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When Did Diabetes Become An Epidemic

Diabetes: The Epidemic

Diabetes: The Epidemic

On Barbara Young's office table is a graph. A bar chart, actually: four columns of green, purple, red and bright blue showing the progression, in England, of rates of coronary heart disease, stroke, cancer and diabetes over the past five years. The first two are flatlining or falling. Cancer, in red, is rising, but slowly. Trace a line between the blue bars from 2005 to 2010, and it soars off the chart. "Diabetes," says Young flatly, "is becoming a crisis. The crisis. It's big, it's scary, it's growing and it's very, very expensive. It's clearly an epidemic, and it could bring the health service to its knees. Something really does need to happen." Baroness Young is, admittedly, the chief executive of Diabetes UK, Britain's main diabetes charity and campaigning group. It's her job to say such things. But the figures are behind her all the way: diabetes is fast becoming the 21st century's major public-health concern. The condition is now nearly four times as common as all forms of cancer combined, and causes more deaths than breast and prostate cancer combined. Some 2.8m people in the UK have been diagnosed with it; an estimated 850,000 more probably have type 2 diabetes but don't yet know. Another 7m are classified as high-risk of developing type 2; between 40% and 50% of them will go on to develop it. By the year 2025, more than 5m people in this country will have diabetes. The implications for the NHS, obviously, don't bear thinking about. Diabetes already costs the service around £1m an hour, roughly 10% of its entire budget. That's not just because the condition generally has to be managed with medication or insulin, but because by the time they are diagnosed, around half the people with type 2 – by far the most common and fastest growing form – have developed a Continue reading >>

Type 2 Diabetes Becoming A Childhood Epidemic | Miami Herald

Type 2 Diabetes Becoming A Childhood Epidemic | Miami Herald

Before, the only people diagnosed with Type 2 diabetes were older adults. However, times have changed. In the past 20 years, new cases of Type 2 diabetes in childhood have increased from less than 5 percent to more than 20 percent of all new diagnoses. What is causing this disturbing trend? What is Type 2 diabetes, and how can we protect our children from this disease? Type 2 diabetes is the form of diabetes in which the body is resistant to the action of insulin. Insulin levels rise, and when the body can no longer make enough insulin, blood sugars rise. This is different from Type 1 diabetes, in which the body stops making insulin. Although Type 1 diabetes is still more common among children, Type 2 diabetes — previously called adult onset or non-insulin-dependent diabetes — is becoming more common among adolescents and even younger children. Type 2 diabetes occurs in children as young as 6, and is increasing at an alarming rate, primarily due to the epidemic of obesity in children and adolescents. Type 2 diabetes is also more common among some ethnic groups, such as African Americans, Hispanics, Asians and Native Americans. Another risk factor is a family history of Type 2 diabetes or if diabetes occurred in the mother during pregnancy. Never miss a local story. Sign up today for a free 30 day free trial of unlimited digital access. SUBSCRIBE NOW There are a number signs parents should watch for if they suspect their child has diabetes, including: ▪ Frequent urination or new bed-wetting. ▪ Increased thirst and appetite. ▪ Decreased energy. ▪ Unexplained weight loss. ▪ Genital yeast infection. Another sign that your child is at risk for Type 2 diabetes is the appearance of darker and thicker skin on your child’s neck or armpits, which may make skin app Continue reading >>

The Global Diabetes Epidemic

The Global Diabetes Epidemic

Twelve years ago, my husband and I packed up all of our belongings and moved to Trivandrum — a steamy, tropical town at the southern tip of India in Kerala. At the time, I was a medical student interested in studying stroke. For the next six months I dressed in a sari and walked to work on jungle roads. At the hospital, I immediately began seeing a steady stream of young patients affected by strokes, many of whom were so severely disabled that they were unable to work. I initially suspected the cause was tuberculosis or dengue fever — after all, this was the developing world, where infections have long been primary culprits for disease. But I soon learned that my hunch was wrong. One of my first patients was a woman in her mid-30s who came in with a headache, vomiting and an unsteady gait. Her scan showed a brainstem stroke. Her blood sugars were very high. The underlying cause of her stroke was most likely untreated Type 2 diabetes. Here I was, halfway around the globe, in a vastly foreign culture, but I was looking at a disease — and the lifestyle that fostered it — that was startlingly familiar. Today, I am an endocrinologist, and diabetes has become a full-blown epidemic in India, China, and throughout many emerging economies. In the United States, diabetes tends to be a disease that, while certainly not benign, is eminently manageable. Just this month, federal researchers reported that health risks for the approximately 25 million Americans with diabetes had fallen sharply over the last two decades. Elsewhere on the globe, however, diabetes plays out in a dramatically different fashion. Patients often lack access to care and can’t get insulin, blood pressure pills and other medicines that diminish the risk of complications. As more and more people develop Continue reading >>

How Diabetes Became An Epidemic – T2d 10

How Diabetes Became An Epidemic – T2d 10

The World Health Organizations earlier this week released new statistics on the global epidemic of diabetes. Diabetes mellitus has been recognized as a disease throughout human history for thousands of years. The ancient Egyptian medical text Ebers Papyrus, written around 1550 B.C. first described this condition of ‘passing too much urine’. Around the same time, ancient Hindu writings note the disease of madhumeha, loosely translated as honey urine. Patients were mysteriously wasting away, but curiously, ants were attracted to their urine. By 250 B.C. Greek physician Apollonius of Memphis (I should start referring to myself as Jason of Toronto, so cool…) termed the condition ‘diabetes’ which, by itself connotes excessive urination. Thomas Willis added the term ‘mellitus’ meaning ‘from honey’ in 1675. Another much rarer form of diabetes was termed diabetes insipidus, meaning ‘bland’. This disorder is also characterized by excessive urination, but the urine is not sweet. The primary cause of diabetes insipidus is brain injury, most commonly from trauma or neurosurgery. Commonly, the term diabetes refers to diabetes mellitus. We will also use the term diabetes to mean diabetes mellitus. A more complete description of diabetes mellitus would wait until the 1st century AD when Greek physician Aretaeus of Cappacdocia wrote the classic description of type 1 diabetes as a “melting down of flesh and limbs into urine”. This captures the essence features of this disease in its untreated form. There is excessive urine, but also complete wasting away of all tissues. Patients cannot gain weight no matter what they eat. He further comments that “life (with diabetes) is short, disgusting and painful” as there was no effective treatment. Lovely. The classic Continue reading >>

How Diabetes Became An Epidemic

How Diabetes Became An Epidemic

It is estimated that almost 8 percent of Americans have some form of diabetes. What's even more worrying is that the number of people with diabetes is on the rise not just in the United States, but all over the world. Scientists have been working to find out why more people are developing diabetes and looking for strategies to help reverse this trend. Diabetes in the United States In the United States, diabetes has become increasingly prevalent in recent years. In 1980, 5.8 million people were diagnosed with diabetes, compared with 17.9 million today. Diabetes is expected to rise significantly in the near future. It is estimated that one in three Americans living today will eventually develop diabetes, and that the number of cases will increase in this country by 165 percent by 2050. Researchers believe that the following factors play a role in the increase: The baby-boomer population is aging, and your chances of developing diabetes increases with age. The Hispanic population is one of the fastest-growing segments of the United States population, and Hispanics are at increased risk of developing diabetes. Americans are becoming increasingly overweight and physically inactive, both known risk factors for diabetes. The Worldwide Diabetes Epidemic Diabetes is now a problem that affects people everywhere. There is evidence that 246 million people worldwide have diabetes. If current trends continue, this number is projected to reach 380 million within the next 20 years. Diabetes affects developed and developing countries alike. In fact, the largest increases in diabetes prevalence in the years to come are projected to take place in developing countries. According to the International Diabetes Federation, India currently has the highest concentration of people with diabetes, Continue reading >>

Prediabetes: The Epidemic That Never Was, And Shouldn't Be

Prediabetes: The Epidemic That Never Was, And Shouldn't Be

(Nam Y. Huh / AP) This summer, your TV will begin alerting you to the dangers of high blood sugar. Your phone will buzz with automatic messages assessing the glycemic index of your breakfast bagel. And your Facebook feed will remind you to take the stairs, not the elevator. This is all the result of a recent initiative intended to increase awareness of a condition known as prediabetes. Marked by abnormal but not yet pathological blood sugar levels, prediabetes acts as a risk marker for Type 2 diabetes, a metabolic disease in which the body fails to properly process sugar. The idea is akin to cancer prevention: catch the tumor early (prediabetes) and avoid metastasis (diabetes). According to the most recent Centers for Disease Control and Prevention numbers, prediabetes is becoming a national emergency. In 2014, 86 million adult Americans were said to be prediabetic. This means that 1 in 3 American adults have prediabetes — a figure higher than the number of Americans who currently hold a bachelor's degree. Yet those claims may be scaring more people than they are helping. The United States has the lowest prediabetes cut-off points of high-income countries around the world, meaning that prediabetes gets diagnosed earlier and more frequently, leading to new patients and higher costs. In 2003, and then again in 2010, the American Diabetes Association shifted the prediabetes diagnostic threshold down, from 110 to 100 milligrams per deciliter for the finger-stick glucose test, and from 6.0 to 5.7 percent for the average blood sugar level (the HbA1C test). Other countries have pushed back. So has the World Health Organization, which has cautioned since 2006 that lower thresholds would needlessly double the prevalence of prediabetes and inadvertently implicate patients at mi Continue reading >>

Increased Consumption Of Refined Carbohydrates And The Epidemic Of Type 2 Diabetes In The United States: An Ecologic Assessment1,2,3

Increased Consumption Of Refined Carbohydrates And The Epidemic Of Type 2 Diabetes In The United States: An Ecologic Assessment1,2,3

Abstract Background: Type 2 diabetes is an epidemic that is affecting an ever-increasing proportion of the US population. Although consumption of refined carbohydrates has increased and is thought to be related to the increased risk of type 2 diabetes, the ecologic effect of changes in the quality of carbohydrates in the food supply on the risk of type 2 diabetes remains to be quantified. Objective: The objective was to examine the correlation between consumption of refined carbohydrates and the prevalence of type 2 diabetes in the United States. Methods: In this ecologic correlation study, the per capita nutrient consumption in the United States between 1909 and 1997 obtained from the US Department of Agriculture was compared with the prevalence of type 2 diabetes obtained from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Results: In a univariate analysis, a significant correlation with diabetes prevalence was observed for dietary fat (r = 0.84, P < 0.001), carbohydrate (r = 0.55, P < 0.001), protein (r = 0.71, P < 0.001), fiber (r = 0.16, P = 0.03), corn syrup (r = 0.83, P < 0.001), and total energy (r = 0.75, P < 0.001) intakes. In a multivariate nutrient-density model, in which total energy intake was accounted for, corn syrup was positively associated with the prevalence of type 2 diabetes (β = 0.0132, P = 0.038). Fiber (β = −13.86, P < 0.01) was negatively associated with the prevalence of type 2 diabetes. In contrast, protein (P = 0.084) and fat (P = 0.79) were not associated with the prevalence of type 2 diabetes when total energy was controlled for. Conclusions: Increasing intakes of refined carbohydrate (corn syrup) concomitant with decreasing intakes of fiber paralleled the upward trend in the prevalence of type 2 diabetes observed in the United States Continue reading >>

An American Epidemic

An American Epidemic

ON February 10th thousands of people crowded into a diabetes exhibit in Denver. They waited in lines to test the newest blood sugar meters. Matt Hoover, a star of the small screen, spoke about how he lost 157lb (71kg) and gained a wife. Representatives dispensed gewgaws. “It's an insulated bag,” explained one, “So if you've got a hot chicken...” No one had a hot chicken, though. The diabetic diet can be a Spartan affair. Over at the “Cooking Cardiologist” presentation, a dietician announced that people with diabetes should feel free to enjoy raisins—just not too many raisins. Not so many years ago such a scene would have been strange. Colorado is the kind of healthy, outdoorsy state where everyone seems to have a big dog and SUVs are splattered with mud. It has the lowest rate of obesity in the nation, and not coincidentally, about the lowest rate of diabetes. Just under 5% of Coloradans have been diagnosed with the disease. But that is not all that low. And the fact that it is one of the lowest in the country suggests the extent of the diabetes epidemic in America. The disease has become more than twice as common since 1980, and the rate is rising precipitously. According to the Centres for Disease Control and Prevention, 7% of Americans, roughly 21m people, have diabetes. At least 54m Americans have elevated blood sugar levels and are at risk of developing the full-blown disease. Rates are considerably higher among American Indians, African-Americans and Latinos. The economic costs of the disease were conservatively estimated at $132 billion in 2002, and the figure is rising. “If you look forward 10 or 15 years,” says Dr C. Ronald Kahn of the Joslin Diabetes Centre in Boston, “we really won't be able to afford the amount of health care this is goin Continue reading >>

Diabetes Mystery: Why Are Type 1 Cases Surging?

Diabetes Mystery: Why Are Type 1 Cases Surging?

When public health officials fret about the soaring incidence of diabetes in the U.S. and worldwide, they are generally referring to type 2 diabetes. About 90 percent of the nearly 350 million people around the world who have diabetes suffer from the type 2 form of the illness, which mostly starts causing problems in the 40s and 50s and is tied to the stress that extra pounds place on the body’s ability to regulate blood glucose. About 25 million people in the U.S. have type 2 diabetes, and another million have type 1 diabetes, which typically strikes in childhood and can be controlled only with daily doses of insulin. For reasons that are completely mysterious, however, the incidence of type 1 diabetes has been increasing throughout the globe at rates that range from 3 to 5 percent a year. Although the second trend is less well publicized, it is still deeply troubling, because this form of the illness has the potential to disable or kill people so much earlier in their lives. No one knows exactly why type 1 diabetes is rising. Solving that mystery—and, if possible, reducing or reversing the trend—has become an urgent problem for public health researchers everywhere. So far they feel they have only one solid clue. “Increases such as the ones that have been reported cannot be explained by a change in genes in such a short period,” says Giuseppina Imperatore, who leads a team of epidemiologists in the Division of Diabetes Translation at the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. “So environmental factors are probably major players in this increase.” A Challenge of Counting Type 1 and type 2 diabetes share the same underlying defect—an inability to deploy insulin in a manner that keeps blood sugar from rising too high—but they arise out of almos Continue reading >>

Diabetes Has Become An Epidemic In The United States

Diabetes Has Become An Epidemic In The United States

In honor of November being national diabetes month, I thought I would share a little information on diabetes and help bring awareness to the disease. Diabetes is a disease that occurs when your blood sugar, or blood glucose, is too high. Glucose is a type of sugar that you get from the food you consume. Your body uses glucose as its main source of energy. The glucose that travels through your bloodstream to your cells is called blood glucose or blood sugar. The hormone insulin, which is made in the pancreas, moves glucose from your blood into the cells for energy and storage. Issues arise when the body does not make enough, make any insulin, or does not properly use the insulin, ultimately causing glucose to stay in the blood and not reach the cells. There are several types of diabetes, the most common being type 1 and type 2 diabetes. Individuals with type 1 diabetes are unable to make insulin. In a previous post (here) I discussed that type 1 diabetes is an autoimmune disease. With type 1 diabetes the immune system attacks and destroys the cells in the pancreas that make insulin. Type 1 diabetes is usually diagnosed during childhood or adolescents. Individuals with type 2 diabetes do not make or use insulin properly. Type 2 diabetes is the most common form of diabetes. Type 2 diabetes can occur at any age but is more common among middle aged and older individuals. There is an alarming increase in the amount of children being diagnosed due to the increase in childhood obesity. Let’s focus on type 2 diabetes. According to the Center of Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) more than 29 million US adults have diabetes. Approximately 25% of those individuals do not know they have diabetes1. More than one third of Adults in the United States have pre-diabetes and approxim Continue reading >>

How Diabetes Became A Global Epidemic

How Diabetes Became A Global Epidemic

The rate of type two diabetes continues to rise around the world, and many experts agree that it has become a global health crisis. Worldwide, the rate of diabetes increased by about 8 percent in men and nearly 10 percent in women from 1980 to 2008, according to a 2011 study published in the journal Lancet. The study, which tracked diabetes trends in 200 countries over the past three decades, found that nearly one in ten adults worldwide have some form of diabetes. The primary causes of this preventable disease are related to a poor diet and lack of exercise. Educating the world population on the importance of a healthy lifestyle is the best way to avert this public health crisis. Preventative care is the easiest way to keep individuals, families and communities healthy and active. Global Rise in Diabetes Diabetes is the condition in which the body does not properly process food for use as energy, and it manifests in the body in two ways, according to the U.S. Center for Disease Control and Prevention. Type one diabetes is an autoimmune disease that begins in childhood and requires an individual to take insulin. Type two diabetes accounts for 90 to 95 percent of all diagnosed diabetes cases, according to the CDC and is controlled by insulin, pills and in some cases by weight loss and exercise. Type two diabetes usually comes on after the age of 25. According to the results of the Lancet study the disease is most common in the islands of the South Pacific, Saudi Arabia, China, and India. Among high-income countries the rise in the US is the steepest. The study found that between 1980 and 2008, the number of diabetics more than doubled from 153 million to 347 million. About 30 percent of that increase came from a rise in disease across all age groups. About 30 percent cam Continue reading >>

Is Prediabetes An Epidemic Or A Creation Of Drug Companies?

Is Prediabetes An Epidemic Or A Creation Of Drug Companies?

A lot has been made of the growth of the waistlines of Americans, but the facts continue to be alarming. A new report indicates that Americans on average now weigh 15 pounds more than 20 years ago–and we are not getting any taller. According to the Center for Disease Control (CDC), in 1996, no state on average had 20% of its population obese. Now EVERY state’s population has at least a 20% obesity rate and in three–West Virginia, Mississippi and Arkansas–more than 35% are obese. There is no sign of this trend slowing. The problem with the increasing American girth is not one of aesthetics, but rather the concomitant illnesses associated with such huge weight gains. Again, CDC data teach that, as obesity increases, so does type 2 diabetes, with the latter ultimately leading to heart disease, kidney disease and potential limb amputations. It’s no surprise that those same states with the highest obesity rates also have the highest rates of type 2 diabetes. Approximately 12% of the residents of West Virginia, Mississippi and Arkansas now have type 2 diabetes. The downstream costs for treating diabetic complications are enormous. Thus, it is crucial to identify patients early and try to modify their lifestyles as best possible to stem this rising disease epidemic. The CDC is trying to do just that and its website urges that those with “prediabetes” seek medical advice: “Having prediabetes means your blood glucose (sugar) levels are higher than normal–but not high enough to be diagnosed as diabetes. Prediabetes can lead to heart disease, stroke and type 2 diabetes, the most common form of diabetes. Prediabetes can often be reversed.” One would think that such a stance would be non-controversial. However, a recent commentary in the Chicago Tribune thinks th Continue reading >>

Is Diabetes Becoming The Biggest Epidemic Of The Twenty-first Century?

Is Diabetes Becoming The Biggest Epidemic Of The Twenty-first Century?

Diabetes is a major public health problem that is approaching epidemic proportions globally. Worldwide, the prevalence of chronic, noncommunicable diseases is increasing at an alarming rate. About 18 million people die every year from cardiovascular disease, for which diabetes and hypertension are major predisposing factors. Today, more than 1.7 billion adults worldwide are overweight, and 312 million of them are obese. In addition, at least 155 million children worldwide are overweight or obese. A diabetes epidemic is underway. According to an estimate of International Diabetes Federation comparative prevalence of Diabetes during 2007 is 8.0 % and likely to increase to 7.3% by 2025. Number of people with diabetes is 246 million (with 46% of all those affected in the 40–59 age group) and likely to increase to 380 m by 2025. The comparative prevalence of IGT is 7.5% in 2007 and likely to go up to 6.0 by 2025. The number of people with IGT is 308 million in 2007 and likely to be 418 m by 2025. (1) Almost 80% of the total adult diabetics are in developing countries. The regions with the highest rates are the Eastern Mediterranean and Middle East, where 9.2 % of the adult population is affected, and North America (8.4%). The highest numbers, however, are found in the Western Pacific, where some 67 million people have Diabetes, followed by Europe with 53 million. India leads the global top ten in terms of the highest number of people with diabetes with a current figure of 40.9 million, followed by China with 39.8 million. Behind them come USA; Russia; Germany; Japan; Pakistan; Brazil; Mexico and Egypt. Two major concerns are that much of this increase in Diabetes will occur in developing countries and that there is a growing incidence of Type 2 Diabetes at a younger age in Continue reading >>

Type 2 Diabetes And Kids: The Growing Epidemic

Type 2 Diabetes And Kids: The Growing Epidemic

Before the obesity epidemic in the United States, type 2 diabetes was practically unheard of in people under 30. That explains the former name for the disease: adult-onset diabetes. Not long ago, almost all children with diabetes suffered from the type 1 form of the disease, which means their bodies couldn't produce enough insulin. And type 2 diabetes, in which the pancreas may produce normal insulin levels but cells become resistant to it, typically took decades to develop. But type 2 diabetes isn't just for adults anymore. The number of children and adolescents with the condition (most of whom are diagnosed in their early teens) has skyrocketed over the last 20 years and is still climbing, prompting experts to call it an epidemic. Because young children who are obese are more likely to become diabetic when they're older, experts are paying particular attention to how much -- or how little -- pre-adolescents eat and exercise. Disease researchers at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) made the prediction that one in three children born in the United States in 2000 will likely develop type 2 diabetes sometime in their lifetime unless they get more exercise and improve their diets. The prediction was especially serious for Latino children. Without changes in diet and exercise, their odds of developing diabetes during their lifetime were about 50-50. Type 2 is not usually as life-threatening or dramatic as type 1 at the time of diagnosis, but it does increase the likelihood that children may develop serious long-term complications in later life such as blindness, kidney disease, and heart disease. With proper medical treatment and a self-care program that incorporates exercise, glucose monitoring, and nutrition, however, your child can likely keep his or h Continue reading >>

A Growing Problem – The Global Epidemic Of Diabetes

A Growing Problem – The Global Epidemic Of Diabetes

In 1916, Elliott Joslin, MD, published the first edition of “The Treatment of Diabetes Mellitus,” and he would become one of the leading voices on the disease and treatment. Now, 100 years later, the disease has reached epidemic status as the global population rapidly approaches 500 million diabetics, a startling increase from 108 million cases in 1980. – Type 2 diabetes is not only impacting more individuals annually; it is also creating a serious financial burden. In 2012, in the US alone, $176 billion was spent treating diabetes. And it is estimated that in the US, 29 million people are diabetic and 87 million, one out every three adults, is at high-risk of developing the disease. Research has shown that diabetes knows no bounds — poor and affluent countries alike have shown steady increases in the prevalence of diabetes. The driving factor behind the growth in type 2 diabetes is excessive weight and obesity. When people are overweight, there is added pressure on their body to use insulin to control blood sugar levels, making it more likely to develop the disease. Vulnerable Populations and Diabetes While obesity is affecting everyone, it’s hitting vulnerable populations at an even higher rate. It has been well documented that high-quality, healthier foods are more expensive to purchase and more difficult to obtain. For low-income families, access to full-service grocery stores may be limited, making it both logistically challenging and expensive to purchase fresh foods. As a result, their diets may rely more on unhealthy foods — items packed with refined grains, added sugar, and saturated fat. Additionally, low-income families may have fewer opportunities for physical activity with not as many safe recreational areas or affordable organized sports. With Continue reading >>

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