diabetestalk.net

What Type Of Insulin Is Prozinc?

Insulin For Cats

Insulin For Cats

Most diabetic cats will require insulin therapy as part of their treatment. Diet is also an important cornerstone of treatment for feline diabetes mellitus, and a few diabetic cats can be managed with diet alone, but the majority will require insulin. There are a variety of types of insulin available. Some are designed for human use but can be useful in pets, while others have been developed specifically for animal use. The natural insulins produced by cat and dog pancreatic cells have slightly different structures than the natural insulin produced by human pancreatic cells. Insulin types made for human use match the natural human insulin, and may not always be as effective in pets. With any insulin, the goal of treatment is to safely reduce or eliminate the symptoms of diabetes (weight loss with excessive thirst, urination and appetite). There is no ‘best’ insulin for all cats, but some are preferable to others. Many veterinary internal medicine specialists recommend glargine (Lantus®, made by Sanofi Aventis) as a first-line choice. Lantus® is a recombinant human insulin which is usually very effective in cats. In combination with an appropriate diet (canned cat food with less than 7% carbohydrates), glargine has the best chance of inducing a remission, meaning that the cat will no longer require insulin. Lantus® is typically dosed at 1 or 2 units twice daily (BID). In some cats it can be used once daily. Once daily administration is not as likely to induce remission—and won’t control the blood sugar very tightly—but is an option for families or cats who can’t do twice daily injections. The glargine product information for human use recommends replacing the vial every 28 days, but if kept refrigerated, the insulin is effective for cats for at least three Continue reading >>

Insulin Administration In The Cat

Insulin Administration In The Cat

BEGINNERS INSULIN ADMINISTRATION GUIDE FOR CATS INSULIN Insulin is the injectable medication you will be using to control your diabetic cat’s blood sugar. The goal is maintaining blood sugar levels in an acceptable range over the course of the day with once or twice a day dosing (usually twice.) Keeping the sugars in the proper range will control the excessive urination and appetite that your cat suffers from and it will require some trial and error experimentation to get the correct dose. A dose will be selected based on what research has shown to be a good starting point, and after a couple of weeks your cat will return for a glucose “curve” where blood sugar levels will be mapped out over the course of a 10-24 hour period. The curve will show if the insulin is lasting long enough and if the dose should be raised, lowered, or kept the same. Alternatively, you can learn how to monitor your cat’s blood glucose levels yourself (click here for more information) but if you are a beginner you may want to master giving the injections before moving on to actually taking blood samples. Insulin is a very simple molecule but it does differ slightly between species (i.e., cat insulin is different from dog insulin which is different from human insulin). There are presently four insulins commonly in use for cats: Vetsulin (also marketed as “Caninsulin®” in other countries), PZI insulin (presently available as Prozinc® insulin), Lantus® insulin (also called Glargine insulin), and Humulin (genetically engineered human insulin available in several formulations with different duration of action). Vetsulin is of pork origin, which is handy for dogs because canine and pork insulin are identical. Vetsulin can also be used in cats, although feline insulin is closer in struct Continue reading >>

Update On Insulin Treatment For Dogs And Cats: Insulin Dosing Pens And More

Update On Insulin Treatment For Dogs And Cats: Insulin Dosing Pens And More

Authors Thompson A, Lathan P, Fleeman L Accepted for publication 19 February 2015 Checked for plagiarism Yes Peer reviewer comments 3 1School of Veterinary Science, The University of Queensland, Gatton, QLD, Australia; 2College of Veterinary Medicine Mississippi State University, Starkville, MS, USA; 3Animal Diabetes Australia, Melbourne, VIC, Australia Abstract: Insulin therapy is still the primary therapy for all diabetic dogs and cats. Several insulin options are available for each species, including veterinary registered products and human insulin preparations. The insulin chosen depends on the individual patient's requirements. Intermediate-acting insulin is usually the first choice for dogs, and longer-acting insulin is the first choice for cats. Once the insulin type is chosen, the best method of insulin administration should be considered. Traditionally, insulin vials and syringes have been used, but insulin pen devices have recently entered the veterinary market. Pens have different handling requirements when compared with standard insulin vials including: storage out of the refrigerator for some insulin preparations once pen cartridges are in use; priming of the pen to ensure a full dose of insulin is administered; and holding the pen device in place for several seconds during the injection. Many different types of pen devices are available, with features such as half-unit dosing, large dials for visually impaired people, and memory that can display the last time and dose of insulin administered. Insulin pens come in both reusable and disposable options. Pens have several benefits over syringes, including improved dose accuracy, especially for low insulin doses. Keywords: diabetes, mellitus, canine, feline, NPH, glargine, porcine lente Introduction Insulin the Continue reading >>

Specific Insulin Info & Dosing Scales

Specific Insulin Info & Dosing Scales

There are many kinds of insulin available to use for our FD cats. Some perform much better than others and each has its idiosyncrasies. Sometimes we will have a choice when it comes to which insulin is prescribed by our vets; sometimes we won't. Whatever insulin, all insulin types have been proven to work with TR. The insulin types addressed in this sticky are PZI (compounded, ProZinc and Hypurin), Lantus, Levemir, NPH (Humulin N), Caninsulin/Vetsulin, please scroll down to for information on the specific insulin. It is advised to start TR / Insulin when you are available to monitor your cat’s BG frequently by performing frequent testing and/or curves for the first few days until you know how your cat processes their insulin. One of the important premises TR is built on is maintaining overlap between doses – meaning that the remnants of the prior shot are still working to keep the BG from rising very high, while the next shot approaches onset (when the insulin starts to work). Different insulin types have different durations -experienced members on forum will help guide you through the process of understanding the nuances of the insulin you are using to get maximum results. Insulin should be stored in the fridge at all times, in a protected spot on a less-used shelf, in a sturdy, padded container where it will not get knocked over. Do not store insulin on the door of your fridge to avoid excess jostling. Practicing TR we handle our insulin more often than when dosing twice a day. Handling your insulin gently and with care will prolong potency considerably. Dr. Hodgkins' Tight Regulation protocol was developed for use with bovine based PZI insulin but it has been proven over time that many insulin types work very well with TR. Please scroll down this page for explana Continue reading >>

What's The Best Insulin For Diabetic Cats And Dogs?

What's The Best Insulin For Diabetic Cats And Dogs?

With the reintroduction of Vetsulin (porcine insulin zinc suspension) to the U.S. market (1-3), I've received a number of questions concerning the use of this insulin in dogs and cats. Here are the major questions I've received: Is this the initial insulin of choice for dogs? How about for cats? Should this be an insulin that we turn to for our newly diagnosed feline diabetics? If we have a dog or cat that isn't responding well to the current insulin, should they be switched to Vetsulin? How will this insulin compare to NPH, glargine (Lantus), detemir (Levemir), or PZI (ProZinc) in cats or dogs? How does the cost compare to these other insulin preparations? Is this the initial insulin of choice for dogs? In my opinion, the answer to that is yes, this is the initial insulin of choice for most dogs. Because it's composed of both short and long-acting insulin components, Vetsulin helps control postprandial hyperglycemia and has a longer duration of action than NPH in most dogs (4-7). The cost is approximately the same as NPH, but less than the insulin analogues (e.g., detemir and glargine). See more below, where I do my cost-comparisons for the various insulin preparations. Is this the initial insulin of choice for cats? A number of studies have proven that Vetsulin will certainly control hyperglycemia in cats, especially if combined with a low carbohydrate diet (<10% of calories) (8-11). However, the duration of action may be too short in some diabetic cats, and most feel that the longer acting insulin preparations (glargine, detemir or ProZinc) work better to maintain better control of hyperglycemia in cats (11-13). Of course, maintaining glycemic control throughout the day is more important if diabetic remission is the goal (13,15,16)— if not, Vetsulin might be less e Continue reading >>

Prozinc

Prozinc

This page contains information on ProZinc for veterinary use. The information provided typically includes the following: ProZinc Indications Warnings and cautions for ProZinc Direction and dosage information for ProZinc ProZinc This treatment applies to the following species: Cats Manufacturer: Boehringer Ingelheim (protamine zinc recombinant human insulin) NADA 141-297, Approved by FDA ProZinc Caution Federal law restricts this drug to use by or on the order of a licensed veterinarian. Description ProZinc® insulin is a sterile aqueous protamine zinc suspension of recombinant human insulin. Each mL contains: recombinant human insulin 40 International Units (IU) protamine sulfate 0.466 mg zinc oxide 0.088 mg glycerin 16.00 mg dibasic sodium phosphate, heptahydrate 3.78 mg phenol (added as preservative) 2.50 mg hydrochloric acid 1.63 mg water for injection (maximum) 1005 mg pH is adjusted with hydrochloric acid and/or sodium hydroxide. ProZinc Indications ProZinc (protamine zinc recombinant human insulin) is indicated for the reduction of hyperglycemia and hyperglycemia-associated clinical signs in cats with diabetes mellitus. Dosage and Administration USE OF A SYRINGE OTHER THAN A U-40 SYRINGE WILL RESULT IN INCORRECT DOSING. FOR SUBCUTANEOUS INJECTION IN CATS ONLY. DO NOT SHAKE OR AGITATE THE VIAL. ProZinc insulin should be mixed by gently rolling the vial prior to withdrawing each dose from the vial. Once mixed, ProZinc suspension has a white, cloudy appearance. Clumps or visible white particles can form in insulin suspensions: do not use the product if clumps or visible white particles persist after gently rolling the vial. Using a U-40 insulin syringe, the injection should be administered subcutaneously on the back of the neck or on the side of the cat. Always provi Continue reading >>

Cat Insulin | Ask The Cat Doctor

Cat Insulin | Ask The Cat Doctor

Cat insulin is a frustrating topic. Cat diabetes has practically become an epidemic in the U.S. for many of the same reasons adult onset diabetes in people has risen dramatically - obesity and, in the case of cats, a diet that is too rich in carbohydrates. However, unlike human diabetes who have many different types of insulin to chose from, the selection of insulin for cats has a history of being mainly unsatisfactory. That's because most insulin is made for people and when insulin is made specifically for animals, it has traditionally been directed at dogs. When it comes to insulin, a cat's own natural insulin is most like beef insulin. Cats have also been successfully treated using beef-pork insulin because it is 10 percent pork and 90 percent beef. Unfortunately, I have seen such types of insulin that are most appropriate for cats come and go over the last 20 years. Just as a patient would get well-regulated on one type of insulin, it would be discontinued and we would have to start a different type. It has been a frustrating situation. That's not to say that you cannot treat your diabetic cat successfully with insulin. Currently, due to a lack of animal-source insulins, most cats are started on human recombinant insulin. Even in the field of human insulin where there have been dozens of different insulins available, so many have been discontinued - it's enough to make your head spin. At the moment, there is an insulin developed just for cats. It's called PROZINC. Will it still be around a year from now? Who knows. Is it the best insulin? No. Does it work well in all cats? No. For that reason, your veterinarian will discuss with you the available types of insulin if your cat is diagnosed with diabetes and he will, no doubt, have his own preference. ProZinc stands f Continue reading >>

Insulin Products Commonly Used In Dogs And Cats

Insulin Products Commonly Used In Dogs And Cats

Abbreviations: BG, blood glucose; NPH, Neutral Protamine Hagedorn; PZI, protamine zinc insulin; U, units. Additional Information on Available Insulin Products: Lente (U-40 porcine insulin zinc suspension; Vetsulin, Merck Animal Health) is an intermediate-acting insulin commonly used by the Task Force in dogs. It is FDA approved for use in dogs and cats. It has a close to 12 hr duration of action in most dogs and is useful for minimizing postprandial hyperglycemia. Glargine (U-100 human recombinant; Lantus, Sanofi) is a longer-acting insulin commonly used by the Task Force in cats because it has an adequate duration of action in most diabetic cats. Several studies have demonstrated that glargine is effective for controlling blood sugar levels in diabetic cats and achieving high remission rates.12 Glargine can also be used in dogs. It is a human analog insulin with modifications that provide variable solubility at different pHs. Glargine is soluble at a pH of 4.0, the pH at which it is supplied and stored, but in the neutral pH of the body’s blood or subcutaneous tissues it forms microprecipitates, facilitating slow absorption after injection. This results in rapid onset and long duration of action. Glargine is sometimes described as a “peakless” insulin, although peakless does not mean an absence of a nadir in cats but rather refers to glucose utilization rates.4 In dogs, a flat blood glucose curve (BGC) may be seen, so glargine can be referred to as a peakless insulin in that species.13 PZI (U-40 human recombinant protamine zinc insulin; ProZinc, Boehringer Ingelheim Animal Health) is considered by clinicians as a long-acting insulin, and is FDA approved for use in cats. In field studies in cats, mean time of the BG nadir was between 5 and 7 hr and the duration of Continue reading >>

Diabetes In Pets

Diabetes In Pets

Various types of veterinary insulins are known as PZI, "Protamine Zinc Insulin" . The ones we use most often for animals are a combination pork/beef-derived insulin or a beef-derived insulin. Because most are veterinary insulins, PZIs are not available at normal human pharmacies. The only PZI insulin still available for people is CP Pharma's Hypurin Bovine Protamine Zinc and it must be imported from the UK. PZI veterinary insulins are intermediate-acting to long-acting, and can be closer in molecular structure to a cat or dog's own insulin than human-type or analog insulins. Veterinary PZI is a particularly good insulin type for cats. PZI is rarely used in dogs but is considered when other insulins are not effective[1]. NB:Animal-source insulins are becoming harder to make now, and PZIVet's recent discontinuation (see below) is likely the first in a tragic series that will make porcine and bovine-source insulins rare. We can hope that new GM insulins will shortly be introduced to make up the gap.In the meantime the alternatives include these other PZI insulins, and of course the human GM analogs Levemir and Lantus. PZI itself was introduced in 1936; it was the first insulin having any type of suspension. Before PZI, the only insulin available was R/Neutral, having no additives to alter or extend its action. Until then, many with diabetes had to get up during the night to take an insulin injection because R/Neutral did not last long enough for an uninterrupted night's sleep[2] . Cats tend to do well on PZI insulins. A 2001 study by Dr. Richard Nelson[4][5] showed that 75% of previously treated hard-to-regulate cats did well with the insulin. He goes on to saythat most cats do require PZI twice daily. The other 25% of tested cats did not reach peak with PZI insulin until Continue reading >>

Insulin Therapy In Cats (proceedings)

Insulin Therapy In Cats (proceedings)

123Next Few diseases are as frustrating for a veterinarian as diabetes mellitus. Realistically, control of hyperglycemia is rarely accomplished, and clinical signs of diabetes often persist. The landscape is changing in feline diabetes, however, and as clinicians learn more about new insulin preparations, diets, and treatment monitoring strategies, cats with diabetes may be better controlled. Insulin Therapy There are many different types of insulin that vary with species of origin and with chemical modifications and formulations that affect onset and duration of action. Unfortunately, no feline insulin formulation is currently available, so human, bovine, or porcine insulin are used in treating diabetic cats. Data concerning the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of insulin in the cat are difficult to interpret. Most published studies have been conducted in normal cats, and some have been done in cats with diabetes. In either case, it is difficult to determine the effects of endogenous vs. exogenous insulin. Determinations of potency, time to peak activity and duration of activity, factors that influence choice of doses and dosing intervals, vary widely from cat to cat. In fact, there is no reasonable way to predict the kinetics of an given insulin preparation in any given patient. The most commonly used insulin preparations in cats are Regular insulin (Humulin-R™ ), NPH insulin (Humulin-N™ ), porcine lente insulins (Vetsulin™ ), PZI, Insulin glargine (Lantus™ ), and insulin detemir (Levemir™ ). Regular insulin is not used for chronic treatment of diabetes in cats, but is commonly used in the treatment of diabetic ketoacidosis. NPH, PZI, and Lente NPH is considered an intermediate-acting insulin, and is available as a human recombinant product. NPH is used Continue reading >>

Sticky - Beginners Guide To Prozinc/ Pzi Insulin For Diabetic Cats | Feline Diabetes Message Board - Fdmb

Sticky - Beginners Guide To Prozinc/ Pzi Insulin For Diabetic Cats | Feline Diabetes Message Board - Fdmb

It really did "take a village" to create this Guide. Many thanks to this great team of co-writers/editors: AbyResq, Bobbie And Bubba, Carol & Murphy, Elizabeth and Bertie, Jeff J, MrWorfMensMom, Rachel, Robin&BB, Ruby & Baco, Sharon14, Sue and Oliver and Tuxedo Mom. FEELING OVERWHELMED? BEWILDERED? WERE HERE TO HELP! Were all in this together: You came here because you love your cat; we love our cats, too. Our common bond in this forum is diabetic cats who are getting Prozinc or PZI insulin. Welcome! It can be challenging to treat diabetes in a cat, so whether youre giving that first shot, or figuring out which food is best, were right here with you. This guide was developed to help you get started. You are also welcome to open a new thread/ topic on the forum. Chances are youll get some answers within a few hours. Everyone here was once a newbie at treating a beloved kittys diabetes. So whether youre feeling shocked, sad or even scared since your own cats diagnosis, we understand because weve all been there. Right now it may seem like Feline Diabetes (FD) is an awfully steep learning curve to master - and thats why weve developed this guide to ProZinc/PZI: To equip you with the basics to help you safely treat your cats diabetes. Yes, theres a learning curve involved, and treatment is more of a marathon than a sprint. It requires what we call "The 3 Cs": Commitment: To learning how to more effectively treat feline diabetes and keep your kitty safe while on insulin. (Youll likely end up better educated about FD than some veterinarians are!) Consistency: By diligently applying the time-tested treatment and monitoring practices explained here, youll be on your way to getting your cats blood glucose better regulated and restoring your favorite, lovable fur-ball to good hea Continue reading >>

Feline Diabetes

Feline Diabetes

Definition: Diabetes mellitus is an endocrine disease in which the blood sugar level rises because of failure of insulin to control it. This occurs either because the pancreas has lost its ability to manufacture insulin (known as Type I diabetes) or that mechanisms of insulin release and tissue responsiveness are dysfunctional (Type II diabetes). Without proper insulin regulation, the body is unable to transport glucose (a simple sugar obtained from digested food) into cells. Because glucose remains trapped in the bloodstream, the tissues of the body are deprived of the energy needed to function normally. Risk factors: In many cases, the cause for why a cat has developed diabetes cannot be determined. However, it is known that obesity predisposes cats for Type II diabetes. Other causes or factors include: damage to the pancreas caused by inflammation, infection, immune mediated disease, tumors, genetic predisposition, and exposure to certain drugs. Cats receiving steroids are also predisposed to diabetes. Symptoms: The most common symptoms of diabetes are weight loss (often with a healthy appetite), excessive water consumption and excessive urine output. Because so much urine is being produced, some diabetic cats will urinate in unusual places (i.e., outside of the litter box). Owners may notice that litter has suddenly begun to stick to their cat’s paws because of the excess volume of urine being produced. Some cats will also show weakness, lethargy, vomiting, abnormal gait, poor grooming habits and changes in behavior. Diagnosis: Physical examination may show poor body condition, dehydration, jaundice, and an enlarged liver. Laboratory testing is essential to diagnose diabetes. Blood tests show hyperglycemia (high blood sugar, usually above 300 mg/dl), and often the Continue reading >>

What Insulin Costs The Least?

What Insulin Costs The Least?

Quick. Which costs less? A 10ml vial of U40 ProZinc for $120 (current pricing with shipping from Allivet) or a 10ml vial of U100 Lantus for $270 (current pricing from my local US Walgreen’s Pharmacy, before any discount program or card)? Yes, you are right that Lantus is the right answer. That is because looking only at the price per vial can be misleading because the same sizes of U40 and U100 insulin contain different volumes of insulin. A 10ml vial of U40 insulin contains 400 units. A 10ml vial of U100 insulin contains 1,000 units. The U40 ProZinc for $120 costs $.30 a unit. The U100 Lantus costs $.27 a unit. And in my experience and observation, an insulin-dependent cat doesn’t use significantly more units of one type of insulin vs. another, so pricing based on the unit cost is a reasonable measure. But there are ways to get Lantus much less expensively than full price at a retail pharmacy. See my earlier blog post at I have bought Lantus insulin in Solostar pens from Craigslist sellers twice in the past two weeks for $.033 a unit. $50 for a box of five pens, plus I had to have a local friend pick them up for me and I will have to have them mailed in the spring, which might cost another $20. That will bring the cost to $.046 a unit. That’s even more below the $.30 a unit for ProZinc. Yes, it can be scary to buy from a Craigslist seller. DCIN has document of dos and don’ts about dealing with a Craigslist seller at There have been times I have walked away from a Craigslist seller because it didn’t feel right. But many more times, I have (both in person and through friends) felt very comfortable with the person offering the insulin as s/he just lost her/his diabetic parent, sibling, or spouse. And sometimes these sellers turn out to be animal lovers and sell Continue reading >>

Which Insulin In Cats? - Wsava 2014 Congress - Vin

Which Insulin In Cats? - Wsava 2014 Congress - Vin

World Small Animal Veterinary Association World Congress Proceedings, 2014 Clinic for Small Animal Internal Medicine, Zrich, Switzerland The administration of insulin is the most important part of the treatment regimen in diabetic cats and should be initiated as soon as possible after the diagnosis is established. In the last two decades, the development of insulin for human use has undergone revolutionary changes, which have had important implications in veterinary medicine. First, insulins derived from animal sources are being replaced by recombinant human preparations and will eventually disappear from the market. Although there are differences in the amino acid sequences, human insulins (and their analogues) are fortunately biologically active in cats. Second, insulin preparations for human use containing 40 IU/ml have largely been replaced by 100 IU/ml insulins. It is important that owners understand the difference, because two insulin preparations for veterinary use (Caninsulin/Vetsulin and ProZinc) are supplied as 40 IU/ml and using the wrong syringe size would lead to substantial dosing errors. Third, new classes of insulins called insulin analogues have been developed. They were designed to improve the pharmacodynamic properties of insulin and render insulin absorption or insulin delivery to tissues more predictable. Insulin preparations are classified as short-acting, intermediate- and long-acting and so-called premixed or biphasic insulins. Intermediate- and long-acting preparations are used for long-term control of cats with uncomplicated diabetes. The longer duration of action is achieved by slowing the rate of absorption from the subcutaneous tissue. Delayed absorption is due either to the addition of substances that are virtually inert and do not have th Continue reading >>

Keys To Management Of Diabetes In Cats - Wsava2011 - Vin

Keys To Management Of Diabetes In Cats - Wsava2011 - Vin

World Small Animal Veterinary Association World Congress Proceedings, 2011 Diabetes mellitus is one of the top two endocrinopathies in cats, with a prevalence estimated to be approximately 0.5% of cats seen in private practice. Successful management of diabetic cats involves insulin and dietary therapy, avoidance of corticosteroids if possible, and management of infections or concurrent diseases. As well, regular monitoring and client education are important. The goals of management are to: Enable the cat to revert to a non-insulin dependent state Minimize or eliminate clinical signs (polyuria, polydipsia, polyphagia) Improve the cat's quality of life, normalize body weight and activity Prevent complications (e.g., ketoacidosis, hypoglycemia, infections, neuropathy, etc.) Owners must be properly trained to give insulin injections and educated on the important aspects of the disease in cats. All owners need to assess how well their cat is eating, drinking and general behavior. With early intervention and good glycemic control, diabetic remission was achieved in 84100% of cats in two recent studies. The sooner glycemic control is reached, the higher the likelihood that diabetic remission can be achieved. Current recommendations support the use of a high protein (> 30% DM), low carbohydrate (< 40% DM) diet for management of feline diabetes. Several studies have demonstrated an improvement in blood glucose (BG) levels and a decreased need for insulin therapy on this type of diet. Canned food is preferred in diabetic cats to maintain hydration, lower carbohydrate content, and improve satiety. Both long-acting (e.g., glargine, determir, PZI) and intermediate-acting (e.g., porcine lente) products are available for treatment of diabetic cats (see Table 1). Most insulins are 10 Continue reading >>

More in diabetes