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What Types Of Foods Metabolize Into Glucose?

Diet Guidelines: No-no Foods — Eliminating Simple Sugars

Diet Guidelines: No-no Foods — Eliminating Simple Sugars

NO-NO FOODS: ELIMINATING SIMPLE SUGARS Named below are some of the common foods that contain simple sugars, which rapidly raise blood sugar or otherwise hinder blood sugar control and should be eliminated from your diet. All grain products, for example—from the flour in “sugar-free” cookies to pasta to wheat or non-wheat grain products except pure bran—are converted so rapidly into glucose by the enzymes in saliva and further down in the digestive tract that they are, as far as blood sugar is concerned, essentially no different than table sugar. There are plenty of food products, however, that contain such tiny amounts of simple sugars that they will have a negligible effect on your blood sugar. One gram of carbohydrate will not raise blood sugar more than 5 mg/dl for most diabetic adults (but considerably more for small children). A single stick of chewing gum or a single tablespoon of salad dressing made with only 1 gram of sugar certainly poses no problems. In these areas, you have to use your judgment and your blood sugar profiles. If you’re the type who, once you start chewing gum, has to have a new stick every 5 minutes, then you should probably avoid chewing gum. If you have delayed stomach-emptying (Chapter 22), small amounts of “sugar-free” chewing gum may help facilitate your digestion. Powdered Artificial Sweeteners At this writing, several artificial sweeteners are available. They are available from different manufacturers under different names, and some, such as Equal and Sweet’n Low, can have brand names under which more than one form of sweetener is sold. Here, to simplify your shopping, are acceptable products currently and soon to be available: saccharin tablets or liquid (Sweet’n Low) aspartame tablets (Equal, NutraSweet)* acesulfame- Continue reading >>

Foods That Metabolize Quickly

Foods That Metabolize Quickly

Quickly metabolizing foods like boiled potatoes leave you feeling hungry again soon after eating them. 4 Do Potatoes Turn to Sugar When Digested? The speed at which your body metabolizes food into glucose dictates how long you will stay satiated after eating. Foods that metabolize quickly often leave you unsatisfied after your meal. The tool used to measure how long foods take to digest and transform metabolically into glucose is called the glycemic index. If a food has a high glycemic index, it takes less time to digest. Certain carbohydrates have a high glycemic index. The glycemic index, or GI, ranks carbohydrate-containing foods according to their effect on blood glucose. The scores of these foods vary from 0 to 100 based upon how fast their carbohydrate converts to glucose in your body and enters your bloodstream; the lower the number, the less impact the food has on your glucose. The standard by which each food is compared to get its GI is pure glucose, which has a numerical value of 100. Carbohydrates that break down in your body quickly during digestion have a high GI of 70 or over, whereas carbohydrates that take time to digest have a low GI of about 55 or less. When you consume high-glycemic foods, your blood glucose levels rise rapidly and signal the pancreas to secrete more insulin. This brings down the levels of glucose in your blood. Examples of high-glycemic index foods include rice cakes, with a GI of 82 per 25-gram serving; watermelon, with a GI of 72 per 120-gram serving; baguette with a GI of 95 for a 70-gram serving; kaiser roll, with a GI of 73 per 30-gram serving; waffles, with a GI of 76 for a 35-gram serving; cornflakes, with a GI of 93 per 30-gram serving; white rice, with a GI of 89 for a 150-gram serving; oatmeal, with a GI of 83 per 250-gram Continue reading >>

Background On Carbohydrates & Sugars

Background On Carbohydrates & Sugars

Carbohydrates are one of three basic macronutrients needed to sustain life (the other two are proteins and fats). They are found in a wide range of foods that bring a variety of other important nutrients to the diet, such as vitamins and minerals, phytochemicals, antioxidants, and dietary fiber. Fruits, vegetables, grain foods, and many dairy products naturally contain carbohydrates in varying amounts, including sugars, which are a type of carbohydrate that can add taste appeal to a nutritious diet. Carbohydrates encompass a broad range of sugars, starches, and fiber. The basic building block of a carbohydrate is a simple union of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen. The chemical definition of a carbohydrate is any compound containing these three elements and having twice as many hydrogen atoms as oxygen and carbon. When people hear the word sugar they often think of the familiar sweetener in the sugar bowl. That sugar is sucrose and is the most familiar form of sugar to home bakers. But there are many types of sugars, which scientists classify according to their chemical structure. Sugars occur naturally in a wide variety of fruits, vegetables, and dairy foods. They can also be produced commercially and added to foods to heighten sweetness and for the many technical functions they perform, including: contributing to foods structure and texture, sweetening and flavor enhancement, controlling crystallization, providing a medium for the growth of yeast in baked goods, and preventing spoilage. The sweetening ability of sugar can promote the consumption of nutrient-rich foods that might not be otherwise be consumed. Some examples are a sprinkle of sugar added to oatmeal or adding sugar to cranberries in the juice-making process. Sugars come in several forms, most containing appro Continue reading >>

How The Body Uses Carbohydrates, Proteins, And Fats

How The Body Uses Carbohydrates, Proteins, And Fats

How the Body Uses Carbohydrates, Proteins, and Fats The human body is remarkably adept at making do with whatever type of food is available. Our ability to survive on a variety of diets has been a vital adaptation for a species that evolved under conditions where food sources were scarce and unpredictable. Imagine if you had to depend on successfully hunting a woolly mammoth or stumbling upon a berry bush for sustenance! Today, calories are mostly cheap and plentifulperhaps too much so. Understanding what the basic macronutrients have to offer can help us make better choices when it comes to our own diets. From the moment a bite of food enters the mouth, each morsel of nutrition within starts to be broken down for use by the body. So begins the process of metabolism, the series of chemical reactions that transform food into components that can be used for the body's basic processes. Proteins, carbohydrates , and fats move along intersecting sets of metabolic pathways that are unique to each major nutrient. Fundamentallyif all three nutrients are abundant in the dietcarbohydrates and fats will be used primarily for energy while proteins provide the raw materials for making hormones, muscle, and other essential biological equipment. Proteins in food are broken down into pieces (called amino acids) that are then used to build new proteins with specific functions, such as catalyzing chemical reactions, facilitating communication between different cells, or transporting biological molecules from here to there. When there is a shortage of fats or carbohydrates, proteins can also yield energy. Fats typically provide more than half of the body's energy needs. Fat from food is broken down into fatty acids, which can travel in the blood and be captured by hungry cells. Fatty aci Continue reading >>

How Our Bodies Turn Food Into Energy

How Our Bodies Turn Food Into Energy

All parts of the body (muscles, brain, heart, and liver) need energy to work. This energy comes from the food we eat. Our bodies digest the food we eat by mixing it with fluids (acids and enzymes) in the stomach. When the stomach digests food, the carbohydrate (sugars and starches) in the food breaks down into another type of sugar, called glucose. The stomach and small intestines absorb the glucose and then release it into the bloodstream. Once in the bloodstream, glucose can be used immediately for energy or stored in our bodies, to be used later. However, our bodies need insulin in order to use or store glucose for energy. Without insulin, glucose stays in the bloodstream, keeping blood sugar levels high. Insulin is a hormone made by beta cells in the pancreas. Beta cells are very sensitive to the amount of glucose in the bloodstream. Normally beta cells check the blood's glucose level every few seconds and sense when they need to speed up or slow down the amount of insulin they're making and releasing. When someone eats something high in carbohydrates, like a piece of bread, the glucose level in the blood rises and the beta cells trigger the pancreas to release more insulin into the bloodstream. When insulin is released from the pancreas, it travels through the bloodstream to the body's cells and tells the cell doors to open up to let the glucose in. Once inside, the cells convert glucose into energy to use right then or store it to use later. As glucose moves from the bloodstream into the cells, blood sugar levels start to drop. The beta cells in the pancreas can tell this is happening, so they slow down the amount of insulin they're making. At the same time, the pancreas slows down the amount of insulin that it's releasing into the bloodstream. When this happens, Continue reading >>

Carbohydrates And Blood Sugar

Carbohydrates And Blood Sugar

When people eat a food containing carbohydrates, the digestive system breaks down the digestible ones into sugar, which enters the blood. As blood sugar levels rise, the pancreas produces insulin, a hormone that prompts cells to absorb blood sugar for energy or storage. As cells absorb blood sugar, levels in the bloodstream begin to fall. When this happens, the pancreas start making glucagon, a hormone that signals the liver to start releasing stored sugar. This interplay of insulin and glucagon ensure that cells throughout the body, and especially in the brain, have a steady supply of blood sugar. Carbohydrate metabolism is important in the development of type 2 diabetes, which occurs when the body can’t make enough insulin or can’t properly use the insulin it makes. Type 2 diabetes usually develops gradually over a number of years, beginning when muscle and other cells stop responding to insulin. This condition, known as insulin resistance, causes blood sugar and insulin levels to stay high long after eating. Over time, the heavy demands made on the insulin-making cells wears them out, and insulin production eventually stops. Glycemic index In the past, carbohydrates were commonly classified as being either “simple” or “complex,” and described as follows: Simple carbohydrates: These carbohydrates are composed of sugars (such as fructose and glucose) which have simple chemical structures composed of only one sugar (monosaccharides) or two sugars (disaccharides). Simple carbohydrates are easily and quickly utilized for energy by the body because of their simple chemical structure, often leading to a faster rise in blood sugar and insulin secretion from the pancreas – which can have negative health effects. Complex carbohydrates: These carbohydrates have mo Continue reading >>

Sugarscience.ucsf.edu | Metabolizing Sugar

Sugarscience.ucsf.edu | Metabolizing Sugar

A broad term meaning any bodily process in which the liver is injured or does not work as it is supposed to. In this website we focus on liver diseases in which the diet hurts the liver Usually shortened to just diabetes. Sometimes called sugar diabetes. Look at Type 1 Diabetes and Type 2 Diabetes for more information A type of fat in our body and our food. Three fatty acids are combined with another chemical called glycerol to form a triglyceride. Sugars are chemicals made of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen found which taste sweet and are found in food. They are an important part of what we eat and drink and of our bodies. On this site, sugar is used to mean simple sugars (monosaccharides) like fructose or glucose, and disaccharides like table sugar (sucrose). Sucrose is two simple sugars stuck together for example (see Table sugar). Sugars are a type of carbohydrate. Carbohydrates are energy sources for our bodies Sugars enter the blood stream very quickly after being eaten. One of the three major groups of nutrients we eat. Much of this website is related to problems associated with too much fat storage in the body. Each gram of fat produces 9 calories of energy if burned by the body as fuel. Fat can be stored in many places in the body. We generally think of fat as under the skin (subcutaneous), but the fat that may be most damaging to us is the fat stored in the liver and around the organs of the abdomen (intrahepatic and visceral or abdominal or intra-abdominal) A sugar that we eat. Also called fruit sugar. Most fructose comes in sucrose (table sugar, cane sugar, beet sugar), or from high-fructose corn syrup. Glucose is a sugar we eat. It is found in starch. It is the main fuel for our bodies. It is the sugar measured when we have a blood test to measure the blood s Continue reading >>

Top 10 Foods That Help Regulate Blood Sugar And Prevent Diabetes

Top 10 Foods That Help Regulate Blood Sugar And Prevent Diabetes

Diabetes is a prevalent ailment to scourge society. It is a metabolic disorder that is caused by the inability of the pancreas to produce the hormone insulin. Insulin is required to metabolize the sugar levels in the blood. When insulin becomes deficient, sugar is retained in the blood, and this deficiency can lead to type 1 and 2 diabetes. A misconception about diabetes is that it is a disease without a cure. Though that may be technically correct, the truth is that diabetes is a disease that is a product of culture rather than biology. All people need to do is regulate what foods they choose to eat. In order to reduce your risk of diabetes, try integrating these foods into your diet. Green leafy vegetables Green leafy vegetables, such as kale, spinach and broccoli, are a great dietary addition for people who are trying to cope with diabetes. These vegetables contain water-soluble vitamins B6 and C, and fat-soluble vitamins A and K. The vitamins are necessary for the proper metabolism of nutrients in the body. In addition, green leafy vegetables are known to have a low content of carbohydrates and cholesterol, both of which can help in the buildup of sugars in the bloodstream. Of all the green leafy vegetables, kale is the best due to its high content of calcium, magnesium, and bile acid sequestrants. These substances can significantly reduce high levels of bad cholesterol. Beans Beans rank high in the hierarchy of foods that can help prevent diabetes. Loaded with fiber, even a small amount of beans can make a person feel full. Reducing the amount of food (including carbohydrates) a person ingests causes the body to metabolize the reserves of blood sugar that are in excess, thereby reducing blood sugar levels. For diabetics who are looking for more protein, beans are a Continue reading >>

Diabetes And Sugar Metabolism

Diabetes And Sugar Metabolism

Sugar metabolism is the process of turning the energy from the foods you eat into fuel your body's cells need to grow and function. If you have diabetes, you have a problem with insulin, which is an important hormone in sugar metabolism. Sugar Metabolism: From Food to Fuel When you eat foods, enzymes in the digestive process break down proteins, fats, and carbohydrates into amino acids, fatty acids, and simple sugars. These byproducts are absorbed into your blood, where they are available to be used as energy when your body needs it. The most important source of fuel for your body is a simple sugar called glucose, also known as blood sugar, which builds up in your blood after a meal. Blood sugar can then travel throughout your bloodstream to be used by cells throughout your body. Your pancreas, a gland located behind your stomach, is in control of releasing hormones that tell your body whether to store or release energy for your body to use. One of these hormones, insulin, is essential for helping your body use blood sugar and preventing a build-up of blood sugar in your bloodstream. Insulin “unlocks” your cells to allow the sugar circulating in the blood to enter the cells where it can be turned into energy. After you have eaten a meal, your pancreas senses a rise in your blood sugar level and releases the precise amount of insulin needed to move sugar from your blood into your cells. How Diabetes Affects Sugar Metabolism If you have diabetes, your body has problems producing insulin, responding to insulin, or both. When insulin is not working as it should, blood sugar can build up, eventually spilling over into your urine. This can lead to diabetes symptoms such as increased urination and unexplained weight loss, since your body isn't able to use the energy from t Continue reading >>

Foods That Are Converted Into Sugars After Being Eaten

Foods That Are Converted Into Sugars After Being Eaten

All foods containing carbohydrates are converted to sugars when eaten. Foods That Are Converted Into Sugars After Being Eaten Aglaee Jacob is a registered dietitian. She has experience working with people who have diabetes, cardiovascular disease, hypertension and obesity issues. Jacob obtained a bachelor of science and a master of science, both in nutrition, from Laval University in Quebec City, Canada. Managing your blood sugar levels can be complicated, especially if you have prediabetes, insulin resistance or diabetes. Understanding how the foods you eat influence your blood sugar levels is key to help you make the right choices. Foods that contain carbohdyrates are converted into sugars during the digestion process and cause your blood sugar levels to increase shortly after your meal. Starchy vegetables, such as potatoes, sweet potatoes, corn and green peas, can raise your blood sugar levels. The starches found in starchy vegetables are quickly digested and converted into sugars by the enzymes found in your gastrointestinal tract. The sugars obtained from the digestion of starches can quickly enter your bloodstream and elevate your blood sugar levels. For example, 1 cup of mashed potatoes has about 35g of carbohydrates, which corresponds to the equivalent of close to 9 tsp. of sugar. Grains are also rich in starches and some grains also contain added sugar. All types of breads, such as bagels, sliced breads, rolls and English muffins, as well as rice, pasta, noodles, crackers and baked goods are all converted to sugars after being eaten and can contribute to raising your blood sugar levels in the minutes and hours following your meals. A slice of whole wheat bread contains close to 4 tsp. of sugar, while a large bagel contains the equivalent of over 17 tsp. of sug Continue reading >>

If Everything We Eat Is Broken Down Into Glucose, Are Sweets All That Bad?

If Everything We Eat Is Broken Down Into Glucose, Are Sweets All That Bad?

Are sweets bad? I'll use a quote an English teacher gave me over a decade ago that has served me well in answering behavior/nutrition questions. "You can kiss a nun, but don't get in the habit." - Source? To be clear, sweets (I'll elect to interpret this as candies/cakes/pies and everything else I get sweaty just thinking about) are bad. Do I eat them, yes. Do I eat a LOT of them, not anymore. Do I want to eat less of them, yes. But, let's also consider that alcohol is not exactly great for your body either and just to be dramatic, cyanide is DEFINITELY bad for your body. So as long as one acknowledges the effects of what they are consuming and frames it in context of their overall diet, sweets can be included. Just like alcohol, red meat, etc. Freedom of choice is a beautiful thing. For those that want to proceed, the remainder is a deviation to the obesity sub-topic that evolved in the comments: So, John Lilja is correct about the different types of sugars and some interesting quirks they have. Not all sugars are run through the same exact metabolic machinery. They are run through similar processes, but its a sneaky way that endurance athletes can actually up the amount of calories their body absorbs from a food source per unit time. For example, if I'm just scarfing down a straight glucose mixture I have a limit of X grams/hr that my body can process. But if I'm scarfing down straight fructose, I have a limit of Y grams/hr that my body can process. By combining different types of sugars we can get a higher rate of energy input. This isn't a straight X+Y rate, so there isn't a synergy or even additive property here, but it is higher than X or Y. So, this can be a way to maintain energy levels during prolonged activity. But, this can also be a way to enhance our insuli Continue reading >>

What Is Glucose?

What Is Glucose?

Glucose comes from the Greek word for "sweet." It's a type of sugar you get from foods you eat, and your body uses it for energy. As it travels through your bloodstream to your cells, it's called blood glucose or blood sugar. Insulin is a hormone that moves glucose from your blood into the cells for energy and storage. People with diabetes have higher-than-normal levels in their blood. Either they don't have enough insulin to move it through or their cells don't respond to insulin as well as they should. High blood glucose for a long period of time can damage your kidneys, eyes, and other organs. How Your Body Makes Glucose It mainly comes from foods rich in carbohydrates, like bread, potatoes, and fruit. As you eat, food travels down your esophagus to your stomach. There, acids and enzymes break it down into tiny pieces. During that process, glucose is released. It goes into your intestines where it's absorbed. From there, it passes into your bloodstream. Once in the blood, insulin helps glucose get to your cells. Energy and Storage Your body is designed to keep the level of glucose in your blood constant. Beta cells in your pancreas monitor your blood sugar level every few seconds. When your blood glucose rises after you eat, the beta cells release insulin into your bloodstream. Insulin acts like a key, unlocking muscle, fat, and liver cells so glucose can get inside them. Most of the cells in your body use glucose along with amino acids (the building blocks of protein) and fats for energy. But it's the main source of fuel for your brain. Nerve cells and chemical messengers there need it to help them process information. Without it, your brain wouldn't be able to work well. After your body has used the energy it needs, the leftover glucose is stored in little bundles Continue reading >>

Foods To Avoid For High Blood Sugar

Foods To Avoid For High Blood Sugar

Candy quickly causes high blood sugar levels. High blood sugar, known as hyperglycemia, is the hallmark of diabetes. People who are diabetic either produce insufficient amounts of insulin, which is needed to transport sugar from the bloodstream into cells, or their cells dont respond properly to insulin. Either way, too much sugar remains in the blood and not enough is available for cellular energy production. Some carbohydrate-based foods are quickly metabolized into sugar, which worsens diabetic conditions and also causes insulin spikes and symptoms in non-diabetics. These foods should be avoided by diabetics and carefully moderated by non-diabetics. Consult a nutritionist about which foods to avoid to maintain healthy blood sugar levels. Glucose is the simple sugar that circulates in your blood and provides your cells with energy. As a rule, fasting blood glucose levels should be between 70 and 90 milligrams per deciliter. Levels above 120 are usually considered mildly hyperglycemic. For comparison, diabetics who are not on medication often have glucose levels between 180 and 250 milligrams per deciliter or higher. Non-diabetics can also experience temporary spikes in blood glucose levels if they eat too much food that has a high glycemic index, which is a measure of how quickly carbohydrates are reduced or metabolized to glucose. Too much sugar in the blood is toxic to tissues, especially small nerves and blood vessels, and can lead to dramatic fluctuations in mood, energy levels and cognition. Candy, milk chocolate, donuts, cookies and most desserts such as ice cream, cakes and pies are very high in refined sugar and should be avoided or minimized if high blood glucose is a concern for you. Highly refined sugars such as high fructose corn syrup are digested and me Continue reading >>

Beat Your Sugar And Starch Addiction | Prevention

Beat Your Sugar And Starch Addiction | Prevention

In the world of fantasy wish lists, wouldn't it be great ifinstead of prompting us to snack all the timeour bodies would just use up fat we have already stored? One major reason this doesn't happen has to do with our diets. When you consume starch and refined sugar, these foods enter the bloodstream quickly, causing a sugar spike. Your body then produces the hormone insulin to drive that sugar from your bloodstream into cells. But over time, excessive levels of insulin can make your muscle cells lose sensitivity to the hormone, leading to type 2 diabetes and heart disease. Your fat cells are another story: They always remain sensitive. Insulin spikes lock fat into them, so you can't use it for energy. How do you break this cycle and get your body to work optimally again? Happily, you don't need to go on an extreme diet. The first step is just to reduce the blood sugar spikes that produce sharp increases of insulin. The substance in our diet that's most responsible for these surges is starchnamely, anything made from potatoes, rice, flour, corn, or other grains. (Think pasta, lasagna, white bread, doughnuts, cookies, and cakes.) You could cut out these foods entirely. But wouldn't it be great if there were a way to solve the problem without completely eliminating these carbs? It turns out there is. You can blunt the blood sugar-raising effects by taking advantage of natural substances in foods that slow carbohydrate digestion and entry into the bloodstream. No matter what kind of sugar blocker you use, your waistline (and health) will win in the end. Have a fatty snack10 to 30 minutes before your meals. Reason: You remain fuller longer. At the outlet of your stomach is a muscular ring, the pyloric valve. It regulates the speed at which food leaves your stomach and enter Continue reading >>

How Carbohydrate Metabolism Affects Weight

How Carbohydrate Metabolism Affects Weight

Carbohydrate metabolism refers to the process your body goes through to break down carbohydrates into energy. Eating too much carbohydrates can cause an increase in your body's fat storage. But, eating too little can have drastic health consequences. What is a Carbohydrate? Carbohydrates come into your body in the form of food. Grains, rice, cereals, sweets, most fruits and all the foods that derive from them are primarily carbohydrates. While protein foods provide your body with strength and healing abilities, carbohydrate foods give your body the energy it needs to function. Your body uses carbohydrates as its main supply of fuel. Once eaten, the body turns carbs into sugar called glucose. Insulin flushes the glucose into your cells, where it becomes energy. If there is extra glucose left over from the process, it is stored as fat. Different Carbs Play Different Parts in Weight Control There are three different types of carbohydrates that a weight-conscious person should be aware of: fiber, complex and simple carbohydrates. Fiber is indigestible carbohydrates. High fiber foods contain components that do not break down in the body, and do not get converted to energy or fat. They give the body a full feeling while traveling through it, and provide other health benefits, such as contributing to heart and colon health. Then there are two kind of digestible carbohydrates. Simple carbohydrates, such as refined sugar and fruit, break down quickly into glucose. Recent studies suggest that certain simple carbohydrates can cause such a quick rush of insulin that they actually increase appetite and the risk of excess fat storage. Complex carbohydrates break down slower and burn as energy longer. They are in general less fattening. The Healthiest Carb Complex carbohydrates cause Continue reading >>

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