diabetestalk.net

Where Is Glucose Synthesized Quizlet

Introduction To Carbohydrate Metabolism Glycolysis

Introduction To Carbohydrate Metabolism Glycolysis

List the major pathways of glucose metabolism 1. Glycolysis: glucose is converted to pyruvate with a net production of 2 ATPs 2. Gluconeogenesis: occurs when glucose level in the blood is falling and involves de novo synthesis of glucose 3. Glycogenesis: when glucose from the diet is more than what is needed for glycolysis it is stored as glycogen 4. Glycogenolysis: glycogen is degraded when glucose is needed for the cels List the exogenous and endogenous sources of glucose; mono-, di-, and polysaccharides - Exogenous sources of glucose: dietary monosaccharides, disaccharides, polysaccharides - Monosaccharides: free glucose and free fructose (from fruit and honey) - Disaccharides: from milk sugar (lactose) and table sugar (sucrose) - Polysaccharides: from starch and glycogen Explain the digestion of di- and polysaccharides and absorption of monosaccharides - Monosaccharides: readily absorbed by enterocytes - Disaccharides: hydrolyzed by enzymes of the brush border of the intestinal tract - Polysaccharides: salivary alpha-amylase begins degrading these particles. Further digestion occurs from the surface of intestinal epithelial cells by alpha-glucosidases. Oligosaccharides that are not degraded travel to the ileum where bacteria metabolize sugars anaerobically to produce short chain fatty acids, lactate, H2, methane, and CO2 List the functions and importance of glycolysis. Explain why certain tissues depend on glycolysis as a major source of ATP 1. Energy-yielding pathway (2 ATPs per glucose) 2. Sets the stage for aerobic oxidation (Krebs cycle) 3. Supplies intermediates for carbohydrate storage as glycogen 4. Supplies intermediates for the pentose phosphate pathway (synthesis of NADPH and 4-C, 5-C, and 7-C sugars) 5. Supplies intermediates for 2,3 BPG synthesis (regul Continue reading >>

Biology 7,8,9,10 Flashcards | Quizlet

Biology 7,8,9,10 Flashcards | Quizlet

Chlorophyll is found in the _____ of chloroplasts. CO2 enters and O2 escapes from a leaf via In the chloroplast, sugars are made in a compartment that is filled with a thick fluid called the The oxygen released into the air as a product of photosynthesis comes from Which of the following statements about photosynthesis is true in regard to the reduction of CO2 to sugar? Electrons (with accompanying protons) are added to CO2 during photosynthesis. What is the source of energy that provides the boost for electrons during photosynthesis? The light reactions of photosynthesis include _____. Facts: NADP+ is reduced during the light reactions, and these electrons are later used to reduce CO2 to glucose in the Calvin cycle. The conversion of NADP+ to NADPH occurs with the assistance of _____. electrons from water and energy from sunlight Facts: Water is necessary because it is the splitting of water molecules that provides plant cells with electrons and a proton to reduce NADP+ to NADPH. Light energy is required to drive the transfer of the electrons to NADP+. The light reactions occur in the ________, while the Calvin cycle occurs in the ________. Which of the following are produced during the light reactions of photosynthesis? Which of the following are produced during the Calvin cycle? The primary function of light absorption by photosystems I and II is to produce _____. Facts: This free, energized electron powers the electron transport chain to generate ATP and ultimately be "handed off" to NADP+ to make NADPH for the Calvin cycle. The energy that excites P680 and P700 is supplied by The electron transport chains of the light reactions shuttle electrons along in a series of redox reactions. The electrons lost from the reaction center of photosystem I are replaced by elect Continue reading >>

Week 6 (glucose Synthesis)

Week 6 (glucose Synthesis)

lactate, pyruvate, carbon skeletons of amino acids, glycerol components of triglycerides, acetate(microorganisms) -certain cells/tissues use as primary energy source (e.g. brain, RBCs) -during fasting, almost all glucose required by body made w/ gluconeogenesis -limited ATP produced by glycolysis --- need glucose throughout day -glycolysis---energy production---mvmt, brain pwr, metabolic processes -essentially in opp. directions (but diff b/c metabolically irreversible steps) -glycolysis: break down glucose into pyruvate, catabolic, 10 steps -gluconeo:build up molec of glucose from pyruvate, anabolic, OAA=unique, 11 steps -NOT present in all tissues so gluconeo finishes at making G6P rather than glucose to generate 1 molec of glucose from 2 molec of pyruvate... -unable to diffuse out of cell --- gluc-6-phosphatase control formation of free glucose + only present in tissues that affect blood glucose homeostasis (e.g. liver) -G6P used in glycolysis, bypassing 1st step and saving ATP -G6P readily converted to G1P for glycogen synthesis -LDH converts lactate to pyruvate in liver -only 2 ATP made anaerobically --- ATP deficit -alanine travels to liver converted back to pyruvate then glucose -amino grp converted to urea and excreted -allows amino transport from muscle/tissues to liver -carbon skeletons can be utilized (except L and K) -some AA (e.g. alanine, glycine, cysteine, serine) deaminated and converted to pyruvate -converted into pyruvate, a-ketoglutarate, succinyl CoA, fumarate, and OAA -degraded to acetyl CoA or acetoacetyl CoA animals-use glycerol from triglycerides into glucose plants and some bact-use glyoxylate cycle to convert 2 carbon units derived from brkdwn of fatty acids into carbohydrate -glucagon stimulates by inc PEP carboxykinase when blood sugar low - Continue reading >>

Glucose Flashcards | Quizlet

Glucose Flashcards | Quizlet

Which glucose source is the immediate source for maintaining blood glucose? Glycogen protects the ________ _________ of the cell What portion of wet mass can the liver store as glycogen? Glycosyl units linked by a 1-4 bonds and a 1-6 branch points every 8-10 residues What is the structure of the glucose polysaccharide (glycogen)? Allows rapid synthesis and degradation as enzymes can work simultaneously from different ends What is the advantage of the branched structure? What is the central molecule of glycogen? Glucokinase or hexokinase converts glucose to G6P Pyrophosphorylase converts G1P + UTP to UDPG (endergonic) How many glycosyl residues are transferred in the making of branching? How long must each branch grow to before transfer? Glycogen synthase adds glycosyl units to glycogen polymer, removing UDP Which enzyme carries out the branching process? Permits dense construction allowing 97% efficient storage What substance is a powerful driver of glucose release? Glycogen phosphorylase releases glycosyl residues as G1P until the 5th remaining residue, leaving 4 behind What is the first step in glycogenolysis? Hydrolysis would leave an unphosphorylated glucose that is uncharged so not trapped in the cell, saves 1ATP Why is phosphorylysis used instead of hydrolysis? Debranching enzyme transfers 3 of the remaining glycosyl units to another branch so glycogen phosphorylase can continue What is the second step in glycogenolysis? Debranching enzyme hydrolyses a 1-6 link, releasing glucose which is either lost or trapped What is the third step in glycogenolysis? What happens to the released glycosyl units? Conversion to glucose by glucose-6-phosphatase, only present in kidneys and liver Acts via cAMP and protein kinase pathway to convert phosphorylase a (inactive) to phosp Continue reading >>

Bio Exam 3` Flashcards | Quizlet

Bio Exam 3` Flashcards | Quizlet

visible light, radio waves,xrays and infrared rays pigments are molecules. what inside of the molecule can react to radiant energy? the most important pigment in chloroplasts is NADPH is synthesized during which of the following reactions? Glucose synthesis requires which of the following? products of energy capturing reactions must be available Before photosynthesis evolved, ________ was rare in Earth's atmosphere. In green plants, the primary function of the Calvin cycle is to construct simple sugars from carbon dioxide The energy of the movement of electrons down a concentration gradient via electron transport within the thylakoid membrane generates The NADPH required for carbon dioxide fixation is formed ATP is required during which of the following reactions? during the LIGHT independent reactions only The ATP and the NADPH synthesized during the light dependent reactions are During photosynthesis when is CO2 is utilized? Glucose is made during which of the following reactions? Specifically, molecules of chlorophyll are located in membranes of sacs called All of the following are part of the Calvin-Benson cycle EXCEPT Which sequence accurately reflects the flow of electrons in photosynthesis? H2O Photosystem II Photosystem I NADP A pigment that absorbs red and blue light and reflects green light is Water is required during which of the following reactions? during the light dependent reactions only Light-dependent photosynthetic reactions produce During the process of photosynthesis, solar energy is converted into The light-dependent reactions of photosynthesis result in which of the following? What is the role of water in photosynthesis? Carbon dioxide is required in the light-dependent reaction. True or False? During glycolysis, what is the net gain of ATP molecu Continue reading >>

Glucose Metabolism Flashcards | Quizlet

Glucose Metabolism Flashcards | Quizlet

This may be aerobic: pyruvate will continue into the TCA cycle after being converted into acetyl CoA Or anaerobic: Pyruvate is converted into lactate ii. Glycerol and AA's can also be converted into glucose. iii. NOT fatty acids - these will only be converted into Acetyl CoA Phase I [oxidative RNXs] Glucose converted into NADPH and R5P. Phase II [non-oxidative RNX's] Link R5P into intermediates of glycolysis a. Promoted by insulin, prohibited by glucagon a. Promoted by glucagon, inhibited by insulin c. Carried out by phosphorylated glycogen phosphorylase - Glycogen phosphorylase is phosphorylated by Epinephrine, glucagon. Dephosphorylation of this enzyme caused by insulin No O2. Glucose -> pyruvate -> lactate net 2 ATP produces ATP faster O2. Glucose -> pyruvate -> acetyl CoA which takes part in TCA Anabolic processes require Free energy [G], are endergonic, and create higher energy molecules Catabolic processes release G, are exergonic, and break down higher energy require free energy (Anabolic processes - synthesis of compounds) release free energy (often catabolic processes - break down of compounds) Reactions involve the transfer of e- from one molecule (reducing agent) to the another (oxidizing agent) Ex. In glycolysis, glucose is oxidized to pyruvate and NAD is reduced normal fasting plasma glucose concentration is 70-100 mg/dl a. symptoms of hunger, sweating, trembling b. cortisol becomes elevated (gluconeogenesis is initiated using amino acids and it requires the presence of cortisol) a. Fasting serum glucose greater than 126 mg/dl is diagnostic of diabetes mellitus causes hyperglycemia due to decreased insulin (Type 1) or decreased insulin sensitivity of target tissues (Type 2) i. Often due to a viral infection in youth - Antibodies to that virus cross react a Continue reading >>

Glucose Metabolism Flashcards | Quizlet

Glucose Metabolism Flashcards | Quizlet

2. other dietary sugars (converted to glucose by liver) 3. stored glycogen (a branched polymer of glucose) 4. gluconeogenesis (glucose synthesis from non-carbohydrate sources) rationale for stepwise oxidation of glucose (glucose metabolism) 1. allows more net energy to be harvested 3. allows small energy units to be "captured" by carrier molecules C2H12O6 + 6O2 yields 6CO2 + 6H2O + 30ATP + heat 5. pyruvate decarboxylation by pyruvate dehydrogenase glucose metabolism in muscle and heart tissue cells 14. hydrolysis of glucose-6-phosphate and release of glucose from the cell into blood 15. formation of glucuronides (drug and bilirubin detox conjugation) but the glucuronic acid pathway plasma glucose is taken up by peripheral tissues via what type of transport? Family of integral membrane proteins that mediate glucose transport across cell membranes on plasma membrane, widely expressed (in heart muscle, brain, placenta, erythrocytes) responsible for basal glucose uptake in all cells expressed in liver, renal tubes, and enterocytes, pancreatic beta cells, intestine. (bidirectional transport). independent of insulin primary glucose transporter in neurons. also in kidney and placenta. independent of insulin expressed in adipose and striated muscle , heart, adipocyte. (insulin regulated transporter) sodium-glucose cotransporter function and location responsible for intestinal glucose uptake In absence of insulin what happens to GLUT4 transporters? they are stored in intracellular vesicles what pathway does insulin activate? Then what events take place? 3. GLUT4 vesicles move to membrane and place transporters 4. facilitated diffusion of glucose is greatly enhanced 2 peptide chains held together by disulfide bonds 2. disulfide bonds form within protein (proinsulin) 3. linker ch Continue reading >>

Gluconeogenesis: De Novo Synthesis Of Glucose

Gluconeogenesis: De Novo Synthesis Of Glucose

An anabolic pathway for the de novo synthesis of glucose Maintain blood glucose levels during post-absorptive/fasting phase partially in cytosol and partially in mitochondria How many hours after eating is the fed state/phase I? How many hours after eating is the fasting state? How many hours after eating is the starving state? Where is blood glucose derived in the fed state? What are the two sources of glucose in the fasting state? 1. Hepatic glycogenolysis primary source (about 100 g) Where is blood glucose derived in the starving state? Gluconeogenesis is the only pathway providing sustained synthesis of glucose de novo. Hepatic glycogen stores are depleted in these phases. (IV,V) What is the protein-sparing effect of dietary carbohydrate? In the absence of dietary carbohydrate, gluconeogenesis needs to derive its precursors from non-carbohydrate sources (amino acids) in order to manufacture about 130 g of glucose/day. Prolonged reliance on glucneogenesis and ketone bodies for energy has detrimental effects, including the breakdown of body protein and ketosis. That why dietary carbohydrate is said to exhibit a "protein sparing" effect. What are the 3 major metabolic fates of pyruvate in humans? 1. Pyruvate is reduced to form lactate via anaerobic glycolysis. 2. Pyruvate can be oxidized to acetyl CoA, entering the TCA cycle. 3. Pyruvate is converted to oxaloacetate (OAA) entering gluconeogenesis (in post-absorptive phase/liver only) and/or entering the TCA cycle (in TCA priming/most tissues with mitochondria) 4 regulatory enzymes - pyruvate carboxylase, PEP caroxykinase, FBPase-1 (fructose bisphophatase-1) and glucose-6-phosphatase (G6P) availability of gluconeogenic precursors - pyruvate (amino acids), lactate (anaerobic glycolysis), and glycerol phosphate (lipolysi Continue reading >>

Metabolism Flashcards | Quizlet

Metabolism Flashcards | Quizlet

product of hydrogen ion diffusion within mitochondria the diffusion of hydrogen ions back into the matrix through hydrogen ion channels powers the production of ATP by the enzyme. gender, body weight, age, resting energy expenditure P=[10.0m(kg)+6.25h(cm)-5.0 x AGE+s] kcal/day Fatty acid are broken down into molecules that can enter the mitochondrial respiratory machinery by this process. is the movement of ions across a selectively permeable membrane, down their electrochemical gradient. More specifically, it relates to the generation of ATP by the movement of hydrogen ions across a membrane during cellular respiration or photosynthesis. --> Monoglycerides, fatty acid-->Triglocerides and other lipid and proteins --> thoracic duct-->left subclavian vein--> broken down by Lipoprotein lipase that release into the skeletal muscle and adipose tissue, than rest into liver leave the liver, and become back as IDL's transports to tissues that need cholesterol, the excess leave the tissues Pick up the excess cholesterol and transports them back to the liver for storage or excrete as bile are organic molecules that must bind to the active site of an enzyme before it can function. an acetyl group bound to coenzyme A, a participant in the anabolic and catabolic pathways for carbohydrates, lipids, and many amnio acids. This mechanism of heat transfer involves the direct transfer of energy throughout physical contact. heat loss to the cooler air that moves across the surface of your body. the amino group is removed and an ammonium ion is released. respiratory chain, a series of integral and peripheral protein in the inner mitochondrial membrane. FAD is reduced to FADH2 in Citric Acid cycle, and enter ETC at Complex 2 and gives 2 ATP for every FADH2. FAD is reduced by a full hydrogen Continue reading >>

Chapter 4: Autotrophy

Chapter 4: Autotrophy

-It is called a cycle because it starts with the same substance it produces in the end (RuBP). -Cycle requires products of light reactions and enzymes. The enzyme rubisco catalyzes carbon fixation 1)Light energy is absorbed by chlorophyll a. 2)The excited electrons are picked up by primary electron acceptor. 1)Light energy is absorbed by chlorophyll a in photosystem II. 2)The electrons move to the Primary Electron Acceptor and through Electron Transport System. 3)At the end of the Electron Transport System, the electrons are tired and out of energy -> go to Photosystem I. 4)The reaction center of PSII takes two electrons from a nearby water molecule, creating 2H+ and 1/2O2. -used to make compounds used by the plant -Many glucose molecules -> starch or cellulose -the plants that use the enzyme rubisco to make G3P called C3 plants autotrophs such as plants that depend on photosynthesis for both energy and carbon compounds bacteria which obtain energy by oxidizing inorganic substances such as iron, sulfur, or other minerals, just as photoautotrophs obtain energy from sunlight the light-absorbing pigments that function in photosynthesis are embedded in membranes within cells the space surrounding the chloroplast is the stroma the process of photosynthesis involves three energy conversions conversion of light energy into chemical energy storage of chemical energy in the form of sugars pigment molecules in the thylakoids absorb light and convert it to chemical energy carried by short-lived, energy-rich molecules the energy of these molecules is used to make 3-carbon sugars from carbon dioxide in a series of reactions the light-absorbing pigments form two types of clusters, called photosystems I and II the pigments in each PS absorb light energy and transfer it from one molec Continue reading >>

Science Chapter 4 Flashcards | Quizlet

Science Chapter 4 Flashcards | Quizlet

"burns" glucose for energy; It uses the energy that is released to form molecules of ATP. Heterotroph; consume other heterotrophs and autotrophs consists of organic molecules that store energy in their chemical bonds is a simple carbohydrate; stores chemical energy in a concentrated, stable form living things that cannot make their own food the process of using the energy in sunlight to make food Autotrophs;produce food for themselves and other organisms Define energy, and state where living things get the energy they need. Energy is the ability to do work. Food is where organisms get the energy they need to carry out life processes. An autotroph is an organism that can make its own food using photosynthesis; algae Photosynthesis uses the energy in sunlight to convert energy into the food the plant needs Heterotrophs obtain food by consuming other organisms. ATP and glucose are both molecules that organisms use for energy. They are like the tank of a tanker truck that delivers gas to a gas station and the gas tank that holds the fuel for a car. Which molecule is like the tank of the delivery truck, and which is like the gas tank of the car? Explain your answer. Glucose is the tank of tanker truck because without it there would be no ATP. ATP is the gas tank because it is made up of the energy that body uses just like the gas tank holds gas for the car to move. Compare and contrast photosynthesis and cellular respiration. Why are the processes like two sides of the same coin? Photosynthesis makes energy while cellular respiration burns energy. Both go hand in hand in life processes; the products of one process are the reactants of the other Explain why living things need both glucose and ATP. All things need glucose because it is stable to transport but it is also to po Continue reading >>

Glucose Flashcards | Quizlet

Glucose Flashcards | Quizlet

In the cytosol of many tissues, eg. liver, muscle, kidney. Glucose attracts water, glycogen doesn't attract AS MUCH water. Glycogen storage that can be accessed for other tissues? Storage in the liver and kidney. (Muscle cell glycogen cannot be used for other cells). Liver v Muscle amount of glycogen storage Liver up to 10%, muscles 1-2%. This is due to space limits in cardiac muscles. Do glycogen synthesis and degradation occur at the same time? Describe structure of glycogen, and 2 bonds - Is similar to starch, but can pack more densely (space efficency). - Protein is middle is glycogenin = has two binding ends that allow the glucose molecules to attach to it. of which end if glucose added and taken away from the glycogen polymer the Non-reducing end. (reducing end is bound to the glycogenin) 1) Glucose enter throuh cell membrane through glucose transporter. 2) Hexokinase/Glucokinase (liver and kidney only) phosphorlyate the glucose (ATP-->ADP) -->Glucose 6-phosphate so glucose can't go back through the transporter. 3) Glucose 6-phosphate is converted to Glucose 1-phosphate 5) UDPG is added to glycogenin by Glycogen synthase Glucose release mediated by light or hormones (eg. adrenalin) or hunger (glucagon). Name the 3(-4) enzymes involved in glycogenolysis 2) Glycogen de-branching enzyme (actually 2 enzymes) 3) Phosphoglucomutase (Found in muscles and liver) Of what end of glucose does glycogen breakdown occur 1) Glycogen phosphorlyase adds a phosphate at the 1 position, and moves the 1st molecule away. (This only works to 5 glycosyl residues away (leaving 4). 2) Debranching enzyme acts as a transferase to transfer 3 glycosyl units and the a-1,6 link. The remaining glucose is lost from the cell, or an ATP must be used (hexokinase) to trap it. 3) Phosphoglucmutase cat Continue reading >>

Chapter 7 Flashcards | Quizlet

Chapter 7 Flashcards | Quizlet

MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1) Before photosynthesis evolved, ________ was rare in Earth's atmosphere. 3) What structural feature of a leaf enables it to obtain CO2 from the air? 4) The vast majority of chloroplasts found in a leaf are in the 5) Specifically, molecules of chlorophyll are located in the membranes of sacs called 6) All of the following factors influence the rate of photosynthesis EXCEPT 7) All of the following compounds are necessary components for photosynthesis EXCEPT 8) The cellular organelle that utilizes sunlight to convert carbon dioxide and water into sugar and 9) Imagine that a scientist discovers a mutant plant seedling that appears to lack stomata. What A) CO2 would not be able to enter the plant as a reactant for photosynthesis. 10) Imagine that a plant in your garden doesn't receive an adequate amount of water. Which of the following would be most affected by this? C) Both the light reactions and the Calvin cycle of photosynthesis 11) Albino corn has no chlorophyll. You would expect albino corn seedlings to C) fail to thrive because they cannot capture light energy. 12) The energy required for photosynthesis to occur is 13) In the chloroplast, energy in sunlight is passed around different chlorophyll molecules until it reaches a specific chlorophyll molecule that can transfer energy in sunlight to an energized electron. This chlorophyll molecule is called the D) thylakoid membranes of the chloroplasts. 15) Pigments that absorb light energy to drive photosynthesis include 16) A pigment that absorbs red and blue light and reflects green light is 17) Which of the following is NOT true of chlorophyll? 18) Suppose that you are experimenting with different types of lighting Continue reading >>

Glucose Metabolism Flashcards | Quizlet

Glucose Metabolism Flashcards | Quizlet

the breakdown of one glucose to two pyruvate to yield energy the combination of smaller carbon containing compounds to synthesize glucose storage or recovery of glucose from glycogen polymer Glucose + 2NAD+ + 2ADP + 2Pi ---> 2 Pyruvate + 2NADH + 2ATP What are the first 5 steps of glycolysis? (2 ATP molecules hydrolyzed to ADP per glucose) What are the second 5 steps of glycolysis? (4 ATP molecules are generated per glucose for a net gain of 2 ATP) (2 NAD+ electron carriers are reduced to 2 NADH) What happens to NADH in the electron transport chain? NADH gets oxidized to generate additional ATP Which are the irreversible steps in Glycolysis? First step: ATP is hydrolyzed with hexokinase to convert glucose to glucose 6-phosphate Third step: ATP is hydrolyzed with phosphofructokinase 1 to conver fructose 6-phosphate to fructose 1,6-bisphosphate Tenth step (last step): ATP is synthesized with substrate level phosphorylation and pyruvate kinase to convert phosphoenol pyruvate into pyruvate ATP is hydrolyzed with hexokinase to convert glucose to glucose 6-phosphate - Traps glucose in the cell -- phosphorylated glucose cannot leave the cell Convert glucose 6-phosphate to fructose 6-phosphate STILL a reducing sugar -- can go through mutarotation - can go back and forth to glucose 6-phosphate fructose 6-phosphate is phosphorylated to fructose 1,6-bisphosphate - officially trapped in glycolysis -- can't go back to fructose 6-phosphate molecule that is officially trapped in glycolysis - anomeric carbon is in C2 position and it does not have a glycosidic bond Aldolase enzyme splits fructose 1,6-bisphosphate into glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate and dihydroxyacetone phosphate Triose phosphate isomerase converts dihydroxyacetone to glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate - gets converted to glyceralde Continue reading >>

Photosynthesis: The Calvin Cycle

Photosynthesis: The Calvin Cycle

(new term) In chemistry, what is fixation? "Fixation is taking an element from a gaseous or volatile compound and incorporating it into a solid, permanent, or nonvolatile form via chemical reaction." What is the 1st step of Calvin Cycle called and what happens? Carbon fixation. Enzyme RUBISCO combines CO2 with 5-carbon sugar named RuBP. The 6-carbon molecule splits in half to form 2 molecules of 3-PGA Carbon reduction. Energy from ATP and electrons from NADPH are used to reduce 3-PGA to G3P (The Release of G3P molecule. For every 3 CO2, 6 G3P produced, and only 1 released (this is bc 5 G3P are needed to make the RuBP) Energy from ATP rearrange 5 G3P to 3 RuBP Remember, it takes 3 turns to make 1 G3P. Yet, we need two G3P, so a total of 6 turns of CC is needed to synthesize glucose. This means 6 CO2, 18 ATP, and 12 NADPH just for one glucose (686 kCal bc high potential energy) (Review) How do breaking/making bonds go in terms of energy consumption? You always need energy to break bonds, and creating bonds release energy. (Remember tho, exergonic is just releasing more energy than consuming, and endergonic is vice versa.) Ultimately, what type of reaction is photosynthesis? The breaking of low PE molecules like H2O and CO2 require a lot of energy. However, the synthesis of glucose doesn't give off that much energy. So, it's endergonic. Then why do we use this process in the first place? This is because glucose, even though it does require a lot of energy for synthesis, ultimately is a easy way for cellular respiration to get its energy. Continue reading >>

More in diabetes