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Where Is Diabetes Found In The Body

Diabetes: Basic Facts

Diabetes: Basic Facts

What is diabetes? Diabetes is a disease that affects the way the body turns sugar into energy. There are several types of diabetes. How the Body Turns Sugar into Energy The food we eat is made up of three things. They are carbohydrates (CAR-bow-HIdrates), which are sugars and starches; protein (PRO-teen); and fat. When we eat, a healthy body changes all of the carbohydrates and some of the protein and fat into a sugar. This sugar is called glucose (GLOOcose). From the small intestine, glucose moves into the blood. From the blood, glucose then moves into the cells of the body. The sugar we call glucose is the fuel, or energy, that the cells of the body need to do their work. Near the stomach is an organ called the pancreas (PAN-kree-us). The pancreas makes insulin (IN-suh-lin). Insulin is a hormone. When we eat, the sugar level in the blood goes up. The pancreas puts out more insulin. The insulin helps move the sugar out of the blood into the cells. The cells use the sugar for energy or store the sugar for use later. What happens when you have diabetes? When you have diabetes, your body either doesn’t make enough insulin or doesn’t use the insulin properly. Sugar stays in your blood. Then the cells don’t get enough sugar for fuel. The body doesn’t have enough energy to do its work. Over time, the high level of sugar in the blood can damage the body. What are the types of diabetes? Three types of diabetes are the most common. Type 1 diabetes In Type 1 diabetes, the pancreas does not make insulin. Sugar is unable to get into the cells. So the sugar level in the blood goes up. When the sugar level rises above normal, a person has high blood glucose. The name for high blood glucose is hyperglycemia (HIper-glice-EE-mee-uh). Most often children and young adults get Typ Continue reading >>

Chemicals In Chocolate Can Help Stave Off Diabetes, New Research Reveals

Chemicals In Chocolate Can Help Stave Off Diabetes, New Research Reveals

Good news for chocolate lovers - chemicals in the sweet treat can stave off diabetes. Researchers have discovered that certain compounds found in cocoa can actually help the body release more insulin and respond to increased blood glucose better. Alamy Insulin is the hormone that manages glucose, the blood sugar that reaches unhealthy levels among type 2 diabetes sufferers. When a person has diabetes, their body either does not produce enough insulin or does not process blood sugar properly. At the root of that is the failure of cells whose job it is to produce insulin. The new study, published in the Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry, finds these cells work better and remain stronger with an increased presence of compounds found naturally in cocoa. Scientists at Brigham Young University in the US fed cocoa compound to animals on a high-fat diet. They found that by adding it to the high-fat diet, the compound would decrease the level of obesity in the animals and would increase their ability to deal with increased blood glucose levels. Getty - Contributor The team investigated further to find out what was happening to cells in the body. That lead to the discovery that cocoa compounds boosted cells ability to secrete insulin. The downside is that people would have to eat a lot of chocolate to get the boost. Study leader Professor Jeffery Tessem, an expert in nutrition, diets and food science at Brigham Young University, said: "You probably have to eat a lot of cocoa and you probably don't want it to have a lot of sugar in it. "It's the compound in cocoa you're after." Getty - Contributor He said the breakthrough showed the cocoa compound increased cells ability to deal with oxidative stress and made them stronger. While there has been much research on similar compounds Continue reading >>

Diabetes Mellitus

Diabetes Mellitus

Diabetes mellitus, disorder of carbohydrate metabolism characterized by impaired ability of the body to produce or respond to insulin and thereby maintain proper levels of sugar (glucose) in the blood. Diabetes is a major cause of morbidity and mortality, though these outcomes are not due to the immediate effects of the disorder. They are instead related to the diseases that develop as a result of chronic diabetes mellitus. These include diseases of large blood vessels (macrovascular disease, including coronary heart disease and peripheral arterial disease) and small blood vessels (microvascular disease, including retinal and renal vascular disease), as well as diseases of the nerves. Causes and types Insulin is a hormone secreted by beta cells, which are located within clusters of cells in the pancreas called the islets of Langerhans. Insulin’s role in the body is to trigger cells to take up glucose so that the cells can use this energy-yielding sugar. Patients with diabetes may have dysfunctional beta cells, resulting in decreased insulin secretion, or their muscle and adipose cells may be resistant to the effects of insulin, resulting in a decreased ability of these cells to take up and metabolize glucose. In both cases, the levels of glucose in the blood increase, causing hyperglycemia (high blood sugar). As glucose accumulates in the blood, excess levels of this sugar are excreted in the urine. Because of greater amounts of glucose in the urine, more water is excreted with it, causing an increase in urinary volume and frequency of urination as well as thirst. (The name diabetes mellitus refers to these symptoms: diabetes, from the Greek diabainein, meaning “to pass through,” describes the copious urination, and mellitus, from the Latin meaning “sweetened wi Continue reading >>

Diabetes The Basics: The Body In And Out Of Balance

Diabetes The Basics: The Body In And Out Of Balance

THE BODY IN AND OUT OF BALANCE Diabetes is the breakdown or partial breakdown of one of the more important of the body’s autonomic (self-regulating) mechanisms, and its breakdown throws many other self-regulating systems into imbalance. There is probably not a tissue in the body that escapes the effects of the high blood sugars of diabetes. People with high blood sugars tend to have osteoporosis, or fragile bones; they tend to have tight skin; they tend to have inflammation and tightness at their joints; they tend to have many other complications that affect every part of their body, including the brain, with impaired short-term memory. Insulin: What It Is, What It Does At the center of diabetes is the pancreas, a large gland about the size of your hand, which is located toward the back of the abdominal cavity and is responsible for manufacturing, storing, and releasing the hormone insulin. The pancreas also makes several other hormones, as well as digestive enzymes. Even if you don’t know much about diabetes, in all likelihood you’ve heard of insulin and probably know that we all have to have insulin to survive. What you might not realize is that only a small percentage of diabetics must have insulin shots. Insulin is a hormone produced by the beta cells of the pancreas. Insulin’s major function is to regulate the level of glucose in the bloodstream, which it does primarily by facilitating the transport of blood glucose into most of the billions of cells that make up the body. The presence of insulin stimulates glucose transporters to move to the surface of cells to facilitate glucose entry into the cells. Insulin also stimulates centers in the brain responsible for feeding behavior. Indeed, there is some insulin response even as one begins to eat, before gluco Continue reading >>

Both Types Of Diabetes Could Be Cured By A Daily Probiotic Pill That 'rewires' The Body, Scientists Claim

Both Types Of Diabetes Could Be Cured By A Daily Probiotic Pill That 'rewires' The Body, Scientists Claim

A simple probiotic pill that 'rewires' the body could cure both types of diabetes, scientists claim. The new drug, which contains live bacteria from the human gut, has been shown to drastically lower blood sugar levels. The pancreas is the organ which controls glucose levels in the body in healthy individuals. But scientists at Cornell University in New York discovered a protein secreted from a human probiotic could shift that control from the pancreas to the upper intestine. Scroll down for video The breakthrough, which relies on 'rewiring' the body, could, the Cornell team hope, pave the way for a cure for both type 1 and 2 diabetes. Professor John March, who led the new research, said their findings are a 'proof of principle' which could prove the first step to developing a cure. He told the Express: 'If it works really well in people, it could be that they just take the pill and wouldn't have to do anything else to control their diabetes. 'It's likely, though, that it will be used in conjunction with some other treatment.' Diabetes is a life-long health condition where there is too much glucose in the blood because the body cannot use it properly. The pancreas of a diabetes sufferer is unable to produce any insulin, or not enough. It can also be the case the insulin produced is unable to work properly. Insulin is essential to the body, acting as the key that unlocks the door to the body's cells so glucose can enter and provide energy. With diabetes, the body is unable to use glucose as fuel and instead glucose builds up in the blood. Professor March's team engineered a strain of lactobacillus, a human probiotic commonly found in the gut, to secrete a peptide - a hormone that releases insulin in response to food entering the body. The scientists then gave a group of Continue reading >>

How To Reverse A Diabetes Diagnosis By Losing Weight

How To Reverse A Diabetes Diagnosis By Losing Weight

Here's something shocking to think about: 40 percent of Americans are obese — and that number is the highest it's ever been. And here's another jaw-dropping statistic: 29 million Americans have type 2 diabetes. If you fall into either of these categories, the good news is there are simple steps you can take to make lasting changes. For example, you only need to lose 5 percent of your body weight to seriously start reducing your risk for type 2 diabetes. And you only need to lose 1 gram of fat from your pancreas (where your insulin lives) to reverse the symptoms of diabetes, according to one small study. The connection between a small amount of weight loss with a large health benefit is not new. A 2012 study found reducing body mass index (BMI) by just five units could help reverse diabetes, regardless of your initial BMI. Diabetes can be a confusing topic — here are a few things you should know. There are two very different types of diabetes. Type 1 diabetes involves the absence of insulin, a critical hormone needed to help control blood sugar levels. It has often been referred to as juvenile diabetes or insulin dependent diabetes. Type 1 diabetes represents a very small percentage of total diabetes cases and has nothing to do with being overweight or obese. The other form is called type 2 diabetes (often referred to as adult onset or noninsulin dependent). Type 2 diabetes makes up 95 percent of all diabetes cases and it’s highly correlated to weight. Individuals with type 2 diabetes produce insulin, but the hormone is not sensitive enough to the rise and fall of blood sugar levels. This form of the disease may start as insulin resistance or prediabetes. Both types of diabetes are serious and can lead to several adverse health outcomes, like nerve damage, impaired Continue reading >>

How To Help Your Body Reverse Diabetes

How To Help Your Body Reverse Diabetes

Diabetes rates are rising, in fact it is now considered an “epidemic” in the medical community. The American Diabetes Association reports that: 23.6 million Americans have diabetes 57 million Americans are pre-diabetic 1.6 new cases of diabetes are reported each year For those over age 60, almost 1 in 4 have diabetes Diabetes is the 7th leading cause of death Diabetes increases heart attack risk and 68% of diabetes related death certificates report heart related problems 75% of adults with diabetes will develop high blood pressure Diabetes is the leading cause of blindness, kidney failure and nervous system disorders Diabetes costs $174 billion annually Diabetes is a well-established problem and a multi-billion dollar industry. It is medically characterized by Fasting Blood Glucose higher than 126 mg/dL , which ranges between 100-125 mg/dL are considered pre-diabetic and ranges below 99 mg/dL are considered normal. Studies are finding that a fasting blood glucose below 83 mg/dL is actually a better benchmark, as risk of heart disease begins to increase at anything above that. IMPORTANT: There is a difference between Type 1 diabetes (an autoimmune condition) and Type 2 diabetes (lifestyle related). This article refers specifically to Type 2 diabetes. Some medical professionals use an Oral Glucose Tolerance Test (OGTT) to test for diabetes. If you’ve ever been pregnant and had to drink the sickeningly sweet sugar cocktail and then have blood drawn, you are familiar with this one. Basically, a patient is given 50-75 grams of glucose in concentrated solution and his blood sugar response is measured. I’m not a fan of this test because no one should be ingesting that much concentrated glucose, and the test is not a completely accurate measure. (Just a side note: if yo Continue reading >>

Pancreas And Diabetes

Pancreas And Diabetes

Tweet The pancreas is an organ located behind the lower part of the stomach, in front of the spine and plays an important part in diabetes. The pancreas is the organ which produces insulin, one the main hormones that helps to regulate blood glucose levels. The role of the pancreas in the body The pancreas plays a part in two different organ systems, the endocrine system and the exocrine system. The endocrine system includes all the organs which produce hormones, chemicals which are delivered via the blood to help regulate our mood, growth, metabolism and reproduction. Two of the hormones produced by the pancreas are insulin and glucagon. The exocrine system is made up of a number of glands which release substances such as sweat (to the skin), saliva (in the mouth) or, in the case of the pancreas, digestive enzymes. The pancreas and insulin The pancreas is responsible for producing insulin. The cells which produce insulin are beta cells. These cells are distributed in a cluster of cells in the pancreas called the Islets of Langerhans, named after the anatomist who discovered them. Insulin is a hormone that helps to regulate blood sugar levels by assisting the transport of glucose from the blood into neighbouring cells. The pancreas and type 1 diabetes In type 1 diabetes, the beta cells that produce insulin are attacked by the body’s immune system. As more beta cells get killed off, the pancreas struggles to produce enough insulin to keep blood sugar levels down and the symptoms of diabetes begin to appear. Research has shown that whilst many beta cells are killed off, the body can continue to produce very small amounts of insulin even after decades have passed. News from 2012: Insulin production may last for over 30 years in type 1 diabetes The pancreas and type 2 diab Continue reading >>

Diabetes

Diabetes

Diabetes - type 1; Diabetes - type 2; Diabetes - gestational; Type 1 diabetes; Type 2 diabetes; Gestational diabetes; Diabetes mellitus Diabetes is a chronic disease in which the body cannot regulate the amount of sugar in the blood. Necrobiosis lipoidica diabeticorum is a chronic skin disease characterized by shiny plaques that vary in color from light yellowish to reddish-tan. It is seen more commonly in women. Although the name implies diabetes and the majority of cases occur in diabetics, this condition can occur in individuals without diabetes. Endocrine glands release hormones (chemical messengers) into the bloodstream to be transported to various organs and tissues throughout the body. For instance, the pancreas secretes insulin, which allows the body to regulate levels of sugar in the blood. The thyroid gets instructions from the pituitary to secrete hormones which determine the pace of chemical activity in the body (the more hormone in the bloodstream, the faster the chemical activity; the less hormone, the slower the activity). Diabetes causes an excessive amount of glucose to remain in the blood stream which may cause damage to the blood vessels. Within the eye the damaged vessels may leak blood and fluid into the surrounding tissues and cause vision problems. Islets of Langerhans contain beta cells and are located within the pancreas. Beta cells produce insulin which is needed to metabolize glucose within the body. The pancreas is located behind the liver and is where the hormone insulin is produced. Insulin is used by the body to store and utilize glucose. The catheter at the end of the insulin pump is inserted through a needle into the abdominal fat of a person with diabetes. Dosage instructions are entered into the pump's small computer and the appropriat Continue reading >>

You And Your Hormones

You And Your Hormones

What is insulin? Insulin is a hormone made by an organ located behind the stomach called the pancreas. Here, insulin is released into the bloodstream by specialised cells called beta cells found in areas of the pancreas called islets of langerhans (the term insulin comes from the Latin insula meaning island). Insulin can also be given as a medicine for patients with diabetes because they do not make enough of their own. It is usually given in the form of an injection. Insulin is released from the pancreas into the bloodstream. It is a hormone essential for us to live and has many effects on the whole body, mainly in controlling how the body uses carbohydrate and fat found in food. Insulin allows cells in the muscles, liver and fat (adipose tissue) to take up sugar (glucose) that has been absorbed into the bloodstream from food. This provides energy to the cells. This glucose can also be converted into fat to provide energy when glucose levels are too low. In addition, insulin has several other metabolic effects (such as stopping the breakdown of protein and fat). How is insulin controlled? When we eat food, glucose is absorbed from our gut into the bloodstream. This rise in blood glucose causes insulin to be released from the pancreas. Proteins in food and other hormones produced by the gut in response to food also stimulate insulin release. However, once the blood glucose levels return to normal, insulin release slows down. In addition, hormones released in times of acute stress, such as adrenaline, stop the release of insulin, leading to higher blood glucose levels. The release of insulin is tightly regulated in healthy people in order to balance food intake and the metabolic needs of the body. Insulin works in tandem with glucagon, another hormone produced by the pan Continue reading >>

Diabetes And Kidney Disease (stages 1-4)

Diabetes And Kidney Disease (stages 1-4)

What is diabetes? Diabetes happens when your body does not make enough insulin or cannot use insulin properly. Insulin is a hormone. It controls how much sugar is in your blood. A high level of sugar in your blood can cause problems in many parts of your body, including your heart, kidneys, eyes, and brain. Over time, this can lead to kidney disease and kidney failure. There are two main types of diabetes. Type 1 diabetes generally begins when people are young. In this case, the body does not make enough insulin. Type 2 diabetes is usually found in adults over 40, but is becoming more common in younger people. It is usually associated with being overweight and tends to run in families. In type 2 diabetes, the body makes insulin, but cannot use it well. What is chronic kidney disease (CKD)? Your kidneys are important because they keep the rest of your body in balance. They: Remove waste products from the body Balance the body’s fluids Help keep blood pressure under control Keep bones healthy Help make red blood cells. When you have kidney disease, it means that the kidneys have been damaged. Kidneys can get damaged from a disease like diabetes. Once your kidneys are damaged, they cannot filter your blood nor do other jobs as well as they should. When diabetes is not well controlled, the sugar level in your blood goes up. This is called hyperglycemia. Hyperglycemia (high blood sugar) can cause damage to many parts of your body, especially the kidneys, heart, blood vessels, eyes, feet, nerves. Diabetes can harm the kidneys by causing damage to: Blood vessels inside your kidneys. The filtering units of the kidney are filled with tiny blood vessels. Over time, high sugar levels in the blood can cause these vessels to become narrow and clogged. Without enough blood, the kid Continue reading >>

Diabetes Mellitus

Diabetes Mellitus

"Diabetes" redirects here. For other uses, see Diabetes (disambiguation). Diabetes mellitus (DM), commonly referred to as diabetes, is a group of metabolic disorders in which there are high blood sugar levels over a prolonged period.[7] Symptoms of high blood sugar include frequent urination, increased thirst, and increased hunger.[2] If left untreated, diabetes can cause many complications.[2] Acute complications can include diabetic ketoacidosis, hyperosmolar hyperglycemic state, or death.[3] Serious long-term complications include cardiovascular disease, stroke, chronic kidney disease, foot ulcers, and damage to the eyes.[2] Diabetes is due to either the pancreas not producing enough insulin or the cells of the body not responding properly to the insulin produced.[8] There are three main types of diabetes mellitus:[2] Type 1 DM results from the pancreas's failure to produce enough insulin.[2] This form was previously referred to as "insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus" (IDDM) or "juvenile diabetes".[2] The cause is unknown.[2] Type 2 DM begins with insulin resistance, a condition in which cells fail to respond to insulin properly.[2] As the disease progresses a lack of insulin may also develop.[9] This form was previously referred to as "non insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus" (NIDDM) or "adult-onset diabetes".[2] The most common cause is excessive body weight and insufficient exercise.[2] Gestational diabetes is the third main form, and occurs when pregnant women without a previous history of diabetes develop high blood sugar levels.[2] Prevention and treatment involve maintaining a healthy diet, regular physical exercise, a normal body weight, and avoiding use of tobacco.[2] Control of blood pressure and maintaining proper foot care are important for people with t Continue reading >>

What Is Insulin?

What Is Insulin?

Insulin is a hormone made by the pancreas that allows your body to use sugar (glucose) from carbohydrates in the food that you eat for energy or to store glucose for future use. Insulin helps keeps your blood sugar level from getting too high (hyperglycemia) or too low (hypoglycemia). The cells in your body need sugar for energy. However, sugar cannot go into most of your cells directly. After you eat food and your blood sugar level rises, cells in your pancreas (known as beta cells) are signaled to release insulin into your bloodstream. Insulin then attaches to and signals cells to absorb sugar from the bloodstream. Insulin is often described as a “key,” which unlocks the cell to allow sugar to enter the cell and be used for energy. If you have more sugar in your body than it needs, insulin helps store the sugar in your liver and releases it when your blood sugar level is low or if you need more sugar, such as in between meals or during physical activity. Therefore, insulin helps balance out blood sugar levels and keeps them in a normal range. As blood sugar levels rise, the pancreas secretes more insulin. If your body does not produce enough insulin or your cells are resistant to the effects of insulin, you may develop hyperglycemia (high blood sugar), which can cause long-term complications if the blood sugar levels stay elevated for long periods of time. Insulin Treatment for Diabetes People with type 1 diabetes cannot make insulin because the beta cells in their pancreas are damaged or destroyed. Therefore, these people will need insulin injections to allow their body to process glucose and avoid complications from hyperglycemia. People with type 2 diabetes do not respond well or are resistant to insulin. They may need insulin shots to help them better process Continue reading >>

Diabetes

Diabetes

Diabetes is the name given to a group of different conditions in which the body cannot maintain healthy levels of glucose (a type of sugar) in the blood. Glucose builds up in the blood leading to high blood glucose levels which cause the health problems linked to diabetes. The main symptoms are: feeling very thirsty urinating frequently, particularly at night feeling very tired weight loss and loss of muscle bulk. Check your symptoms with healthdirect’s Symptom Checker to get advice on when to seek medical attention, or if you are concerned you may have diabetes see your doctor. What causes diabetes? The amount of sugar in the blood is usually controlled by a hormone called 'insulin', which is produced by the pancreas (a gland behind the stomach). When food is digested and enters your bloodstream, insulin moves glucose out of the blood and into cells, where it is broken down to produce energy. However, if you have diabetes, your body cannot break down glucose into energy. This is because there is either not enough insulin to move the glucose, or the insulin produced does not work properly. Glucose builds up in the blood resulting in high blood glucose levels. Diabetes types There are three main types of diabetes: Diabetes type 1 Type 1 diabetes is an auto-immune disease where the body's immune system attacks the insulin-producing cells of the pancreas. People with type 1 diabetes cannot produce insulin and require lifelong insulin replacement for survival. The disease can occur at any age, although it mostly occurs in children and young adults. Type 1 diabetes is sometimes referred to as 'juvenile onset diabetes' or 'insulin dependent diabetes'. Diabetes type 2 Type 2 diabetes is associated with hereditary factors and lifestyle risk factors including poor diet, insuff Continue reading >>

General Diabetes Facts And Information

General Diabetes Facts And Information

What is diabetes? Diabetes is a disease in which the body is unable to properly use and store glucose (a form of sugar). Glucose backs up in the bloodstream — causing one’s blood glucose (sometimes referred to as blood sugar) to rise too high. There are two major types of diabetes. In type 1 (fomerly called juvenile-onset or insulin-dependent) diabetes, the body completely stops producing any insulin, a hormone that enables the body to use glucose found in foods for energy. People with type 1 diabetes must take daily insulin injections to survive. This form of diabetes usually develops in children or young adults, but can occur at any age. Type 2 (formerly called adult-onset or non insulin-dependent) diabetes results when the body doesn’t produce enough insulin and/or is unable to use insulin properly (insulin resistance). This form of diabetes usually occurs in people who are over 40, overweight, and have a family history of diabetes, although today it is increasingly occurring in younger people, particularly adolescents. How do people know if they have diabetes? People with diabetes frequently experience certain symptoms. These include: being very thirsty frequent urination weight loss increased hunger blurry vision irritability tingling or numbness in the hands or feet frequent skin, bladder or gum infections wounds that don't heal extreme unexplained fatigue In some cases, there are no symptoms — this happens at times with type 2 diabetes. In this case, people can live for months, even years without knowing they have the disease. This form of diabetes comes on so gradually that symptoms may not even be recognized. Who gets diabetes? Diabetes can occur in anyone. However, people who have close relatives with the disease are somewhat more likely to develop it. Continue reading >>

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