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What Type Of Substance Is Insulin?

Insulin

Insulin

Tweet Inside the pancreas, beta cells make the hormone insulin. With each meal, beta cells release insulin to help the body use or store the glucose it gets from food. Insulin is prescribed to people with type 1 diabetes. This is because type 1 diabetes destroys beta cells in the pancreas, meaning that the body can no longer produce insulin. People with type 2 diabetes make insulin, but their bodies don’t respond well to it. Some people with type 2 diabetes may take pills or insulin shots to help their bodies use glucose for energy. What you should know about insulin This section covers everything to do with insulin - insulin types, prescription, delivery, side effects, insulin pumps, over-dosage, lancets and more. Explore key guides in this section, including: How many types of insulin are there? There are 4 types of insulin, based on how soon the insulin starts working (onset), when it works the hardest (peak time) and how long it lasts in your body (duration). However, each person responds to insulin in his or her own way. That is why onset, peak time, and duration are given as ranges. The types of insulin are: Rapid-acting insulin (Lispro) reaches the blood within 15 minutes after injection. It peaks 30 to 90 minutes later and may last as long as 5 hours. Short-acting (regular) insulin usually reaches the blood within 30 minutes after injection. It peaks 2 to 4 hours later and stays in the blood for about 4 to 8 hours. Intermediate acting (NPH and lente) insulins reach the blood 2 to 6 hours after injection. They peak 4 to 14 hours later and stay in the blood for about 14 to 20 hours. Long acting (ultralente) insulin takes 6 to 14 hours to start working. It has no peak or a very small peak 10 to 16 hours after injection. It stays in the blood between 20 and 24 hou Continue reading >>

How Insulin And Glucagon Work

How Insulin And Glucagon Work

Insulin and glucagon are hormones that help regulate the levels of blood glucose, or sugar, in your body. Glucose, which comes from the food you eat, moves through your bloodstream to help fuel your body. Insulin and glucagon work together to balance your blood sugar levels, keeping them in the narrow range that your body requires. These hormones are like the yin and yang of blood glucose maintenance. Read on to learn more about how they function and what can happen when they don’t work well. Insulin and glucagon work in what’s called a negative feedback loop. During this process, one event triggers another, which triggers another, and so on, to keep your blood sugar levels balanced. How insulin works During digestion, foods that contain carbohydrates are converted into glucose. Most of this glucose is sent into your bloodstream, causing a rise in blood glucose levels. This increase in blood glucose signals your pancreas to produce insulin. The insulin tells cells throughout your body to take in glucose from your bloodstream. As the glucose moves into your cells, your blood glucose levels go down. Some cells use the glucose as energy. Other cells, such as in your liver and muscles, store any excess glucose as a substance called glycogen. Your body uses glycogen for fuel between meals. Read more: Simple vs. complex carbs » How glucagon works Glucagon works to counterbalance the actions of insulin. About four to six hours after you eat, the glucose levels in your blood decrease, triggering your pancreas to produce glucagon. This hormone signals your liver and muscle cells to change the stored glycogen back into glucose. These cells then release the glucose into your bloodstream so your other cells can use it for energy. This whole feedback loop with insulin and gluca Continue reading >>

From Death To Life: The Discovery Of Insulin

From Death To Life: The Discovery Of Insulin

Before the life-saving treatment of insulin was discovered, diabetes was a disease that many people feared they would get. They feared it, because the diagnosis of diabetes was fatal, it meant they would most certainly die soon, in the near future. Not much was known of diabetes before the discovery. Doctors knew that sugar would only worsen diabetic patient’s conditions, and the most effective treatment at the time was a limited diet, also known as a starvation diet. By reducing their sugar intakes to the bare minimum, patients were able to extend their lives by a few extra years. Sadly, these extra years were not full of life and happiness for them. They slowly became worse, and often times they died of starvation before they succumbed to the effects of the disease itself. History of Diabetes Research In the 19th century, when patients died from complications from diabetes, doctors were able to conduct an autopsy which showed significant damage to their pancreas. In the year 1869, Paul Langerhans, at the time a German medical student discovered that inside the pancreatic tissue were clusters of cells in which digestive juices were produced. The function of these cells were unknown during this discovery. Eventually however, some of these cells were found to be the beta-cells, which produce insulin. To honor the student that made this huge discovery, these cell clusters were called the “Islets of Langerhans”. While this discovery in 1869 was huge in diabetes research, it still took some time to understand the functioning of the pancreas and its role in diabetes. In 1889, Oskar Minkowski, a German physiologist along with Doctor Joseph von Mering, were able to prove medically that if you removed the pancreas from a dog, the dog then got diabetes. However, if they su Continue reading >>

Insulin

Insulin

This article is about the insulin protein. For uses of insulin in treating diabetes, see insulin (medication). Not to be confused with Inulin. Insulin (from Latin insula, island) is a peptide hormone produced by beta cells of the pancreatic islets, and it is considered to be the main anabolic hormone of the body.[5] It regulates the metabolism of carbohydrates, fats and protein by promoting the absorption of, especially, glucose from the blood into fat, liver and skeletal muscle cells.[6] In these tissues the absorbed glucose is converted into either glycogen via glycogenesis or fats (triglycerides) via lipogenesis, or, in the case of the liver, into both.[6] Glucose production and secretion by the liver is strongly inhibited by high concentrations of insulin in the blood.[7] Circulating insulin also affects the synthesis of proteins in a wide variety of tissues. It is therefore an anabolic hormone, promoting the conversion of small molecules in the blood into large molecules inside the cells. Low insulin levels in the blood have the opposite effect by promoting widespread catabolism, especially of reserve body fat. Beta cells are sensitive to glucose concentrations, also known as blood sugar levels. When the glucose level is high, the beta cells secrete insulin into the blood; when glucose levels are low, secretion of insulin is inhibited.[8] Their neighboring alpha cells, by taking their cues from the beta cells,[8] secrete glucagon into the blood in the opposite manner: increased secretion when blood glucose is low, and decreased secretion when glucose concentrations are high.[6][8] Glucagon, through stimulating the liver to release glucose by glycogenolysis and gluconeogenesis, has the opposite effect of insulin.[6][8] The secretion of insulin and glucagon into the Continue reading >>

Drug And Alcohol Use With Diabetes

Drug And Alcohol Use With Diabetes

Comprehensive Guide to Research on Risk, Complications and Treatment Substance abuse is described as the excessive use of a substance such as alcohol or drugs that results in significant clinical impairments as well as the loss of ability to function academically, professionally, and socially [1]. An individual who was healthy before the substance abuse began will typically begin to experience serious health problems over time, but extensive damage may be avoided or reversed if effective substance abuse treatment is received. This is not the case, however, for individuals who have been diagnosed with diabetes, and although this is a manageable disease with proper treatment, substance abuse may cause it to become life-threatening. This guide will discuss, in detail, how substance abuse can negatively impact the life and health of a person with diabetes. Diabetes, also referred to as diabetes mellitus, is a condition in which the body is unable to properly regulate blood sugar levels. There are two forms known as type 1 and type 2 diabetes, but in order to better understand the difference between the two types, the role that insulin plays in the regulation of healthy blood sugar levels will be briefly described. During the digestive process, carbohydrates are broken down into glucose, which is a form of sugar that easily enters the bloodstream and is used by the body for energy. The pancreas normally responds to increasing blood sugar levels by initiating the production of the hormone known as insulin. As insulin levels increase, it signals the transfer of glucose into cells throughout the body and it also ensures that excess glucose will be stored in the liver in order to prevent high blood sugar levels. Type 1 diabetes, which is also called juvenile or insulin dependent Continue reading >>

Diabetes Type I...insulin Therapy

Diabetes Type I...insulin Therapy

I am lucky to have so many wonderful patients who try so very hard to maintain the best blood sugar control possible. For many of them, this involves insulin pump therapy or multiple injections of insulin a day - in addition to testing their blood sugars often. I often get asked is there is anything on the horizon that will make life easier for them. I tell them they may have to "squint" a bit to see it - but off to the distance, there just may be. The symptoms of diabetes were described more than 2000 years ago. Aretaeus of Cappadocia (circa 150 A.D) noted that "...it consists of a moist and cold wasting of the flesh and limbs into the urine. The patient never ceases making water. The disease is chronic in character, though the patient does not survive long when it is completely established for the maramus produced is rapid and death is speedy." Ancient Hindu texts also described a diabetic syndrome, characterized by "honeyed urine." These astute observations characterized the clinical syndrome associated with what is now called type 1 diabetes (formerly known as insulin dependent diabetes ). Type 1 diabetes usually manifests in childhood or young adulthood. Until the latter half of the 20th century, type 1 diabetes was a fatal disease. From the time of these ancient observations, there was little in the way of treatment for patients with type 1 diabetes . This primarily was because the cause of the disease was not recognized. In the 1700's, it was found that there were high amounts of sugar in the urine of patients with diabetes. Consequently, the disease was initially thought to be a problem with the kidneys. In the early 1800s, the link between diet and the amount of sugar seen in the urine was established. It was observed that if patients with diabetes ate carbohy Continue reading >>

Drugs To Increase Insulin Production

Drugs To Increase Insulin Production

Diabetes is a group of diseases that cause high blood sugar (glucose) levels. The high blood glucose levels are caused by problems in insulin production or function. Insulin is a hormone released by the pancreas when you eat food. It allows sugar to move from the blood into the cells, where it’s used for energy. If the cells of the body aren’t using insulin well, or if the body is unable to make enough insulin, glucose can build up in the blood. The increase in blood glucose levels may lead to uncomfortable symptoms, such as: constant thirst increased urination excessive hunger unintentional or unexplained weight loss fatigue or lack of energy irritability blurry vision wounds that heal more slowly than normal recurring or frequent infections There are two main types of diabetes. Type 1 diabetes develops when the body doesn’t make any insulin. It’s most often diagnosed during childhood, but it may be diagnosed later in life. Type 2 diabetes occurs when the body doesn’t produce enough insulin or doesn’t use insulin properly. It’s more commonly seen in adults, but the number of children with type 2 diabetes is increasing. Both types of diabetes cause a buildup of glucose in the bloodstream. This can lead to serious health problems, including: vision loss kidney damage skin problems hearing impairment heart disease stroke blood circulation problems limb amputation Most of these complications are preventable with treatment. Treatment plans for diabetes often involve monitoring blood glucose levels, following a healthy diet, and taking medications. Many of these medications work by raising the body’s insulin levels. Increased insulin production helps deliver the glucose in your blood to your cells. This prevents glucose from building up in your bloodstream. N Continue reading >>

What Is Insulin?

What Is Insulin?

Insulin is a hormone; a chemical messenger produced in one part of the body to have an action on another. It is a protein responsible for regulating blood glucose levels as part of metabolism.1 The body manufactures insulin in the pancreas, and the hormone is secreted by its beta cells, primarily in response to glucose.1 The beta cells of the pancreas are perfectly designed "fuel sensors" stimulated by glucose.2 As glucose levels rise in the plasma of the blood, uptake and metabolism by the pancreas beta cells are enhanced, leading to insulin secretion.1 Insulin has two modes of action on the body - an excitatory one and an inhibitory one:3 Insulin stimulates glucose uptake and lipid synthesis It inhibits the breakdown of lipids, proteins and glycogen, and inhibits the glucose pathway (gluconeogenesis) and production of ketone bodies (ketogenesis). What is the pancreas? The pancreas is the organ responsible for controlling sugar levels. It is part of the digestive system and located in the abdomen, behind the stomach and next to the duodenum - the first part of the small intestine.4 The pancreas has two main functional components:4,5 Exocrine cells - cells that release digestive enzymes into the gut via the pancreatic duct The endocrine pancreas - islands of cells known as the islets of Langerhans within the "sea" of exocrine tissue; islets release hormones such as insulin and glucagon into the blood to control blood sugar levels. Islets are highly vascularized (supplied by blood vessels) and specialized to monitor nutrients in the blood.2 The alpha cells of the islets secrete glucagon while the beta cells - the most abundant of the islet cells - release insulin.5 The release of insulin in response to elevated glucose has two phases - a first around 5-10 minutes after g Continue reading >>

Insulin - An Overview | Sciencedirect Topics

Insulin - An Overview | Sciencedirect Topics

Insulin is a protein consisting of two polypeptide chains, A chain and B chain, linked together by disulfide bonds. Brian L. Furman, in xPharm: The Comprehensive Pharmacology Reference , 2007 Insulin is normally secreted rapidly from the beta-cells of the pancreatic islets in response to nutrients absorbed after a meal. In type 1 diabetes mellitus, there may be an absolute insulin deficiency as a consequence of autoimmune destruction of the beta-cells. On the other hand, in type 2 diabetes mellitus, insulin secretion is impaired and is inadequate to overcome peripheral insulin resistance. Insulin preparations are used to replace the deficient hormone in the treatment of diabetes, and currently, there is no alternative therapy for type 1 diabetes. Insulin is also to be used in the treatment of type 2 diabetes when this cannot be adequately controlled by orally active antidiabetic drugs. The aim of treatment using insulin is to maintain euglycemia (a plasma glucose level of 47 mmol/L) without causing hypoglycemia. There is much evidence that good control in both type 1 and type 2 diabetes will reduce the development of long-term microvascular and neuropathic complications of the disorder DCCT Research Group (1993), UK Prospective Diabetes Study Group (1998). However, good control is difficult to achieve because of the difficulty of administering insulin in a way that mimics physiological insulin secretion, with rapid peaks during and immediately after a meal and low, basal concentrations between meals. Insulin preparations are now largely based on human insulin prepared by enzymic modification of porcine insulin [human insulin (emp)], by chemical combination of the A and B chains produced using bacteria genetically modified by recombinant DNA technology [human insulin (c Continue reading >>

Jbc : Journal Of Biological Chemistry

Jbc : Journal Of Biological Chemistry

Extracts from Gynostemma pentaphyllum Makino (Cucurbitaceae), a Southeast Asian herb, has been reported to affect numerous activities resulting in antitumor, cholesterol-lowering, immunopotentiating, antioxidant, and hypoglycemic effects. We have isolated one active compound by ethanol extraction, distribution in n-butyl alcohol/water, solid phase extraction/separation, and several rounds of reverse phase high pressure liquid chromatography. We have shown by NMR and mass spectrometry that this active compound is a novel saponin, a gypenoside, which we have named phanoside (21-,23-epoxy-,3-,20-,21-trihydroxydammar-24-ene-3-O-([-d-rhamnopyranosyl(12)]-[-d-glycopyranosyl(13)]--d-lyxopyranoside)), with a molecular mass of 914.5 Da. Phanoside is a dammarane-type saponin, and four stereoisomers differing in configurations at positions 21 and 23 were identified, each of which were found to stimulate insulin release from isolated rat pancreatic islets. We have also found that the stereoisomers are interconvertible. Dose-dependent insulin-releasing activities at 3.3 and 16.7 mm glucose levels were determined for the racemic mixture containing all four stereoisomers. Phanoside at 500 m stimulates insulin release in vitro 10-fold at 3.3 mm glucose and potentiates the release almost 4-fold at 16.7 mm glucose. At these glucose levels, 2 m glibenclamide stimulates insulin release only 2-fold. Interestingly, -cell sensitivity to phanoside is higher at 16.7 mm than at 3.3 mm glucose, although insulin responses were significantly increased by phanoside below 125 m only at high glucose levels. Also when given orally to rats, phanoside (40 and 80 mg/ml) improved glucose tolerance and enhanced plasma insulin levels at hyperglycemia. Plant extracts have been used in traditional medicine si Continue reading >>

Blood Sugar Control

Blood Sugar Control

The concentration of glucose in our blood is important and must be carefully regulated. This is done by the pancreas, which releases hormones that regulate the usage and storage of glucose by cells. Type 1 diabetics are unable to make sufficient quantities of one of these hormones – insulin - and must therefore control their blood sugar levels by injecting insulin, as well as by carefully controlling their diet and exercise levels. Controlling rising blood sugar It is important that blood glucose level is kept within a narrow range due to its importance as an energy source for respiration - but also because of the effects it could have in causing the movement of water into and out of cells by osmosis Having eaten a meal containing sugars or starch (eg sweets, potatoes, bread, rice or pasta), the starch and large sugars are digested down into glucose and absorbed across the small intestine wall into the bloodstream. This triggers a rise in blood glucose concentration. The pancreas monitors and controls the concentration of glucose in the blood. In response to an increase in blood glucose level above the normal level, the pancreas produces a hormone called insulin which is released into the bloodstream. Insulin causes glucose to move from the blood into cells, where it is either used for respiration or stored in liver and muscle cells as glycogen. The effect of this is to lower the blood glucose concentration back to normal. The animation below shows how this works. You have an old or no version of Flash - you need to upgrade to view this content! Go to the WebWise Flash install guide Diabetes There are two main types of diabetes: Type 1 which usually develops during childhood Type 2 which is usually develops in later life This syllabus focuses on Type 1 diabetes - whic Continue reading >>

Facts About Diabetes And Insulin

Facts About Diabetes And Insulin

Diabetes is a very common disease, which, if not treated, can be very dangerous. There are two types of diabetes. They were once called juvenile-onset diabetes and adult diabetes. However, today we know that all ages can get both types so they are simply called type 1 and type 2 diabetes. Type 1, which occurs in approximately 10 percent of all cases, is an autoimmune disease in which the immune system, by mistake, attacks its own insulin-producing cells so that insufficient amounts of insulin are produced - or no insulin at all. Type 1 affects predominantly young people and usually makes its debut before the age of 30, and most frequently between the ages of 10 and 14. Type 2, which makes up the remaining 90 percent of diabetes cases, commonly affects patients during the second half of their lives. The cells of the body no longer react to insulin as they should. This is called insulin resistance. In the early 1920s, Frederick Banting, John Macleod, George Best and Bertram Collip isolated the hormone insulin and purified it so that it could be administered to humans. This was a major breakthrough in the treatment of diabetes type 1. Insulin Insulin is a hormone. Hormones are chemical substances that regulate the cells of the body and are produced by special glands. The hormone insulin is a main regulator of the glucose (sugar) levels in the blood. Insulin is produced in the pancreas. To be more specific, it's produced by the beta cells in the islets of Langerhans in the pancreas. When we eat, glucose levels rise, and insulin is released into the bloodstream. The insulin acts like a key, opening up cells so they can take in the sugar and use it as an energy source. Sugar is one of the top energy sources for the body. The body gets it in many forms, but mainly as carbohydr Continue reading >>

Substance In Coffee Delays Onset Of Diabetes In Laboratory Mice

Substance In Coffee Delays Onset Of Diabetes In Laboratory Mice

"Cafestol, a Bioactive Substance in Coffee, has Antidiabetic Properties in KKAy Mice" Journal of Natural Products In recent years, researchers have identified substances in coffee that could help quash the risk of developing Type 2 diabetes. But few of these have been tested in animals. Now in study appearing in ACS’ Journal of Natural Products, scientists report that one of these previously untested compounds appears to improve cell function and insulin sensitivity in laboratory mice. The finding could spur the development of new drugs to treat or even prevent the disease. Some studies suggest that drinking three to four cups of coffee a day can reduce the risk of developing Type 2 diabetes, a disease that afflicts nearly 30 million Americans. Initially, scientists suspected that caffeine was responsible for this effect. But later findings discounted this possibility, suggesting that other substances in coffee may have a more important role. In a previous laboratory study, Fredrik Brustad Mellbye, Søren Gregersen and colleagues found that a compound in coffee called cafestol increased insulin secretion in pancreatic cells when they were exposed to glucose. Cafestol also increased glucose uptake in muscle cells just as effectively as a commonly prescribed antidiabetic drug. In this new study, the researchers wanted to see if cafestol would help prevent or delay the onset of Type 2 diabetes in mice. The researchers divided mice that are prone to develop Type 2 diabetes into three groups. Two of the groups were fed differing doses of cafestol. After 10 weeks, both sets of cafestol-fed mice had lower blood glucose levels and improved insulin secretory capacity compared to a control group, which was not given the compound. Cafestol also didn’t result in hypoglycemia, o Continue reading >>

B3.3 Homeostasis Foundation Tier

B3.3 Homeostasis Foundation Tier

Exampro GCSE Biology Name: Class: Author: Date: Time: 80 Marks: 80 Comments: Page 1 of 35 Q1. People with kidney disease may be treated by dialysis. The diagram shows a dialysis machine. (a) Draw a ring around the correct answer to complete each sentence. A person loses mass during dialysis. One patient lost 2.2 kilograms during a dialysis session. (1) salt (i) This person lost mass mainly because urea was removed from the blood. water (ii) This substance was able to pass through the partially permeable membranes (1) large. because its molecules are round. small. Page 2 of 35 (iii) The concentration of sodium ions at X is 3.15 grams per dm3. At the end of a dialysis session, the most likely concentration of sodium ions (1) 0.00 at Y would be 3.15 grams per dm3. 6.30 (b) The table shows the cost, in the UK, of treating one patient who has kidney disease. (i) During the first year, dialysis treatment is cheaper than a kidney transplant. How much cheaper is the dialysis treatment? ................................................. pounds (1) Treatment Cost per year in pounds Dialysis 30 000 Kidney transplant: operation + first year’s medical care medical care in each further year 51 000 5 000 (ii) After some time, the cost of treating a patient by a transplant operation would be cheaper than continual treatment by dialysis. How many years would it take? Draw a ring around one answer. (1) 2 years 3 years 4 years (iii) A transplant patient needs to take drugs for the rest of his life to suppress the immune system. Why is it necessary to suppress the immune system ? ............................................................................................................... ............................................................................................... Continue reading >>

Insulin Sources And Types: A Review Of Insulin In Terms Of Its Mode On Diabetes Mellitus.

Insulin Sources And Types: A Review Of Insulin In Terms Of Its Mode On Diabetes Mellitus.

Insulin sources and types: a review of insulin in terms of its mode on diabetes mellitus. Insulin is involved in regulation of glucose utilization in the body. Inability of the body to synthesize insulin of human cells resistance to insulin leads to a condition called Diabetes mellitus which is characterized by chronic hyperglycaemia. There are two types of diabetes; type 1 and type 2. Exogenous supply of insulin is needed consistently for type 1 diabetes treatment and type 2 diabetes also needs to be cured by the exogenous supply of insulin in advance stages of the disease. These sources have been proved very useful to meet the needs of the patients. However, these insulin types are expensive for the large population of patients in the developing countries. Furthermore, the incidence of diabetes is advancing at an alarming rate. Hence production systems with even higher capabilities of production are desired. Therefore, currently plants are being investigated as alternative production systems. Based on the mode of action of insulin various formulations of insulin have been developed that have different onset of action, peak effect and duration of action according to the needs of the patients. Continue reading >>

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