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Where Is Metformin Absorbed In The Body?

Metformin

Metformin

Metformin is a drug that is prescribed to treat type 2 diabetes. It works by decreasing the amount of sugar made by the liver and decreasing the amount of sugar absorbed into the body. As a result, metformin can help the body respond better to its own insulin and decrease blood sugar levels. As with any medication, there are potential side effects, such as diarrhea, nausea, and headaches. The medication is available in several forms, including a tablet form, two long-acting forms, and a liquid version. Metformin ( Glucophage ) is a prescription medication that is licensed to treat type 2 diabetes (also known as noninsulin-dependent diabetes or adult-onset diabetes). Metformin also comes in: (Click Metformin Uses for more information on what metformin is used for, including possible off-label uses.) Generic metformin is made by numerous manufacturers. Glucophage and Glucophage XR are manufactured by Bristol-Myers Squibb. Metformin is part of a class of diabetes medications known as biguanide medications. The drug works in several ways. For example, it decreases the amount of sugar (glucose) made by the liver. It can also decrease the amount of sugar absorbed into the body (from the diet) and can make insulin receptors more sensitive, helping the body respond better to its own insulin. All of these effects cause a decrease in blood sugar levels. Because the medication does not increase the amount of insulin produced by the body, it is less likely to cause dangerously low blood sugar (hypoglycemia), as many other diabetes medications can do (see Alternatives to Metformin ). Continue reading >>

Metformin Side Effects And How To Deal With Them

Metformin Side Effects And How To Deal With Them

Metformin side effects include diabetic neuropathy, brain fog, and digestive issues. You can address them through diet, Vitamin B12, CoQ10, and exercise. Let us understand the drug Metformin in detail and study different forms of metformin, its uses and common metformin side effects along with how to deal with them. Metformin: What Is It Used For? Metformin is an old warhorse in the pharma battle against diabetes. It has been the mainstay in the treatment of Type 2 Diabetes for more than fifty years, often matching or outperforming newer drugs. In fact, many new combination drugs are often created with metformin as one of the main ingredients. Thanks to its long run in the pharmaceutical world, the side effects of Metformin are also well known. The Metformin-PCOS connection has been studied extensively since a majority of health complications associated with PCOS (polycystic ovarian syndrome) are due to hyperinsulinemia (high amounts of insulin in the blood stream). Metformin is known to reduce circulating insulin levels. The use of this drug in women with PCOS has shown highly encouraging results. RELATED: 10 Easy Breakfast Ideas For Diabetics Most Prescribed Names in Metformin Category Include: Fortamet: It is an extended-release formulation that contains metformin hydrochloride. The tablets are designed for once-a-day administration. They deliver either 500 mg or 1000 mg of metformin. The tablet is made using a patented technology called SCOTTM that delivers the active compound slowly and at a constant rate. Glucophage: Glucophage tablets contain metformin hydrochoride. They contain either 500 mg, 850 mg or 1000 mg of the active compound. Glucophage tablets do not contain any special covering and need to be taken multiple times a day until the prescribed dosage is me Continue reading >>

Metformin (glucophage): Drug Whys

Metformin (glucophage): Drug Whys

Generic name: Metformin (multiple manufacturers) Common U.S. brand names: Glucophage (Bristol-Myers Squibb, USA) Popularity: Sixteenth most commonly prescribed drug between 2002-2006 (U.S.) Class: Antidiabetic Treatment Uses — For treatment of Type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) when drug therapy is necessary. Metformin is the first drug of choice for Type 2 diabetics. In obese patients, unlike some other antidiabetic agents, it is not associated with weight gain and actually promotes weight loss. May afford better glycemic control when used as an adjunct to insulin therapy in Type 1 DM. Beneficial for preventing development of gestational diabetes in women with insulin resistance or polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). In combination with carbohydrate-modified diet, metformin has been used to help nondiabetic, hyperinsulinemic, obese women and adolescents achieve and sustain long-term weight loss. In combination with other agents, metformin reduces a variety of symptoms in adolescents with hyperinsulinemic hypersecretion of ovarian androgens. In PCOS, metformin has increased return of normal menses and ovulation in obese women and is being studied for treatment of infertility. Metformin is not effective for prevention of DM in high-risk patients, in prevention of fibrosis (progressive damage) in non-alcoholic fatty liver, or in reducing fat deposits in HIV patients taking protease inhibitors. In maturity onset diabetes of the young (MODY) — an inherited genetic mutation — metformin performs significantly worse at controlling disease than gliclazide (a different type of antidiabetic agent). Diabetes is relatively common: 20.8 million Americans — 7 percent of the total population — have it. Treatment for diabetes is evolving rapidly and will continue to progress with th Continue reading >>

Wait Times: How Long Until Your Med Begins Working

Wait Times: How Long Until Your Med Begins Working

Photography by Mike Watson Images/Thinkstock There are many type 2 medications, and each drug class works in the body in a different way. Here’s a quick guide to help you understand how long each drug will generally take to work: These short-acting oral medications, taken with meals, block the breakdown of complex sugars into simple sugars in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. “Simple sugars are more easily absorbed and cause the blood sugar to ultimately go up,” Sam Ellis, PharmD, BCPS, CDE, associate professor in the Department of Clinical Pharmacy at the University of Colorado says. These drugs are minimally absorbed into the blood, so a certain blood level concentration is not necessary for them to work. You will see the effect immediately with the first dose. “You take it before a meal, and with that meal you see the effect,” says George Grunberger, MD, FACP, FACE, President of the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists. While researchers aren’t exactly sure how these oral medications work, it’s likely that the meds block some absorption of glucose in the GI tract. “You’ll see most of the effect in the first week with these drugs,” says Ellis. alogliptin, linagliptin, saxagliptin, sitagliptin These drugs work to block the enzyme responsible for the breakdown of a specific gut hormone that helps the body produce more insulin when blood glucose is high and reduces the amount of glucose produced by the liver. Take a DPP-4 inhibitor (they come in pill form) and it’ll work pretty fast—you’ll see the full effect in about a week. “It’s blocking that enzyme after the first dose a little bit, but by the time you get out to dose five, you’re blocking the majority of that enzyme,” Ellis says. albiglutide, dulaglutide, exenatide, exe Continue reading >>

Apo-metformin Xr

Apo-metformin Xr

NOTICE: This Consumer Medicine Information (CMI) is intended for persons living in Australia. What is in this leaflet This leaflet answers some common questions about metformin. It does not contain all the available information. It does not take the place of talking to your doctor or pharmacist. The information in this leaflet was last updated on the date listed on the last page. More recent information on this medicine may be available. You can also download the most up to date leaflet from www.apotex.com.au. All medicines have risks and benefits. Your doctor has weighed the risks of you taking this medicine against the benefits they expect it will have for you. If you have any concerns about taking this medicine, ask your doctor or pharmacist. What this medicine is used for APO-Metformin XR Tablets is used to control blood glucose (sugar) in people with Type 2 diabetes mellitus, especially in those who are overweight. It is used when diet and exercise are not enough to control high levels of blood glucose. Metformin XR can be used alone, or in combination with other medicines for treating diabetes. Metformin belongs to a group of medicines called biguanides. It lowers high blood glucose levels by: improving your body's sensitivity to insulin and restoring the way it normally uses glucose This medicine is available only with a doctor's prescription. Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Type 2 diabetes mellitus is also called Non-Insulin Dependent Diabetes Mellitus (NIDDM) or Maturity Onset Diabetes. Insulin is a hormone that enables body tissues to take up glucose from the blood and to use it for energy or fat storage for future use. People with Type 2 diabetes are unable to make enough insulin or their body does not respond properly to the insulin it does make. This causes a buil Continue reading >>

Metformin Pathways: Pharmacokinetics And Pharmacodynamics

Metformin Pathways: Pharmacokinetics And Pharmacodynamics

Metformin pathways: pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics aDepartment of Genetics, Stanford University Medical Center, Stanford University, Stanford bDepartment of Bioengineering, Stanford University Medical Center, Stanford University, Stanford aDepartment of Genetics, Stanford University Medical Center, Stanford University, Stanford bDepartment of Bioengineering, Stanford University Medical Center, Stanford University, Stanford cDepartment of Bioengineering and Therapeutic Sciences, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, California, USA Correspondence to Teri E. Klein, PhD, Department of Genetics, Stanford University Medical Center, Stanford University, 1501 California Ave, Palo Alto, CA 94304, USA Tel: + 1 650 725 0659; fax: + 1 650 725 3863; [email protected] The publisher's final edited version of this article is available at Pharmacogenet Genomics See other articles in PMC that cite the published article. Metformin is a first-line therapy for type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM, formerly non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus), and is one of the most commonly prescribed drugs worldwide. As a biguanide agent, metformin lowers both basal and postprandial plasma glucose (PPG) [ 1 , 2 ]. It can be used as a monotherapy or in combination with other antidiabetic agents including sulfonylureas, -glucosidase inhibitors, insulin, thiazolidinediones, DPP-4 inhibitors as well as GLP-1 agonists. Metformin works by inhibiting the production of hepatic glucose, reducing intestinal glucose absorption, and improving glucose uptake and utilization. Besides lowering the blood glucose level, metformin may have additional health benefits, including weight reduction, lowering plasma lipid levels, and prevention of some vascular complications [ 3 ]. As the prevalence o Continue reading >>

Us20050158374a1 - Compositions And Dosage Forms For Enhanced Absorption Of Metformin - Google Patents

Us20050158374a1 - Compositions And Dosage Forms For Enhanced Absorption Of Metformin - Google Patents

US20050158374A1 - Compositions and dosage forms for enhanced absorption of metformin - Google Patents Compositions and dosage forms for enhanced absorption of metformin US20050158374A1 US10978141 US97814104A US2005158374A1 US 20050158374 A1 US20050158374 A1 US 20050158374A1 US 10978141 US10978141 US 10978141 US 97814104 A US97814104 A US 97814104A US 2005158374 A1 US2005158374 A1 US 2005158374A1 Legal status (The legal status is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the status listed.) Current Assignee (The listed assignees may be inaccurate. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation or warranty as to the accuracy of the list.) Priority date (The priority date is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the date listed.) A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE A61KPREPARATIONS FOR MEDICAL, DENTAL, OR TOILET PURPOSES A61K31/00Medicinal preparations containing organic active ingredients A61K31/662Phosphorus acids or esters thereof having PC bonds, e.g. foscarnet, trichlorfon A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE A61KPREPARATIONS FOR MEDICAL, DENTAL, OR TOILET PURPOSES A61K31/00Medicinal preparations containing organic active ingredients A61K31/155Amidines (), e.g. guanidine (H2NC(=NH)NH2), isourea (N=C(OH)NH2), isothiourea (N=C(SH)NH2) A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE A61KPREPARATIONS FOR MEDICAL, DENTAL, OR TOILET PURPOSES A61K31/00Medicinal preparations containing organic active ingredients A61K31/185Acids; Anhydrides, halides or salts thereof, e.g. sulfur acids, imidic, hydrazonic, hydroximic acids A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HY

How Much Do You Know About Metformin?

How Much Do You Know About Metformin?

Metformin is a drug commonly used in the treatment of Type 2 diabetes. It is sold as a generic and under several brand names, including Glucophage, Glumetza, Riomet, and Fortamet. Both the American Diabetes Association (ADA) and the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists (AACE) recommend metformin as a cornerstone of therapy for Type 2 diabetes when exercise and dietary changes aren’t enough to keep blood glucose levels in target range. The low cost of the generic forms along with a long history of use make it a good choice for many individuals with Type 2 diabetes. Although metformin has helped many people lower their blood glucose levels, it does have some potential side effects that are worth knowing about. Understanding the risks and benefits of metformin is key to using it successfully. Take this quiz to test your knowledge of this popular diabetes medicine. (You can find the answers later in the article.) Q 1. How does metformin work to lower blood glucose levels? A. It stimulates the pancreas to make more insulin. B. It decreases the amount of glucose produced by the liver and makes it easier for cells to accept glucose from the bloodstream. C. It slows the digestive system’s breakdown of carbohydrates into glucose, allowing more time for insulin to work. D. It suppresses appetite, slows stomach emptying, and inhibits the release of glucagon (a hormone that raises blood glucose levels). 2. In addition to lowering blood glucose, metformin sometimes causes moderate weight loss. TRUE FALSE 3. In research studies, metformin use was associated with which of the following benefits in people with Type 2 diabetes? A. Reduced risk of morning high blood glucose. B. Reduced neuropathy (nerve damage). C. Reduced retinopathy (damage to the retina, a membrane in Continue reading >>

Can You Drink Alcohol While Taking Metformin?

Can You Drink Alcohol While Taking Metformin?

Metformin is a medication that helps manage type 2 diabetes and occasionally prediabetes. In general, drinking alcohol while taking metformin is not helpful and not recommended by doctors. The side effects of metformin can be life-threatening with excessive alcohol consumption. Metformin and alcohol both put stress on the liver, so intensifying the harmful effects and increasing the risk of liver complications. How does metformin and alcohol affect the body? Metformin is a popular, effective, and inexpensive management medication, prescribed for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. In 2014, some 14.4 million people in the United States were prescribed metformin. Metformin is also being used more and more frequently in prediabetes cases. Metformin use in overweight people with type 1 diabetes may also reduce insulin requirements and increase metabolic control. The drug works by improving insulin sensitivity, promoting the uptake of glucose into tissues and lowering sugar levels in the bloodstream. By increasing how effectively the existing glucose is used, metformin reduces the amount of glucose the liver produces and the intestines absorb. Alcohol also affects blood sugars significantly. Alcohol digestion puts stress on the liver, an organ dedicated to the removal of poisons from the body. When the liver is forced to process high amounts of alcohol, it becomes overworked and releases less glucose. Long-term alcohol use can also make cells less sensitive to insulin. This means that less glucose is absorbed from the blood and levels in the bloodstream increase. Over time, alcohol consumption damages the liver, especially when it is consumed in excess. It reduces the liver's ability to produce and regulate glucose. Conditions like alcoholic hepatitis and cirrhosis of the live Continue reading >>

Metformin

Metformin

Postmarketing cases of Metformin-associated lactic acidosis have resulted in death, hypothermia, hypotension, and resistant bradyarrhythmias. The onset of Metformin-associated lactic acidosis is often subtle, accompanied only by nonspecific symptoms such as malaise, myalgias, respiratory distress, somnolence, and abdominal pain. Metformin-associated lactic acidosis was characterized by elevated blood lactate levels (>5 mmol/Liter), anion gap acidosis (without evidence of ketonuria or ketonemia), an increased lactate/pyruvate ratio; and Metformin plasma levels generally >5 mcg/mL (see PRECAUTIONS). Risk factors for Metformin-associated lactic acidosis include renal impairment, concomitant use of certain drugs (e.g. carbonic anhydrase inhibitors such as topiramate), age 65 years old or greater, having a radiological study with contrast, surgery and other procedures, hypoxic states (e.g., acute congestive heart failure), excessive alcohol intake, and hepatic impairment. Steps to reduce the risk of and manage Metformin-associated lactic acidosis in these high risk groups are provided (see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION, CONTRAINDICATIONS, and PRECAUTIONS). If Metformin-associated lactic acidosis is suspected, immediately discontinue Metformin and institute general supportive measures in a hospital setting. Prompt hemodialysis is recommended (see PRECAUTIONS). Table 1: Select Mean (±S.D.) Metformin Pharmacokinetic Parameters Following Single or Multiple Oral Doses of Metformin Hydrochloride Tablets Subject Groups: Metformin hydrochloride tablets dose* (number of subjects) Cmax† (mcg/mL) Tmax‡ (hrs) Renal Clearance (mL/min) * All doses given fasting except the first 18 doses of the multiple dose studies † Peak plasma concentration ‡ Time to peak plasma concentration § Co Continue reading >>

A Comprehensive Guide To Metformin

A Comprehensive Guide To Metformin

Metformin is the top of the line medication option for Pre-Diabetes and Type 2 Diabetes. If you must start taking medication for your newly diagnosed condition, it is then likely that your healthcare provider will prescribe this medication. Taking care of beta cells is an important thing. If you help to shield them from demise, they will keep your blood sugar down. This medication is important for your beta cell safety if you have Type 2 Diabetes. Not only does Metformin lower blood sugar and decrease resistance of insulin at the cellular level, it improves cell functioning, lipids, and how fat is distributed in our bodies. Increasing evidence in research points to Metformin’s effects on decreasing the replication of cancer cells, and providing a protective action for the neurological system. Let’s find out why Lori didn’t want to take Metformin. After learning about the benefits of going on Metformin, she changed her mind. Lori’s Story Lori came in worrying. Her doctor had placed her on Metformin, but she didn’t want to get the prescription filled. “I don’t want to go on diabetes medicine,” said Lori. “If I go on pills, next it will be shots. I don’t want to end up like my dad who took four shots a day.” “The doctor wants you on Metformin now to protect cells in your pancreas, so they can make more insulin. With diet and exercise, at your age, you can reverse the diagnosis. Would you like to talk about how we can work together to accomplish that?” “Reverse?” she asked. “What do you mean reverse? Will I not have Type 2 Diabetes anymore?” “You will always have it, but if you want to put it in remission, you are certainly young enough to do so. Your doctor wants to protect your beta cells in the pancreas. If you take the new medication, Continue reading >>

Metformin Reduces Vitamin B12 Absorption

Metformin Reduces Vitamin B12 Absorption

The diabetes drug metformin can lead to low levels of vitamin B12. People taking this medicine may require a supplement of this crucial vitamin. What happens when a medication interferes with the usual absorption of a nutrient? This problem might be more common than you imagine. Many vitamins and minerals require an acidic environment before they can be absorbed from the stomach, so reducing stomach acid may reduce available levels of those nutrients in the body. We have written about this problem , especially with respect to the proton pump inhibitor (PPI) acid-suppressing drugs such as esomeprazole (Nexium), lansoprazole (Prevacid) or omeprazole (Prilosec). The diabetes drug metformin, as useful as it is, can also reduce the absorption of vitamin B12. This vitamin is crucial, but only tiny amounts are needed. It is stored in the body, so it can take quite a while after starting metformin or another drug that blocks B12 absorption for a vitamin B12 deficiency to reveal itself. This reader would prefer to prevent problems by taking vitamin B12 proactively: Q. You have written that the diabetes drug metformin can lead to low vitamin B12. What dose of this vitamin is appropriate for people on metformin? A. Research suggests that up to 30 percent of the patients on metformin to treat high blood sugar may develop low vitamin B12 levels ( Prescrire International, Nov. 2014 ). In one case, doctors overcame the resultant deficiency by injecting 2 mg/month of cobalamin (vitamin B12) ( European Review of Medical and Pharmacological Sciences, July, 2015 ). An oral dose of 1 mg/day of cobalamin may be sufficient to overcome deficiency within two weeks. Thereafter, 1 mg/month should maintain adequate levels of vitamin B12 ( BMC Public Health, May 31, 2012 ). Whether injected or or Continue reading >>

Metformin

Metformin

Metformin, marketed under the trade name Glucophage among others, is the first-line medication for the treatment of type 2 diabetes,[4][5] particularly in people who are overweight.[6] It is also used in the treatment of polycystic ovary syndrome.[4] Limited evidence suggests metformin may prevent the cardiovascular disease and cancer complications of diabetes.[7][8] It is not associated with weight gain.[8] It is taken by mouth.[4] Metformin is generally well tolerated.[9] Common side effects include diarrhea, nausea and abdominal pain.[4] It has a low risk of causing low blood sugar.[4] High blood lactic acid level is a concern if the medication is prescribed inappropriately and in overly large doses.[10] It should not be used in those with significant liver disease or kidney problems.[4] While no clear harm comes from use during pregnancy, insulin is generally preferred for gestational diabetes.[4][11] Metformin is in the biguanide class.[4] It works by decreasing glucose production by the liver and increasing the insulin sensitivity of body tissues.[4] Metformin was discovered in 1922.[12] French physician Jean Sterne began study in humans in the 1950s.[12] It was introduced as a medication in France in 1957 and the United States in 1995.[4][13] It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines, the most effective and safe medicines needed in a health system.[14] Metformin is believed to be the most widely used medication for diabetes which is taken by mouth.[12] It is available as a generic medication.[4] The wholesale price in the developed world is between 0.21 and 5.55 USD per month as of 2014.[15] In the United States, it costs 5 to 25 USD per month.[4] Medical uses[edit] Metformin is primarily used for type 2 diabetes, but is increasingly be Continue reading >>

How Does Metformin Work?

How Does Metformin Work?

Metformin is a type of oral medication used to treat type 2 diabetes — and according to Gary Scheiner, CDE, in his book, “Until There is a Cure,” metformin is the most prescribed medication for type 2 diabetes, and one of those most widely used drugs in the world. But type 1 diabetics can take metformin, too, explains Scheiner, if they’re struggling with insulin resistance and persistent high blood sugars. The brand names for metformin are Glucophage, Glucophage XR, Glumetza, Fortamet, and Riomet. Metformin has also been combined with other medications, giving you two diabetes treatment methods in one medication. Those combo-medications are: glyburide (Glucovance), glipizide (Metaglip), rosiglitazone (Avandamet), pioglitazone (Actoplus Met), sitagliptin (Janumet) and repaglinide (PrandiMet). [Download our free Guide to Type 2 Diabetes Medications] Metformin is taken in pill-form. It is generally taken twice per day, at breakfast and at dinner. For those with higher levels of insulin resistance, your doctor may prescribe metformin to be taken at all three meals: breakfast, lunch, and dinner. Benefits of Metformin: While there are a variety of oral medications to help people with type 2 diabetes reduce their blood sugar levels, they all work very differently in the body. Scheiner explains exactly how metformin works in the body: Metformin does not increase insulin levels and does not cause hypoglycemia. Instead, it decreases the amount of sugar produced by the liver and tends to suppress appetite. – “Until There is a Cure,” page 81 In every human body, the liver releases small amounts of glucose throughout the day. The primary effect of taking metformin is that this release of glucose from the liver is lessened, resulting in lower blood sugars. Metformin als Continue reading >>

Clinical Pharmacokinetics Of Metformin.

Clinical Pharmacokinetics Of Metformin.

1. Clin Pharmacokinet. 1996 May;30(5):359-71. (1)Department of Medicine, CHU Sart Tilman, Lige, Belgium. The biguanide metformin (dimethylbiguanide) is an oral antihyperglycaemic agentwidely used in the management of non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM).Considerable renewal of interest in this drug has been observed in recent years. Metformin can be determined in biological fluids by various methods, mainly usinghigh performance liquid chromatography, which allows pharmacokinetic studies inhealthy volunteers and diabetic patients. Metformin disposition is apparentlyunaffected by the presence of diabetes and only slightly affected by the use ofdifferent oral formulations. Metformin has an absolute oral bioavailability of 40to 60%, and gastrointestinal absorption is apparently complete within 6 hours of ingestion. An inverse relationship was observed between the dose ingested and therelative absorption with therapeutic doses ranging from 0.5 to 1.5 g, suggesting the involvement of an active, saturable absorption process. Metformin is rapidly distributed following absorption and does not bind to plasma proteins. Nometabolites or conjugates of metformin have been identified. The absence of livermetabolism clearly differentiates the pharmacokinetics of metformin from that of other biguanides, such as phenformin. Metformin undergoes renal excretion and hasa mean plasma elimination half-life after oral administration of between 4.0 and 8.7 hours. This elimination is prolonged in patients with renal impairment andcorrelates with creatinine clearance. There are only scarce data on therelationship between plasma metformin concentrations and metabolic effects.Therapeutic levels may be 0.5 to 1.0 mg/L in the fasting state and 1 to 2 mg/Lafter a meal, but monitoring has Continue reading >>

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