has just been started on an oral hypoglycemic agent. Continue reading >>

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