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Which Of The Following Hormones Will Not Increase Your Blood Glucose Level?

How Insulin And Glucagon Work To Regulate Blood Sugar Levels

How Insulin And Glucagon Work To Regulate Blood Sugar Levels

The pancreas secretes insulin and glucagon, both of which play a vital role in regulating blood sugar levels. The two hormones work in balance. If the level of one hormone is outside the ideal range, blood sugar levels may spike or drop. Together, insulin and glucagon help keep conditions inside the body steady. When blood sugar is too high, the pancreas secretes more insulin. When blood sugar levels drop, the pancreas releases glucagon to bring them back up. Blood sugar and health The body converts carbohydrates from food into sugar (glucose), which serves as a vital source of energy. Blood sugar levels vary throughout the day but, in most instances, insulin and glucagon keep these levels normal. Health factors including insulin resistance, diabetes, and problems with diet can cause a person's blood sugar levels to soar or plummet. Blood sugar levels are measured in milligrams per decilitre (mg/dl). Ideal blood sugar ranges are as follows: Before breakfast - levels should be less than 100 mg/dl for a person without diabetes and 70-130 mg/dl for a person with diabetes. Two hours after meals - levels should be less than 140 mg/dl for a person without diabetes and less than 180 mg/dl for a person with diabetes. Blood sugar regulation Blood sugar levels are a measure of how effectively an individual's body uses glucose. When the body does not convert enough glucose for use, blood sugar levels remain high. Insulin helps the body's cells absorb glucose, lowering blood sugar and providing the cells with the glucose they need for energy. When blood sugar levels are too low, the pancreas releases glucagon. Glucagon forces the liver to release stored glucose, which causes the blood sugar to rise. Insulin and glucagon are both released by islet cells in the pancreas. These cells Continue reading >>

Diabetes Mellitus (dm) And Disorders Of Blood Sugar Metabolism

Diabetes Mellitus (dm) And Disorders Of Blood Sugar Metabolism

Hypoglycemia is abnormally low levels of sugar (glucose) in the blood. Hypoglycemia is most often caused by drugs taken to control diabetes. Much less common causes of hypoglycemia include other drugs, critical illness or organ failure, a reaction to carbohydrates (in susceptible people), an insulin-producing tumor in the pancreas, and some types of bariatric (weight loss) surgery. A fall in blood glucose causes symptoms such as hunger, sweating, shakiness, fatigue, weakness, and inability to think clearly, whereas severe hypoglycemia causes symptoms such as confusion, seizures, and coma. The diagnosis for a person who has diabetes is based on finding low glucose levels in the blood while the person is experiencing symptoms. Normally, the body maintains the level of glucose in the blood within a range of about 70 to 110 milligrams per deciliter (mg/dL) of blood. In hypoglycemia, the glucose level becomes too low. Although diabetes mellitus, a disorder involving blood glucose levels, is characterized by high levels of glucose in the blood (hyperglycemia), many people with diabetes periodically experience hypoglycemia due to side effects of diabetes treatment. Hypoglycemia is uncommon among people without diabetes. Very low levels of glucose in the blood may interfere with the function of certain organ systems. The brain is particularly sensitive to low glucose levels because sugar is the brain's major energy source. To prevent glucose levels in the blood from falling too far below their usual range, the brain responds by stimulating the All of these hormones cause the liver to release glucose into the blood, but sometimes these hormones do not raise the blood glucose level enough to overcome the hypoglycemia. If the blood glucose level remains too low, the brain will get Continue reading >>

Growth Hormone | You And Your Hormones From The Society For Endocrinology

Growth Hormone | You And Your Hormones From The Society For Endocrinology

Somatotropin; GH; human growth hormone; HGH Growth hormone is released into the bloodstream from the anterior pituitary gland .The pituitary gland also produces other hormones that have different functions from growth hormone. Growth hormone acts on many parts of the body to promote growth in children.Once the growth plates in the bones (epiphyses) have fused growth hormone does not increase height. In adults, it does not cause growth but it helps to maintain normal body structure and metabolism , including helping to keep blood glucose levels within set levels. Growth hormone release is not continuous; it is released in a number of bursts or pulses every three to five hours.This release is controlled by two other hormones that are released from the hypothalamus (a part of the brain): growth hormone-releasing hormone , which stimulates the pituitary to release growth hormone, and somatostatin , which inhibits that release. Growth hormone levels are increased by sleep, stress, exercise and low glucose levels in the blood. They also increase around the time of puberty. Growth hormone release is lowered in pregnancy and if the brain senses high levels of growth hormone or insulin-like growth factors already in the blood. What happens if I have too much growth hormone? Not surprisingly, too much growth hormone causes too much growth. In adults, excessive growth hormone for a long period of time produces a condition known as acromegaly , in which patients have swelling of the hands and feet and altered facial features. These patients also have organ enlargement and serious functional disorders such as high blood pressure, diabetes and heart disease.Over 99% of cases are due to benign tumours of the pituitary gland, which produce growth hormone.This condition is more common Continue reading >>

Counterregulatory Hormones

Counterregulatory Hormones

Hormones that work against the action of insulin, raising blood glucose levels in response to hypoglycemia (low blood sugar). The main counterregulatory hormones are glucagon, epinephrine (also known as adrenaline), cortisol, and growth hormone. People who don’t have diabetes have a number of defense mechanisms against hypoglycemia. First, the pancreas decreases its insulin output, allowing blood glucose to rise. Second, the alpha cells of the pancreas secrete the counterregulatory hormone glucagon, which signals the liver to release more glucose. Third, the adrenal glands secrete epinephrine, which signals the liver and kidneys to produce more glucose; in addition, epinephrine keeps certain body tissues, such as muscle, from using as much glucose from the bloodstream, and it acts to reduce insulin secretion. Epinephrine is the same “fight or flight” hormone that revs the body up in response to danger, and it produces the symptoms that normally herald an episode of hypoglycemia, such as hunger, sweating, trembling, “butterflies,” and heart palpitations. In some cases, especially when glucagon and epinephrine fail to adequately raise blood glucose levels, the body releases cortisol and growth hormone, which can also increase blood glucose levels. After years of having Type 1 diabetes, many individuals lose most of these defenses against hypoglycemia. To begin with, they are not able to benefit from reduced secretion of insulin by the pancreas; the reason why people with Type 1 diabetes must use injected or infused insulin is that the pancreas no longer makes insulin at all. Also, for reasons unknown, people with Type 1 diabetes usually lose their ability to secrete glucagon. In addition, after recurring episodes of even mild hypoglycemia, the epinephrine respon Continue reading >>

Carbohydrates, Hormones, And Endurance Performance

Carbohydrates, Hormones, And Endurance Performance

Carbohydrates, Hormones, and Endurance Performance Carbohydrates, Hormones, and Endurance Performance Strenuous prolonged exercise causes a decrease in blood glucose and a corresponding increase in concentrations of the glucoregulatory hormones. At the same time blood insulin levels fall. Carbohydrate ingestion during endurance exercise blunts these hormonal alterations and can help spare muscle glycogen, maintain blood glucose and therby delaying fatigue. J. Mark Davis, Ph.D., Adrienne S. Brown, M.A. CARBOHYDRATES, HORMONES, AND ENDURANCE PERFORMANCE Sports Science Exchange 80 VOLUME 14 - NUMBER 1 Prolonged strenuous exercise increases plasma concentrations of the hormones epinephrine, growth hormone, cortisol, and glucagon. Insulin is decreased. Ingestion of carbohydrate during prolonged exercise blunts these hormone responses and delays fatigue. The blunted hormone response may contribute to a delay in both central (brain) and peripheral (muscle) fatigue by helping to spare liver and muscle glycogen, maintain blood glucose, and reduce blood concentrations of free fatty acids, free tryptophan, and ammonia. To prevent a fall in blood glucose concentration and to blunt the hormonal response to exercise, every 15-20 min athletes should drink 8-12 oz (240-350 ml) of a sports drink that contains carbohydrate. The endocrine (hormonal) system provides for normal bodily functions, including the maintenance of blood glucose levels for optimal health and exercise performance. A decrease in blood glucose during prolonged strenuous exercise can be a major contributor to the onset of fatigue (Davis & Fitts, 1998). The endocrine system attempts to maintain adequate blood glucose levels during exercise by mobilizing other fuels for energy and by stimulating production of glucose fr Continue reading >>

Chapter 4 Carbohydrates: Sugars, Starches, And Fiber

Chapter 4 Carbohydrates: Sugars, Starches, And Fiber

Nutrition & You, 4e (Blake) 1) Carbohydrate digestion begins in the A) stomach. B) small intestine. C) large intestine. D) mouth. Answer: D Page Ref: 104 Skill: Knowledge Learning Outcome: 4.2 Section: 4.2 2) The process of photosynthesis produces which of the following molecules? A) glucose B) fructose C) glycogen D) triglycerides Answer: A Page Ref: 100 Skill: Knowledge Learning Outcome: 4.1 Section: 4.1 3) The function of glycogen is to A) store energy in plants. B) create membrane structures in plants. C) lower blood glucose levels when they rise after a meal. D) store glucose in humans and animals. Answer: D Page Ref: 103 Skill: Knowledge Learning Outcome: 4.1 Section: 4.1 4) Which of the following substances is not a polysaccharide? A) galactose B) fiber C) glycogen D) starch Answer: A Page Ref: 102 Skill: Knowledge Learning Outcome: 4.1 Section: 4.1 5) Which of the following statements regarding the amount of carbohydrate you should consume daily is incorrect? A) The minimum amount of carbohydrate needed for the brain to function efficiently is 130 grams per day. B) The AMDR for carbohydrates is 20 to 35 percent of your total daily calories. C) Eating the recommended daily servings for each food group in MyPyramid will ensure that you meet your minimum amount of carbohydrate. D) In the United States, adult males and females consume more than the minimum DRI for carbohydrates. Answer: B Page Ref: 110 Skill: Knowledge Learning Outcome: 4.4 Section: 4.4 6) Which of the following structures is the starchy part of a grain kernel? A) germ B) endosperm C) bran D) husk Answer: B Page Ref: 112 Skill: Knowledge Learning Outcome: 4.4 Section: 4.4 7) Which of the following statements about enriched wheat bread is false? A) It is missing phytochemicals that are found in whole Continue reading >>

Test 1 Flashcards | Quizlet

Test 1 Flashcards | Quizlet

secretion is regulated by a hypothalamic regulatory hormone What factor inhibits aldosterone release? What type of stimulation controls parathyroid release? Which of the following hormones regulates blood calcium ion levels? Parathyroid hormone raises blood calcium ion levels. One can predict that a person suffering from diabetes mellitus would probably have ______. increased secretion of ADH (anti-diuretic hormone) Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disorder resulting from a lack of insulin in the body. Insulin functions to lower blood glucose levels by enhancing the transport of glucose from the systemic circulation into cells. ADH is secreted in response to high blood osmolarity (too high solutes or too little water) in the blood. This hormone functions to increase the resorption of water by the kidneys, which dilutes the blood. Which hormone(s) is/are essential to our ability to deal with stress? Essential to life, the glucocorticoids increase blood glucose levels and help us to resist stressors. Chemical substances secreted by cells into the extracellular fluids and that regulate the metabolic function of other cells in the body are called ________. Which of the following is a hypoglycemic hormone? A man has been told that he is not synthesizing enough follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), and for this reason he may be unable to father a child. Choose the correct statement to explain this problem. FSH stimulates sperm production in the testes. The most important regulator of electrolyte concentrations in extracellular fluids is ________. Cellular responses to hormones that initiate second-messenger systems include ________. possible activation of several different second-messenger systems Gluconeogenesis occurs in the liver due to the action of ________. Which of the Continue reading >>

Module 2

Module 2

Apply your understanding of the concepts on the pancreas and its regulation of blood glucose by answering the multiple-choice and numerical-response questions that follow. Check your answers. If you do not understand any questions, consult your teacher. SC 7. Which of the following rows correctly matches the endocrine gland to the hormone it secreted and to the effect caused by the hormone? SC 8. Which hormone is not correctly matched to the disorder or disease associated with it? SC 9. Which of the following hormones does not affect the carbohydrate metabolism? SC 10. Which of the following endocrine glands does not produce a hormone that directly affects blood glucose levels? SC 11. Which of the following explains one of the differences between Type 1 and Type 2 diabetes? The treatment for Type 2 diabetes involves insulin injections, while Type 1 can usually be controlled by diet. Only Type 1 can result in complications such as kidney disease, reduced circulation, or stroke. Type 1 can be a result of lifestyle, and Type 2 is thought to be caused by a virus or other agent. People with Type 2 diabetes can produce insulin, but this insulin cannot be used. Type 1 diabetes results from lack of insulin production. SC 12. Which pair consists of antagonistic hormones? Use the following diagram to answer questions SC 13, SC 14, and SC 15. SC 13. Which of the following rows correctly matches the endocrine gland labelled in the diagram to the hormone it produces? SC 14. Which endocrine gland shown on this diagram would be directly responsible for the development of diabetes mellitus in humans? SC 15. Symptoms resulting from low secretions of the hormones produced by the gland labelled F include high levels of sodium and sugar in the urine increased thirst and decreased urine pr Continue reading >>

8 Hormones Involved In Exercise

8 Hormones Involved In Exercise

In the movie Fletch, released the same year that ACE was founded (1985), comedian Chevy Chase plays the role of Irwin “Fletch” Fletcher, a reporter working undercover to expose drug dealing on the beaches of Los Angeles. Over the course of his investigation, Fletch assumes a variety of creative characters as he identifies the corrupt businessmen and cops involved in the drug-dealing ring. In one scene, Fletch pretends to be an airplane mechanic and tries to fib his way into a hangar by saying he was there to check the ball bearings. “It’s all ball bearings nowadays,” is one of the most memorable quotes of this iconic ‘80s movie. If you work as a personal trainer or group fitness instructor you have no doubt been asked how exercise can help someone achieve a specific goal. If you want a fun, but honest way to answer these questions, you can channel your inner Fletch by replying, “It’s all hormones nowadays.” The endocrine system regulates the production of hormones, which are chemicals that control cellular functions. Hormones can affect a number of different cells; however, they only influence the ones with specific receptor sites. Hormones control a number of physiological reactions in the body including energy metabolism, reproductive processes, tissue growth, hydration levels, synthesis and degradation of muscle protein, and mood. Hormones are responsible for both building new muscle and helping to burn fat, so it is important to have an understanding of which ones are released in relation to exercise as well as understanding the physiological functions they influence. There are three major classifications of hormones: steroid, peptide and amines (modified amino acid hormones). Each class of hormones has a unique chemical structure that determines h Continue reading >>

What Is Glucagon?

What Is Glucagon?

Blood sugar levels are an important part of overall health. When blood sugar levels drop, an individual may feel lethargic. If they drop too low, the individual may become disoriented, dizzy or even pass out. Blood sugar control involves a complex system of hormones, and one of those hormones is glucagon. Glucagon is a hormone that works with other hormones and bodily functions to control glucose levels in the blood. It comes from alpha cells found in the pancreas and is closely related to insulin-secreting beta cells, making it a crucial component that keeps the body’s blood glucose levels stable. What does glucagon do? Although secreted by the pancreas, glucagon directly impacts the liver as it works to control blood sugar levels. Specifically, glucagon prevents blood glucose levels from dropping to a dangerous point by stimulating the conversion of stored glycogen to glucose in the liver. This glucose can be released into the bloodstream, a process known as glycogenolysis. Secondly, glucagon stops the liver from consuming some glucose. This helps more glucose to enter the bloodstream, rather than being consumed by the liver, to keep levels stable. Finally, glucagon works in a process known as gluconeogenesis, which is the production of glucose in the amino acid molecules. In each of these processes, glucagon and insulin work together. Insulin will prevent glucose levels from increasing to a point that is too high, while glucagon prevents it from dropping too low. Glucagon production is stimulated when an individual eats a protein-rich meal, experiences a surge in adrenaline, or has a low blood sugar event. Potential problems with glucagon function Glucagon function is crucial to proper blood glucose levels, so problems with glucagon production will lead to problems Continue reading >>

Animal Hormones | Biology 1520

Animal Hormones | Biology 1520

Identify the major glands and body structures involved in hormone synthesis in vertebrates Recall the functions of selected hormones produced by select major glands Describe the hormone pathway in given examples, including blood glucose, hunger, metamorphosis, stress, and/or sex, and make predictions on how an animal would respond to given stimuli for each case Recognize instances of negative feedback loops, positive feedback loops, and crosstalk in the example hormone pathways The information below was adapted from OpenStax Biology 37.5 Unlike plant hormones, animal hormones are often (though not always) produced in specialized hormone-synthesizing glands (shown below). The hormones are then secreted from the glands into the blood stream, where they are transported throughout the body. There are many glands and hormones in different animal species, and we will focus on just a small collection of them. Locations of endocrine glands in the human body. Image credit: OpenStax Anatomy and Physiology. In vertebrates, glands and hormones they produce include (note that the following list is not complete): hypothalamus:integrates the endocrine and nervous systems;receives input from the body and other brain areas and initiates endocrine responses to environmental changes; synthesizes hormones which are stored in the posterior pituitary gland; also synthesizes and secretes regulatory hormones that control the endocrine cells in the anterior pituitary gland. Hormones produced include growth-hormone releasing hormone: stimulates release of growth hormone (GH) from the anterior pituitary corticotropin-releasing hormone: stimulates release of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) from the anterior pituitary thyrotropin-releasing hormone: stimulates release ofthyroid-stimulating hormo Continue reading >>

What Is Glucagon?

What Is Glucagon?

Tweet The effects of glucagon are the opposite of the effects induced by insulin. The two hormones need to work in partnership with each other to keep blood glucose levels balanced. Glucagon is a hormone that is produced by alpha cells in a part of the pancreas known as the islets of Langerhans. The role of glucagon in the body Glucagon plays an active role in allowing the body to regulate the utilisation of glucose and fats. Glucagon is released in response to low blood glucose levels and to events whereby the body needs additional glucose, such as in response to vigorous exercise. When glucagon is released it can perform the following tasks: Stimulating the liver to break down glycogen to be released into the blood as glucose Activating gluconeogenesis, the conversion of amino acids into glucose Breaking down stored fat (triglycerides) into fatty acids for use as fuel by cells Glucagon and blood glucose levels Glucagon serves to keep blood glucose levels high enough for the body to function well. When blood glucose levels are low, glucagon is released and signals the liver to release glucose into the blood. Glucagon secretion in response to meals varies depending on what we eat: In response to a carbohydrate based meal, glucagon levels in the blood fall to prevent blood glucose rising too high. In response to a high protein meal, glucagon levels in the blood rise. Glucagon in diabetes In people with diabetes, glucagon’s presence can raise blood glucose levels too high. The reason for this is either because not enough insulin is present or, as is the case in type 2 diabetes, the body is less able to respond to insulin. In type 1 diabetes, high levels of circulating insulin can inhibit the release of glucagon in response to hypoglycemia. Medications which affect gluca Continue reading >>

Ch 18 Multiple Choice 1 & 2

Ch 18 Multiple Choice 1 & 2

he primary action of antidiuretic hormone, also called vasopressin, is to A) cause a decrease in blood calcium levels. B) promote the retention of water by the kidneys. D) stimulate uterine smooth muscle contractions during delivery. B) promote the retention of water by the kidneys. Which of these is NOT a function of one or both of the pituitary gonadotropins? A) stimulate milk production in the mammary gland C) promote production of sperm cells in the testes D) stimulate secretion of sex hormones from ovaries and testes A) stimulate milk production in the mammary gland A hormone that stimulates the secretion of other hormones from other endocrine cells is called a The effect of hyposecretion of thyroid hormone during infancy is B) very short stature (height) but normal brain development. C) abnormal bone development and irreversible brain damage. D) low metabolic rate, sensitivity to cold, tissue swelling. C) abnormal bone development and irreversible brain damage. Which symptoms would be present in a case of aldosterone hyposecretion? D) low blood sodium and high blood potassium levels D) low blood sodium and high blood potassium levels Which of these hormones is not secreted by the adrenal cortex? Which of the following statements about melatonin is correct? A) Melatonin is secreted by the pituitary gland. B) The secretion of melatonin is controlled by environmental light and dark periods. C) Melatonin is synthesized from melanocyte stimulating hormone. D) The secretion of melatonin is stimulated by exposure to light. B) The secretion of melatonin is controlled by environmental light and dark periods. A) controlling the level of skin pigmentation. B) stimulating secretion of cortisol by the adrenal cortex. C) inhibiting secretion of GnRH from the hypothalamus. C) i Continue reading >>

Normal Regulation Of Blood Glucose

Normal Regulation Of Blood Glucose

The human body wants blood glucose (blood sugar) maintained in a very narrow range. Insulin and glucagon are the hormones which make this happen. Both insulin and glucagon are secreted from the pancreas, and thus are referred to as pancreatic endocrine hormones. The picture on the left shows the intimate relationship both insulin and glucagon have to each other. Note that the pancreas serves as the central player in this scheme. It is the production of insulin and glucagon by the pancreas which ultimately determines if a patient has diabetes, hypoglycemia, or some other sugar problem. In this Article Insulin Basics: How Insulin Helps Control Blood Glucose Levels Insulin and glucagon are hormones secreted by islet cells within the pancreas. They are both secreted in response to blood sugar levels, but in opposite fashion! Insulin is normally secreted by the beta cells (a type of islet cell) of the pancreas. The stimulus for insulin secretion is a HIGH blood glucose...it's as simple as that! Although there is always a low level of insulin secreted by the pancreas, the amount secreted into the blood increases as the blood glucose rises. Similarly, as blood glucose falls, the amount of insulin secreted by the pancreatic islets goes down. As can be seen in the picture, insulin has an effect on a number of cells, including muscle, red blood cells, and fat cells. In response to insulin, these cells absorb glucose out of the blood, having the net effect of lowering the high blood glucose levels into the normal range. Glucagon is secreted by the alpha cells of the pancreatic islets in much the same manner as insulin...except in the opposite direction. If blood glucose is high, then no glucagon is secreted. When blood glucose goes LOW, however, (such as between meals, and during Continue reading >>

Vn 131 Study Guide Ch. 14 Endocrine

Vn 131 Study Guide Ch. 14 Endocrine

Sort insuline and glucagon a. are secreted by the beta cells of the islets of Langerhans, b. elevate blood glucose levels c. are secreted in response to declining plasma levels of glucose. d. are secreted by the pancreas and are concerned with the regulation of blood glucose d. are secreted by the pancreas and are concerned with the regulation of blood glucose Steroids a. are secreted by the adrenal medulla b. include the glucocorticoids, mineralocorticoids, and androgens c. stimulate the membranes of the target cells to produce the second chemical messenger, cAMP d. are secreted by the pancreas b. include the glucocorticoids, mineralocorticoids, and androgens Iodine-containing hormones a. include thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) b. are secreted by the hypothalamus as releasing hormones c. are steriods d. regulate the metabolic rate. d. regulate the metabolic rate. Antidiuretic hormone (ADH) and oxytocin a. are secreted by the neurohypophysis b. are mineralocorticoids c. are secreted by the islets of Langerhans d. stimulate the kidney to excrete Na+ and water a. are secreted by the neurohypophysis Which of the following is the response to low plasma levels of calcium. a. secretion of calcitonin b. secretion of the beta cells of the islets of langerhans c. inhibition of the adenhypophyseal release of ACTH d. Secretion of PTH d. Secretion of PTH catecholamines a. include cortisol, aldosterone, and testosterone b. are secreted by the adrenal cortex c. lower plasma glucose levels d. include epinephrine (adrenalin) and norepinephrine d. include epinephrine (adrenalin) and norepinephrine "Sugar, salt, and Sex" is descriptive of a. ACTH, TSH, and somatotropic hormone b. cortisol, aldosterone, and testosterone c. epinephrine, norepinephrine, and estrogen d. insulin, glucagon, Continue reading >>

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