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When Did They Discover Type 2 Diabetes?

Discovering I Had Type 2 Diabetes

Discovering I Had Type 2 Diabetes

An image from three decades ago has stuck with me, though I’ve tried to forget it. I was watching my brother help his wife inject insulin, feeling both fascinated and repulsed. She was nearly blind as a result of Type 1 diabetes, a disease I knew nothing about. My father developed Type 2 diabetes, but it was not something we talked about. Those were the days when urine tests were the only way to check sugar levels at home. I never asked him what he did for it because I was happy to keep diabetes a vague cloud in the background. So I was not prepared when Type 2 diabetes burst the bubble of ignorance I had built around myself. Looking back, I should have known better. My dad died from early-onset heart disease, just like his own mother. Both had what was then called “sugar diabetes.” My own journey with Type 2 diabetes began with two days of blinding headaches. A trip to the emergency room for a CT scan and some blood tests led to a diagnosis of a mild stroke brought on by high blood sugar and high blood pressure. In one day I went from zero medicines to five. I had to visit more doctors in the next six months than in the past twenty years. I felt doomed. For five years I struggled with depression and hopelessness over this supposed “death sentence.” I would read about some new cure, give it a try, and then abandon it because it did not work. My father died in his mid 50’s, and I fully expected to do the same. But when I did not die, it seemed that I needed to find some way, some reason to live with Type 2 diabetes. With that decision my eyes began to open, and I realized I was able to dream again. I saw that I was surrounded by people, including children to cherish and laugh with. And I could write. Type 2 diabetes took none of that away. In fact, it gave me Continue reading >>

Living With Type 2 Diabetes

Living With Type 2 Diabetes

Type 2 diabetes is a disease in which your pancreas does not produce enough insulin, or your body does not properly use the insulin it makes. As a result, glucose (sugar) builds up in your blood instead of being used for energy. Your body gets glucose from foods like bread, potatoes, rice, pasta, milk and fruit. To use this glucose, your body needs insulin. Insulin is a hormone that helps your body to control the level of glucose (sugar) in your blood. The good news You can live a long and healthy life by keeping your blood glucose (sugar) levels in the target range set by you and your health-care provider. You can do this by: Eating healthy meals and snacks Enjoying regular physical activity Monitoring your blood glucose (sugar) using a home blood glucose meter* Aiming for a healthy body weight Taking diabetes medications including insulin and other medications, if prescribed by your doctor Managing stress effectively * Discuss with your health-care provider how often you should measure your blood glucose (sugar) level. Who can help you? Your health-care team is there to help you. Depending on your needs and the resources available in your community, your team may include a family doctor, diabetes educator (nurse and/or dietitian), endocrinologist, pharmacist, social worker, exercise physiologist, psychologist, foot care specialist, eye care specialist. They can answer your questions about how to manage diabetes and work with you to adjust your food plan, activity and medications. Remember, you are the most important member of your health-care team. Get the support you need A positive and realistic attitude towards your diabetes can help you manage it. Talk to others who have diabetes. Ask your local Diabetes Canada branch about joining a peer-support group or taking p Continue reading >>

Patient Education: Diabetes Mellitus Type 2: Treatment (beyond The Basics)

Patient Education: Diabetes Mellitus Type 2: Treatment (beyond The Basics)

TYPE 2 DIABETES OVERVIEW Type 2 diabetes mellitus occurs when the pancreas (an organ in the abdomen) produces insufficient amounts of the hormone insulin and/or the body becomes resistant to normal or even high levels of insulin. This causes high blood sugar (glucose) levels, which can lead to a number of complications if untreated. People with type 2 diabetes require regular monitoring and ongoing treatment to maintain normal or near-normal blood sugar levels. Treatment includes lifestyle adjustments, self-care measures, and medicines, which can minimize the risk of diabetes and cardiovascular (heart-related) complications. This topic review will discuss the treatment of type 2 diabetes. Topics that discuss other aspects of type 2 diabetes are also available: (See "Patient education: Diabetes mellitus type 2: Overview (Beyond the Basics)".) (See "Patient education: Diabetes mellitus type 2: Alcohol, exercise, and medical care (Beyond the Basics)".) TYPE 2 DIABETES TREATMENT GOALS Blood sugar control — The goal of treatment in type 2 diabetes is to keep blood sugar levels at normal or near-normal levels. Careful control of blood sugars can help prevent the long-term effects of poorly controlled blood sugar (diabetic complications of the eye, kidney, nervous system, and cardiovascular system). Home blood sugar testing — In people with type 2 diabetes, home blood sugar testing might be recommended, especially in those who take certain oral diabetes medicines or insulin. Home blood sugar testing is not usually necessary for people who are diet controlled. (See "Patient education: Self-monitoring of blood glucose in diabetes mellitus (Beyond the Basics)".) A normal fasting blood sugar is less than 100 mg/dL (5.6 mmol/L), although some people will have a different goal. Continue reading >>

Type 2 Diabetes

Type 2 Diabetes

Insulin is a hormone produced in the pancreas by special cells, called beta cells. The pancreas is below and behind the stomach. Insulin is needed to move blood sugar (glucose) into cells. Inside the cells, glucose is stored and later used for energy. When you have type 2 diabetes, your fat, liver, and muscle cells do not respond correctly to insulin. This is called insulin resistance. As a result, blood sugar does not get into these cells to be stored for energy. When sugar cannot enter cells, a high level of sugar builds up in the blood. This is called hyperglycemia. The body is unable to use the glucose for energy. This leads to the symptoms of type 2 diabetes. Type 2 diabetes usually develops slowly over time. Most people with the disease are overweight or obese when they are diagnosed. Increased fat makes it harder for your body to use insulin the correct way. Type 2 diabetes can also develop in people who are thin. This is more common in older adults. Family history and genes play a role in type 2 diabetes. Low activity level, poor diet, and excess body weight around the waist increase your chance of getting the disease. Continue reading >>

Type 2 Diabetes

Type 2 Diabetes

Type 2 diabetes occurs mostly in people aged over 40 years. However, an increasing number of younger people, even children, are being diagnosed with type 2 diabetes. The first-line treatment is diet, weight control and physical activity. If the blood sugar (glucose) level remains high despite these measures then tablets to reduce the blood glucose level are usually advised. Insulin injections are needed in some cases. Other treatments include reducing blood pressure if it is high, lowering high cholesterol levels and also using other measures to reduce the risk of complications. Although diabetes cannot be cured, it can be treated successfully. If a high blood sugar level is brought down to a normal level, your symptoms will ease. You still have some risk of complications in the long term if your blood glucose level remains even mildly high - even if you have no symptoms in the short term. However, studies have shown that people who have better glucose control have fewer complications (such as heart disease or eye problems) compared with those people who have poorer control of their glucose level. Therefore, the main aims of treatment are: To keep your blood glucose level as near normal as possible. To reduce any other risk factors that may increase your risk of developing complications. In particular, to lower your blood pressure if it is high and to keep your blood lipids (cholesterol) low. To detect any complications as early as possible. Treatment can prevent or delay some complications from becoming worse. Type 2 diabetes is usually initially treated by following a healthy diet, losing weight if you are overweight, and having regular physical activity. If lifestyle advice does not control your blood sugar (glucose) levels then medicines are used to help lower your Continue reading >>

Can You Have Low Blood Sugar With Type 2 Diabetes?

Can You Have Low Blood Sugar With Type 2 Diabetes?

back to Overview Know-how Type 2 A tag-team approach on low blood sugar with type 2 diabetes. Markus recently wrote an article on our German language blog talking about low blood sugar with type 2 diabetes. The question (“can I have low blood sugar with type 2 diabetes?”) is very common, and it’s easy to see why it’s of concern. So I’ve helped Markus bring his German post to life here in English. I hope it helps! Here’s Markus: Low blood sugar In 2014, results from the DAWN2 study were announced. It was the largest study of its kind (15,000 participants) on the “fears & needs of people with diabetes and their families.” One result stood out: The gravest fears are related to low blood sugars, especially at night. Up to 69% of the participants share this fear! So! Can you have low blood sugar with type 2 diabetes? Yes! Of course! But let’s think about who exactly is at risk – and why. It’s common to think: Type 1 diabetes = at risk for lows Type 2 diabetes = not at risk for lows But that isn’t correct at all, so we should wipe it from our mind. So… what do I need to know? Maybe it’s more accurate to say that people with type 2 diabetes who take certain types of medication are more at risk for lows. We’re getting closer! But to get to the truth, we should take a look at someone without diabetes. Is it possible for them to have lows, too? Theoretically yes, especially if doing long-lasting physical activities without proper food intake. Additionally, extreme stress and binge drinking are also common causes of low blood sugar for people without diabetes. However, it’s pretty rare because as soon as BG’s drop below 80 mg/dl (4.4 mmol/L), the natural counterregulatory system kicks in, raising blood sugar back to normal levels. I’ve never exp Continue reading >>

Type 2 Diabetes

Type 2 Diabetes

Print Diagnosis To diagnose type 2 diabetes, you'll be given a: Glycated hemoglobin (A1C) test. This blood test indicates your average blood sugar level for the past two to three months. It measures the percentage of blood sugar attached to hemoglobin, the oxygen-carrying protein in red blood cells. The higher your blood sugar levels, the more hemoglobin you'll have with sugar attached. An A1C level of 6.5 percent or higher on two separate tests indicates you have diabetes. A result between 5.7 and 6.4 percent is considered prediabetes, which indicates a high risk of developing diabetes. Normal levels are below 5.7 percent. If the A1C test isn't available, or if you have certain conditions — such as if you're pregnant or have an uncommon form of hemoglobin (known as a hemoglobin variant) — that can make the A1C test inaccurate, your doctor may use the following tests to diagnose diabetes: Random blood sugar test. A blood sample will be taken at a random time. Blood sugar values are expressed in milligrams per deciliter (mg/dL) or millimoles per liter (mmol/L). Regardless of when you last ate, a random blood sugar level of 200 mg/dL (11.1 mmol/L) or higher suggests diabetes, especially when coupled with any of the signs and symptoms of diabetes, such as frequent urination and extreme thirst. Fasting blood sugar test. A blood sample will be taken after an overnight fast. A fasting blood sugar level less than 100 mg/dL (5.6 mmol/L) is normal. A fasting blood sugar level from 100 to 125 mg/dL (5.6 to 6.9 mmol/L) is considered prediabetes. If it's 126 mg/dL (7 mmol/L) or higher on two separate tests, you have diabetes. Oral glucose tolerance test. For this test, you fast overnight, and the fasting blood sugar level is measured. Then you drink a sugary liquid, and blood s Continue reading >>

Treating Diabetes: 1921 To The Present Day

Treating Diabetes: 1921 To The Present Day

The lives of people with diabetes has changed considerably in 50 years. They now have specific tools and easier access to information than ever before. The healthcare professionals who treat them also know more about the complexity of the disease, and which treatments work best. Pending the next medical revolution, Diabetes Québec is demanding the implementation of a national strategy to fight diabetes – a strategy founded on education, prevention, support and treatment. The last 60 years have clearly demonstrated that people with diabetes who are well informed, properly supported and treated appropriately live longer lives in better health. The discovery of insulin and glycemic control Insulin, discovered in 1921 by the legendary Banting, Best and MacLeod collaboration, is nothing short of a miracle. Worldwide, it has saved thousands of patients from certain death. Before the discovery of insulin, diabetics were doomed. Even on a strict diet, they could last no more than three or four years. However, despite the many types of insulin and the first oral hypoglycemic agents that came to market around 1957 in Canada, glycemia control – the control of blood glucose (sugar) levels – still remains an imprecise science. In the 1950s, the method a person used to control his blood glucose levels was to drop a reagent tablet into a small test tube containing a few drops of urine mixed with water. The resulting colour – from dark blue to orange – indicated the amount of sugar in the urine. Even when they monitored their patients closely, doctors realized that blood glucose levels had to be much better controlled in order to delay the major complications significantly affecting their patients’ lives: blindness, kidney disease, gangrene, heart attack and stroke. A disc Continue reading >>

Sami Inkinen On His Bold Plan To Cure Type 2 Diabetes Forever

Sami Inkinen On His Bold Plan To Cure Type 2 Diabetes Forever

Sami Inkinen founded and then exited Trulia about a year after Zillow snapped it up for $3.5 billion in 2014. He’s since moved on to build Virta, a health care startup claiming it can cure type 2 diabetes. It’s a bold claim. Most treatment plans offer to help those with the disease manage it, not get rid of it. But Inkinen, with zero medical background, believes he’s found a way to wholly eradicate diabetes for good. The secret is as simple as a low-carb diet. It seems pretty obvious — cut out the sugar and bad carbs and your diabetes will get better. But that’s easier said than done with humans. Inkinen tells me he’s learned through time where the pain points are and what people need to truly succeed. So far Virta has conducted a small trial involving 262 people and the results seem promising. A majority (91 percent) of those participating finished the program and 87 percent of them either reduced their dosage or went off their insulin, says the startup. Over half of the participants were able to reduce at least one of their diabetes medications. I sat down with Inkinen to talk about his company and why he decided to jump into the health care space after his success in the real estate field. SB: That’s a bold claim that you’re making that you can cure diabetes. SI: Yeah totally…Without tech you can’t do Virta. We’re not just a software company, we’re a software company that combines biochemistry and science to cure the disease. If one of those is wrong it’s not going to work. SB: Do you worry you tell them a bit too early to get off their medications? SI: Yeah, that’s precisely the reason why we have our own doctors. That’s precisely the reason why we have a full-stack health care company…It’s absolutely critical that we get this data Continue reading >>

Did Doctors Discover A Cure For Type 2 Diabetes?

Did Doctors Discover A Cure For Type 2 Diabetes?

Weight-loss surgery has typically been used for one thing alone: to achieve weight-loss, duh. But a new study in today's New England Journal of Medicine has found that, surprisingly, it also works to put patients with type 2 diabetes into remission. That seems crazy, since for so long the only way to manage or reverse diabetes was considered to be by carefully restricting your diet, but this discovery appears to change the way we look at treating the increasingly common disease. The study looked at patients with severe type 2 diabetes and randomly assigned them one of three treatments: gastric bypass surgery; bilopancreatic diversion surgery (BPD), where part of the stomach is removed; and conventional medication and specific changes to diet and lifestyle. What they found was that 95 percent of those who had the BPD surgery went into full remission, which they maintained for the two-year period of the study. Of those who had gastric bypass, 75 percent of them went into remission. Of the patients who stayed with the traditional medicine/diet treatment, none of them went into remission. Kind of hard to argue with those numbers. While it might seem that losing the weight from surgery is the reason the diabetes improves, that's actually not the case. The study found the results were independent of the weight loss patients achieved. Dr. Francesco Rubino, director of the Diabetes Surgery Center at New York-Presbyterian Hospital/Weill Cornell Medical Center, led the study and explains that while they don't fully understand the process of how the surgery affects the diabetes, it has to do with the changes made to the organs: We found that the change in the anatomy of the stomach and intestines can improve diabetes directly. The stomach and intestine are not just there for absor Continue reading >>

Type 2 Diabetes And The Diet That Cured Me

Type 2 Diabetes And The Diet That Cured Me

Why me? At 59 I was 10st 7lb, 5ft 7in, and had never been overweight. I ran and played cricket regularly and didn't drink alcohol excessively. Yet at a routine check-up I was told that I had type 2 diabetes. In 10 years I could be dependent on insulin, it could affect my sight, feet, ears, heart and I had a 36% greater chance of dying early. In type 1 diabetes, the body produces none of the insulin that regulates our blood sugar levels. Very high glucose levels can damage the body's organs. Patients with type 2 diabetes, however, do produce insulin - just not enough to keep their glucose levels normal. Because I was fit and not overweight (obesity is a major risk factor in type 2 diabetes; however, a number of non-obese people, particularly members of south Asian communities, are also prone to it), my doctor told me I could control my condition with diet alone. Desperate for information, I headed to the web, where I found a report about a research trial at Newcastle University led by Professor Roy Taylor. His research suggested type 2 diabetes could be reversed by following a daily 800-calorie diet for eight weeks. When our bodies are deprived of normal amounts of food they consume their own fat reserves, with the fat inside organs used up first. The idea of Taylor's diet is to use up the fat that is clogging up the pancreas and preventing it from creating insulin, until normal glucose levels return. With my GP's blessing and a home glucose-testing kit, I began my experiment. The diet was strict: three litres of water a day, three 200-calorie food supplements (soups and shakes) and 200 calories of green vegetables. Thanks to my doctor's dietary guidance, and running three times a week, I had already lost a stone. Yet my glucose levels were still above 6mmol/L (millimols Continue reading >>

Scientists May Have Found A Way To Reverse Type 2 Diabetes

Scientists May Have Found A Way To Reverse Type 2 Diabetes

Can type 2 diabetes be cured? A very low calorie diet may be able to reverse the disease, according to a new report. Researchers from Yale University, recently conducted an experiment, published in the Cell Metabolism journal, to determine the link between a calorie-restricted diet and the illness. To do so, they examined rats with type 2 diabetes. They fed them very low calorie diets, defined as one quarter the normal take. Within just three days, scientists noticed three significant changes that contributed to lowering blood glucose concentrations. It decreased the conversion of lactose and amino acids into glucose, reduced the rate of liver glycogen conversion to glucose, and lowered the fat content, which is known to improve the liver’s response to insulin. "Using this approach to comprehensively interrogate liver carbohydrate and fat metabolism, we showed that it is a combination of three mechanisms that is responsible for the rapid reversal of hyperglycemia following a very low calorie diet," lead author Gerald I. Shulman said in a statement. Now researchers hope to investigate whether this method could yeild the same findings for humans with type 2 diabetes. "These results,” Shulman said, “if confirmed in humans, will provide us with novel drug targets to more effectively treat patients with type 2 diabetes." Continue reading >>

Child's Plague: Inside The Boom In Childhood Diabetes

Child's Plague: Inside The Boom In Childhood Diabetes

When 7-year-old Gus Ramsey of Weston, Massachusetts, was found to have type 1 (juvenile) diabetes in September 2007, it seemed mere coincidence that Grayson Welo, age 6 and living around the corner, had been diagnosed with the same disease a few months before. After all, type 1 was considered rare—only about 15,000 new cases were diagnosed annually in the United States at the beginning of the decade, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). At least Gus’s parents could be reassured that they lived in a healthy community: Weston, population 11,134, is the wealthiest town in the state, with three golf courses, 13 soccer fields, 19 baseball diamonds, and not a single fast-food restaurant. Yet two months after Gus’s diagnosis, another child, Natalia Gormley, was found to have the disease on her tenth birthday. She lived on the other side of town. In January 2008 12-year-old Sean Richard was diagnosed. He lived less than a mile away. Then 8-year-old Finn Sullivan became the fifth case of type 1 diabetes diagnosed in Weston in less than a year. He lived on Gus’s block, just six doors down. And the cases kept on coming. Six-year-old Mya Smith, from nearby Wellesley, received the diagnosis in April. On June 15 came the jaw-dropper, when Walker Allen was diagnosed. His father, basketball star Ray Allen, scored 26 points two nights later in game six of the NBA Finals to give the Celtics their first championship in 22 years. Far more notable was Walker’s age: just 17 months. Weston’s school nurses had never seen anything like it. There were now eight children attending Weston public schools who had type 1 diabetes, including those who had been diagnosed in previous years. That number did not even include the local kids who were too young for s Continue reading >>

Slim And Healthy People Also Get Type 2 Diabetes

Slim And Healthy People Also Get Type 2 Diabetes

Overweight, an unhealthy lifestyle and old age are factors that many of us associate with people who are diagnosed with type 2 diabetes. But this isn’t entirely true. In fact, the disease can hit the slim, the fat, the young and the old. This diversity of patients does not make life easy for doctors and researchers, as it creates a need for a great variety of treatment forms. For example, lifestyle changes only work for some patients and not for others. The ideal time for an insulin fix also varies greatly, depending on the patient. However, now two Danish researchers have cracked part of this code. Based on data from a comprehensive English study, they have identified three subgroups of type 2 diabetes patients that have different diseases patterns. In addition to showing that diabetes is expressed in a variety of ways, the study surprises by showing that only 25 percent of the type 2 diabetes patients follow the course of the disease that scientists so far have considered to be the most common one. ”This finding is the first step towards more targeted prevention and treatment for patients with the different subgroups of the disease,” says Kristine Færch, a senior researcher at the Steno Diabetes Center, who co-authored the study. Classification determined by blood sugar Insulin is the key ingredient when we’re talking about type 2 diabetes. Insulin is produced in the body and works by transporting the energy from our food into the cells, where the energy is used. Type 2 diabetes occurs either: As a result of insulin resistance, where the insulin gradually loses its ability to transport energy from food to the muscles. As a result of problems with the beta cells, which are those that produce or secrete insulin. It was previously believed that the most common c Continue reading >>

What Type Of Diabetes Do I Have?

What Type Of Diabetes Do I Have?

When you were diagnosed, you were probably told you had either Type 1 or Type 2 diabetes. Clear-cut and tidy. Since diabetes typically occurs in two types, you have to fit into one of them. Many people fit clearly into one of these categories, but others do not. And those who clearly fit one type when diagnosed may find these clear lines begin to smudge over time. Are there really only two types? Are you really the type you were told you were? Could you have more than one type of diabetes? Is your original diagnosis still correct after all these years? A Short History Of Types Described and treated since ancient times, diabetes has certain characteristics that have long been recognized. Before the discovery of insulin, people found to have sugar in their urine under the age of 20 usually died in their youth, while those diagnosed when over the age of 40 could live for many years with this condition. Beginning in the mid 1920s, those who got diabetes when young (juvenile onset) were put on insulin, and those who got it when older (adult onset) often were not. However, the mechanisms that led to this difference in treatment were unknown. The only marker that differentiated the two types at that time was the presence in the urine of moderate or large levels of ketones when blood sugars were high. When significant ketones were present because the person could no longer make Tenough insulin, injected insulin was needed to control the glucose and they were called insulin-dependent. Differences In The Three Major Types Of Diabetes Type 1 Type 1.5/LADA Type 2 Avg. age at start 12 35 60 Typical age at start 3-40* 20-70* 35-80* % of all diabetes 10% (25%**) 15% 75% Insulin problem absence deficiency resistance Antibodies ICA, IA2, GAD65, IAA mostly GAD65 none Early treatment insu Continue reading >>

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