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Which Drug Is Used To Treat Diabetes?

Cardiovascular Impact Of Drugs Used In The Treatment Of Diabetes

Cardiovascular Impact Of Drugs Used In The Treatment Of Diabetes

Go to: Introduction The global impact of obesity and diabetes continues to increase and negatively affect morbidity, mortality and health care budgets. Reports in 2011 from the International Diabetes Federation [IDF, 2013] stated that there was an estimated 285 million people worldwide who had already been diagnosed with diabetes and that the worldwide prevalence of diabetes has truly reached pandemic levels [Chen et al. 2011; Zimmet, 2011]. Furthermore, increases in the prevalence of diabetes for all age groups worldwide are predicted, with total numbers to reach approximately 450 million in 2030 amounting to 7% of the population of the world. The most recent estimate predicts 592 million in 2035 or approximately 10% of the total population [Chen et al. 2011; Zimmet, 2011; IDF, 2013]. A serious concern is for developing countries where it is predicted there will be a 69% increase in the number of adults with diabetes compared with so-called developed countries where a 20% increase is anticipated [Shaw et al. 2010]. Type 2 diabetes (T2D) accounts for approximately 90% of all cases of adult-onset diabetes and the increase in the prevalence of T2D and associated insulin resistance can be linked to a rise in obesity resulting from a combination of lifestyle changes and genetic susceptibility [Daousi et al. 2006]. A natural consequence of an increased incidence in diabetes is the high likelihood that this will be accompanied by a marked rise in the occurrence of cardiovascular disease [Nolan et al. 2011]. Although the aetiology of vascular dysfunction in diabetes has been extensively investigated we still have not optimized the therapeutic management of diabetes such that the cardiovascular system is appropriately protected. It is also very important to emphasize that diabe Continue reading >>

Diabetes Mellitus Treatment

Diabetes Mellitus Treatment

In patients diagnosed with diabetes mellitus (DM), the therapeutic focus is on preventing complications caused by hyperglycemia. In the United States, 57.9% of patients with diabetes have one or more diabetes-related complications and 14.3% have three or more.[1] Strict control of glycemia within the established recommended values is the primary method for reducing the development and progression of many complications associated with microvascular effects of diabetes (eg, retinopathy, nephropathy, and neuropathy), while aggressive treatment of dyslipidemia and hypertension further decreases the cardiovascular complications associated macrovascular effects.[2-4] See the chapter on diabetes: Macro- and microvascular effects. Glycemic Control Two primary techniques are available to assess a patient's glycemic control: Self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) and interval measurement of hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c). Self-Monitoring of Blood Glucose Use of SMBG is an effective method to evaluate short-term glycemic control. It helps patients and physicians assess the effects of food, medications, stress, and activity on blood glucose levels. For patients with type 1 DM or insulin-dependent type 2 DM, clinical trials have demonstrated that SMBG plays a role in effective glycemic control because it helps to refine and adjust insulin doses by monitoring for and preventing asymptomatic hypoglycemia as well as preprandial and postprandial hyperglycemia.[2,5-7] The frequency of SMBG depends on the type of medical therapy, risk for hypoglycemia, and need for short-term adjustment of therapy. The current American Diabetes Association (ADA) guidelines recommend that patients with diabetes self-monitor their glucose at least three times per day.[8] Those who use basal-bolus regimens should s Continue reading >>

Diabetes Treatment (type 1 And Type 2 Medications And Diet)

Diabetes Treatment (type 1 And Type 2 Medications And Diet)

Diabetes type 1 and type 2 treatment facts Controlling blood sugar (glucose) levels is the major goal of diabetes treatment, in order to prevent complications of the disease. Type 2 diabetes may be managed with non-insulin medications, insulin, weight reduction, or dietary changes. The choice of medications for type 2 diabetes is individualized, taking into account: the effectiveness and side effect profile of each medication, the patient's underlying health status, any medication compliance issues, and cost to the patient or health-care system. Medications for type 2 diabetes can work in different ways to reduce blood glucose levels. They may: increase insulin sensitivity, increase glucose excretion, decrease absorption of carbohydrates from the digestive tract, or work through other mechanisms. Medications for type 2 diabetes are often used in combination. Proper nutrition is a part of any diabetes care plan. There is no one specific "diabetic diet" that is recommended for all individuals. Pancreas transplantation is an area of active study for the treatment of diabetes. What is the treatment for diabetes? The major goal in treating type 1 and type 2 diabetes is to control blood sugar (glucose) levels within the normal range, with minimal excursions to low or high levels. Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is treated: Oral medications are prescribed when these measures fail to control the elevated blood sugars of type 2 diabetes. If oral medications become ineffective treatment with insulin is initiated. Adherence to a diabetic diet is a critical aspect of controlling blood sugar in people with diabetes. When considering an ideal diabetic diet, a number of factors must be taken into consideration, including the amount and type of carbohydrates consumed as well as the amount of fib Continue reading >>

Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Medication

Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Medication

Medication Summary Pharmacologic therapy of type 2 diabetes has changed dramatically in the last 10 years, with new drugs and drug classes becoming available. These drugs allow for the use of combination oral therapy, often with improvement in glycemic control that was previously beyond the reach of medical therapy. Agents used in diabetic therapy include the following: Traditionally, diet modification has been the cornerstone of diabetes management. Weight loss is more likely to control glycemia in patients with recent onset of the disease than in patients who are significantly insulinopenic. Medications that induce weight loss, such as orlistat, may be effective in highly selected patients but are not generally indicated in the treatment of the average patient with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Patients who are symptomatic at initial presentation with diabetes may require transient treatment with insulin to reduce glucose toxicity (which may reduce beta-cell insulin secretion and worsen insulin resistance) or an insulin secretagogue to rapidly relieve symptoms such as polyuria and polydipsia. Continue reading >>

Diabetes Medication

Diabetes Medication

There are many types of medicines used to treat diabetes. Which medication is best for you depends on the type of diabetes you have and your own health and lifestyle. Diabetes medicines aim to keep your blood glucose levels within a healthy range so you feel well and prevent complications. Insulin Insulin is a hormone that helps move glucose from your blood into the cells of your body, where it can be used for energy. People with type 1 diabetes produce little or no insulin, so need lifelong insulin replacement. Some people with type 2 diabetes, and a some women with gestational diabetes (diabetes during pregnancy), also need to use insulin. Medicines for type 2 diabetes Most people with type 2 diabetes are able at first to manage their condition through healthy eating, regular physical activity and controlling their weight. Over time, things change and most people need medicines to control their blood glucose levels and prevent long term complications. There are many types of diabetes medicines that work in different ways, and have different benefits and side effects. Metformin Most people with type 2 diabetes start treatment with metformin, a drug that reduces the amount of glucose released into your blood, and increases the amount taken up by your cells. Sulphonylureas Sulphonylureas stimulate the pancreas to produce more insulin. Sometime a sulfonylurea may be prescribed for people with type 2 diabetes as an alternative to metformin, but it is usually used as well as metformin, if diet, exercise and metformin alone do not control blood glucose levels adequately. Both metformin and sulphonylureas have been used for many years and are known to successfully reduce the complications of diabetes. Other medicines Other, newer medicines for type 2 diabetes include: gliptin Continue reading >>

Drugs Used To Treat Diabetes Could Cure Alzheimer's, Experts Say

Drugs Used To Treat Diabetes Could Cure Alzheimer's, Experts Say

Drugs prescribed to treat diabetes could cure Alzheimer's disease, a pioneering new study has found. Scientists believe that the two conditions are so similar that medications already used to control levels of glucose and regulate diabetes could also halt the onset of dementia. A new study using a computer model of Alzheimer's disease has found that complications within the brain can lead to changes in glucose, which ultimately leads to diabetes. The current medical consensus is that diabetes begins with a malfunction in the pancreas, or through sufferers consuming a high fat, high sugar diet. However, the new research suggests that Alzheimer's can lead to diabetes, whereas previous studies suggest that the latter is the first to occur. The research, published in the journal Diabetologia, was aimed at finding out why the two diseases are so commonly found together in elderly patients. It also found increased levels of a gene involved in the production of toxic proteins in the brain not only led to Alzheimer's-like symptoms, but also to the development of diabetic complications. About | Diabetes Type 1 diabetes Occurs when the pancreas (a small gland behind the stomach) doesn't produce insulin – the hormone that regulates blood glucose levels. If the amount of glucose in the blood is too high, it can, over time, damage the body's organs. 10% of all diabetes is type 1 but it's the most common type of childhood diabetes Type 2 diabetes The body doesn't produce enough insulin to function properly, or the body’s cells don't react to insulin. This means that glucose stays in the blood and isn't used as fuel for energy. 90% of adults with diabetes have type 2, and it tends to develop later in life Source: NHS Professor Bettina Platt, of Aberdeen University, said: "Many peo Continue reading >>

A Complete List Of Diabetes Medications

A Complete List Of Diabetes Medications

Diabetes is a condition that leads to high levels of blood glucose (or sugar) in the body. This happens when your body can’t make or use insulin like it’s supposed to. Insulin is a substance that helps your body use the sugar from the food you eat. There are two different types of diabetes: type 1 diabetes and type 2 diabetes. People with both types of diabetes need medications to help keep their blood sugar levels normal. The types of drugs that can treat you depend on the type of diabetes you have. This article gives you information about drugs that treat both types of diabetes to help give you an idea of the treatment options available to you. Insulin Insulin is the most common type of medication used in type 1 diabetes treatment. It’s also used in type 2 diabetes treatment. It’s given by injection and comes in different types. The type of insulin you need depends on how severe your insulin depletion is. Options include: Short-acting insulin regular insulin (Humulin and Novolin) Rapid-acting insulins Intermediate-acting insulin Long-acting insulins Combination insulins NovoLog Mix 70/30 (insulin aspart protamine-insulin aspart) Humalog Mix 75/25 (insulin lispro protamine-insulin lispro) Humalog Mix 50/50 (insulin lispro protamine-insulin lispro) Humulin 70/30 (human insulin NPH-human insulin regular) Novolin 70/30 (human insulin NPH-human insulin regular) Ryzodeg (insulin degludec-insulin aspart) Amylinomimetic drug Pramlintide (SymlinPen 120, SymlinPen 60) is an amylinomimetic drug. It’s an injectable drug used before meals. It works by delaying the time your stomach takes to empty itself. It reduces glucagon secretion after meals. This lowers your blood sugar. It also reduces appetite through a central mechanism. Most medications for type 2 diabetes are o Continue reading >>

Three New Treatment Options For Type 2 Diabetes Recommended By Nice

Three New Treatment Options For Type 2 Diabetes Recommended By Nice

The drugs will help to control blood sugar in those patients who cannot take more commonly prescribed medicines meaning their condition remains stable for longer. An estimated 31,000 people may be eligible for the three recommended treatments: canagliflozin (Invokana), dapagliflozin (Forxiga) and empagliflozin (Jardiance). The three drugs can all be used on their own if a person can’t use metformin, sulfonylurea or pioglitazone, and diet and exercise alone isn’t controlling their blood glucose levels. In the UK, almost 3.5 million people who have been diagnosed with diabetes and it’s estimated that about 90% of adults with the condition have type 2 diabetes. Type 2 diabetes causes elevated blood sugar levels which damages blood vessels leading to increased risk of heart attack, stroke and limb amputation. Sugar levels rise because their body doesn’t produce enough insulin – the hormone which controls the amount of glucose in blood – or their body doesn’t use insulin effectively. Professor Carole Longson, director of the NICE Centre for Health Technology Evaluation, said: “Type 2 diabetes is long-term condition that has a serious impact on people who live with it, and the treatments given should be tailored for the individual. “For many people whose blood glucose levels aren’t controlled by diet and exercise alone, metformin is the first drug treatment that they’ll be offered. But some people may experience nausea and diarrhoea, and they may not be able to take it if they have kidney damage. For people who can’t take a sulfonylurea or pioglitazone, then the three drugs recommended in this guidance can be considered. This is as an alternative to the separate group of drugs called dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors. “The committee agreed th Continue reading >>

Treatment Of Hypertension In Adults With Diabetes

Treatment Of Hypertension In Adults With Diabetes

Hypertension (defined as a blood pressure ≥140/90 mmHg) is an extremely common comorbid condition in diabetes, affecting ∼20–60% of patients with diabetes, depending on obesity, ethnicity, and age. In type 2 diabetes, hypertension is often present as part of the metabolic syndrome of insulin resistance also including central obesity and dyslipidemia. In type 1 diabetes, hypertension may reflect the onset of diabetic nephropathy. Hypertension substantially increases the risk of both macrovascular and microvascular complications, including stroke, coronary artery disease, and peripheral vascular disease, retinopathy, nephropathy, and possibly neuropathy. In recent years, adequate data from well-designed randomized clinical trials have demonstrated the effectiveness of aggressive treatment of hypertension in reducing both types of diabetes complications. These recommendations are intended to apply to nonpregnant adults with type 1 or type 2 diabetes mellitus. Target audience These recommendations are intended for the use of health care professionals who care for patients with diabetes and hypertension, including specialist and primary care physicians, nurses and nurse practitioners, physicians’ assistants, educators, dietitians, and others. These recommendations are based on the American Diabetes Association Technical Review “Treatment of Diabetes in Adult Patients with Hypertension” (1). A technical review is a systematic review of the medical literature that has been peer-reviewed by the American Diabetes Association’s Professional Practice Committee. Evidence review: hypertension as a risk factor for complications of diabetes Diabetes increases the risk of coronary events twofold in men and fourfold in women. Part of this increase is due to the frequency o Continue reading >>

9 Types Of Medication That Help Control Type 2 Diabetes

9 Types Of Medication That Help Control Type 2 Diabetes

Sometimes people with type 2 diabetes are able to bring their blood glucose levels under control through a combination of weight loss, diet, and exercise, but many people with diabetes take medication to manage their condition. For some, a single diabetes medication is effective, while in other cases a combination of drugs works better. “If diabetes control is suboptimal on the maximum dose of one medication, it’s prudent to add on a second agent,” says Deepashree Gupta, MD, assistant professor of endocrinology at Saint Louis University in Missouri. There are many drugs available to treat type 2 diabetes. Your diabetes care team can help you understand the differences among the types of medication on this long list, and will explain how you take them, what they do, and what side effects they may cause. Your doctor will discuss your specific situation and your options for adding one or more types of medication to your treatment. Types of Medication for Type 2 Diabetes In type 2 diabetes, even though insulin resistance is what leads to the condition, injections of insulin are not the first resort. Instead, other drugs are used to help boost insulin production and the body’s regulation of it. Insulin resistance occurs when the body’s cells don’t respond properly to insulin, which is a hormone made in the pancreas that’s responsible for ferrying glucose to cells for energy. When cells are resistant to insulin, they don’t use the insulin effectively to bring the glucose from the bloodstream into the cell. The pancreas needs to produce more insulin to overcome this resistance in an effort to normalize blood sugar levels. When the pancreas can’t keep up with the insulin demands in a person with insulin resistance, that person develops diabetes. Below is an ov Continue reading >>

Table Of Medications

Table Of Medications

Medications used to treat type 2 diabetes include: Use this table to look up the different medications that can be used to treat type 2 diabetes. Use the links below to find medications within the table quickly, or click the name of the drug to link to expanded information about the drug. Table of oral medications, incretion-based therapy and amylin analog therapy: Medicine FDA Approval Formulations (color indicated if available by Brand only) Dosing Comments (SE = possible side effects) STIMULATORS OF INSULIN RELEASE (Insulin Secretagogues) – increase insulin secretion from the pancreas1 SULFONYLUREAS (SFUs) Tolbutamide Orinase® various generics 1957 500 mg tablets Initial: 1000-2000 mg daily Range: 250-3000 mg (seldom need >2000 mg/day) Dose: Taken two or three times daily SE: hypoglycemia, weight gain Preferred SFU for elderly Must be taken 2-3 times daily Glimepiride Amaryl® various generics 11/95 1 mg, 2 mg, 4 mg tablets Initial: 1-2 mg daily Range: 1-8 mg Dose: Taken once daily SE: hypoglycemia, weight gain Need to take only once daily Glipizide Glucotrol® Glucotrol XL® various generics 5/84 4/94 5 mg, 10 mg tablets ER: 2.5 mg, 5 mg, 10 mg tablets Initial: 5 mg daily Range: 2.5-40 mg2 (20 mg for XL) Dose: Taken once or twice (if >15 mg) daily SE: hypoglycemia, weight gain Preferred SFU for elderly ER = extended release/take once a day Glyburide Micronase®, DiaBeta® various generics 5/84 1.25 mg, 2.5 mg, 5 mg tablets Initial: 2.5-5 mg daily Range: 1.25-20 mg2 Dose: Taken once or twice daily SE: hypoglycemia, weight gain Glyburide, micronized Glynase PresTab® various generics 3/92 1.5 mg, 3 mg, 4.5 mg, 6 mg micronized tablets Initial: 1.5-3 mg daily Range: 0.75-12 mg Dose: Taken once or twice (if >6 mg) daily SE: hypoglycemia, weight gain GLINIDES Repaglini Continue reading >>

Diabetes Treatment: This New Drug Could Be Biggest Development Since Discovery Of Insulin

Diabetes Treatment: This New Drug Could Be Biggest Development Since Discovery Of Insulin

Researchers have discovered that a drug commonly used to treat type 2 diabetes patients could also benefit those with type 1 diabetes. A study by the University of Buffalo has revealed that type 1 patients given dapagliflozin - a medication traditionally given to type 2 sufferers - experienced a significant decline in their blood sugar levels. Until now, there hadn’t been a significant development in treatment for type 1 diabetes since the discovery of insulin in the 1920s. Both type 1 and type 2 diabetes sufferers have higher than normal blood sugar levels. When the drug was taken in addition to insulin - needed by type 1 diabetics every day to survive - there was an improvement in blood glucose levels. However, the former is where the body’s immune system attacks and destroys insulin-producing cells, while the latter is caused when the body doesn't produce enough insulin, or the body's cells don't react to insulin. In the study, researchers looked at 833 participants aged between 18 and 75 who had poorly controlled blood sugars for 24 weeks. It was the first time dapagliflozin had been tested for effectiveness and safety in treating type 1 globally - the study took place in 17 countries. When the drug was taken in addition to insulin - needed by type 1 diabetics every day to survive - there was an improvement in blood glucose levels. Fri, August 19, 2016 Diabetes is a common life-long health condition. There are 3.5 million people diagnosed with diabetes in the UK and an estimated 500,000 who are living undiagnosed with the condition. "Our paper provides the initial signal that dapagliflozin is safe and effective in patients with Type 1 diabetes and is a promising adjunct treatment to insulin to improve glycemic control," said Professor Paresh Dandona, a study aut Continue reading >>

Type 2 Diabetes

Type 2 Diabetes

Print Diagnosis To diagnose type 2 diabetes, you'll be given a: Glycated hemoglobin (A1C) test. This blood test indicates your average blood sugar level for the past two to three months. It measures the percentage of blood sugar attached to hemoglobin, the oxygen-carrying protein in red blood cells. The higher your blood sugar levels, the more hemoglobin you'll have with sugar attached. An A1C level of 6.5 percent or higher on two separate tests indicates you have diabetes. A result between 5.7 and 6.4 percent is considered prediabetes, which indicates a high risk of developing diabetes. Normal levels are below 5.7 percent. If the A1C test isn't available, or if you have certain conditions — such as if you're pregnant or have an uncommon form of hemoglobin (known as a hemoglobin variant) — that can make the A1C test inaccurate, your doctor may use the following tests to diagnose diabetes: Random blood sugar test. A blood sample will be taken at a random time. Blood sugar values are expressed in milligrams per deciliter (mg/dL) or millimoles per liter (mmol/L). Regardless of when you last ate, a random blood sugar level of 200 mg/dL (11.1 mmol/L) or higher suggests diabetes, especially when coupled with any of the signs and symptoms of diabetes, such as frequent urination and extreme thirst. Fasting blood sugar test. A blood sample will be taken after an overnight fast. A fasting blood sugar level less than 100 mg/dL (5.6 mmol/L) is normal. A fasting blood sugar level from 100 to 125 mg/dL (5.6 to 6.9 mmol/L) is considered prediabetes. If it's 126 mg/dL (7 mmol/L) or higher on two separate tests, you have diabetes. Oral glucose tolerance test. For this test, you fast overnight, and the fasting blood sugar level is measured. Then you drink a sugary liquid, and blood s Continue reading >>

Diabetes Medicines

Diabetes Medicines

Diabetes means your blood glucose, or blood sugar, levels are too high. If you can't control your diabetes with wise food choices and physical activity, you may need diabetes medicines. The kind of medicine you take depends on your type of diabetes, your schedule, and your other health conditions. With type 1 diabetes, your pancreas does not make insulin. Insulin is a hormone that helps glucose get into your cells to give them energy. Without insulin, too much glucose stays in your blood. If you have type 1 diabetes, you will need to take insulin. Type 2 diabetes, the most common type, can start when the body doesn't use insulin as it should. If your body can't keep up with the need for insulin, you may need to take pills. Along with meal planning and physical activity, diabetes pills help people with type 2 diabetes or gestational diabetes keep their blood glucose levels on target. Several kinds of pills are available. Each works in a different way. Many people take two or three kinds of pills. Some people take combination pills. Combination pills contain two kinds of diabetes medicine in one tablet. Some people take pills and insulin. NIH: National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases Continue reading >>

List Of Medications Available For Diabetes

List Of Medications Available For Diabetes

Diabetes is a disorder of blood sugar levels. There are two main types of diabetes, plus rarer forms such as diabetes that can happen during pregnancy, known as gestational diabetes. Type 1 diabetes results in high blood sugar levels because the body stops producing insulin, the hormone that regulates sugar levels. Type 2 diabetes leads to high blood sugars because the insulin in the body does not work effectively. The broad differences in treatment between the two types are: Type 1 diabetes is treated with insulin injection. Careful diet and activity planning is needed to avoid complications of treatment. Type 2 diabetes is treated with lifestyle measures, drugs taken by mouth, and sometimes also insulin if the other treatments fail. Medications for type 1 diabetes Treatment for type 1 diabetes is always with insulin, to replace the body's absent insulin and keep blood sugar levels under control. Insulin treatments Insulin is usually given by injection - by patients themselves, injecting it under the skin, or if hospitalized, sometimes directly into the blood. It is also available as a powder that patients can breathe in. Insulin injections vary by how quickly they act, their peak action, and how long they last. The aim is to mimic how the body would produce insulin throughout the day and in relation to energy intake. 1. Rapid-acting injections take effect within 5 to 15 minutes but last for a shorter time of 3 to 5 hours: Insulin lispro (Humalog) Insulin aspart (NovoLog) Insulin glulisine (Apidra) 2. Short-acting injections take effect from between 30 minutes and 1 hour, and last for 6 to 8 hours: Regular insulin (Humulin R and Novolin R) 3. Intermediate-acting injections take effect after about 2 hours, and last for 18 to 26 hours: Insulin isophane, also called NPH i Continue reading >>

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