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What Triggers The Onset Of Type 1 Diabetes?

Type 1 Diabetes: Causes And Symptoms

Type 1 Diabetes: Causes And Symptoms

While type 2 diabetes is often preventable, type 1 diabetes mellitus is not.1 Type 1 diabetes is an autoimmune disease in which the immune system destroys cells in the pancreas. Typically, the disease first appears in childhood or early adulthood. Type 1 diabetes used to be known as juvenile-onset diabetes or insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM), but the disease can have an onset at any age.2 Type 1 diabetes makes up around 5% of all cases of diabetes.3,4 What is type 1 diabetes? In type 1 diabetes, the pancreas is unable to produce any insulin, the hormone that controls blood sugar levels.2,3 Insulin production becomes inadequate for the control of blood glucose levels due to the gradual destruction of beta cells in the pancreas. This destruction progresses without notice over time until the mass of these cells decreases to the extent that the amount of insulin produced is insufficient.2 Type 1 diabetes typically appears in childhood or adolescence, but its onset is also possible in adulthood.2 When it develops later in life, type 1 diabetes can be mistaken initially for type 2 diabetes. Correctly diagnosed, it is known as latent autoimmune diabetes of adulthood.2 Causes of type 1 diabetes The gradual destruction of beta cells in the pancreas that eventually results in the onset of type 1 diabetes is the result of autoimmune destruction. The immune system turning against the body's own cells is possibly triggered by an environmental factor exposed to people who have a genetic susceptibility.2 Although the mechanisms of type 1 diabetes etiology are unclear, they are thought to involve the interaction of multiple factors:2 Susceptibility genes - some of which are carried by over 90% of patients with type 1 diabetes. Some populations - Scandinavians and Sardinians, Continue reading >>

On The Etiology Of Type 1 Diabetes

On The Etiology Of Type 1 Diabetes

A New Animal Model Signifying a Decisive Role for Bacteria Eliciting an Adverse Innate Immunity Response Department of Immunology, Genetics, and Pathology, Rudbeck Laboratory, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden Department of Medical Sciences, Section of Clinical Microbiology, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden Division of Transplantation, Surgical Hospital, Helsinki University, Helsinki, Finland Division of Transplantation Surgery, CLINTEC, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden Address reprint requests to Olle Korsgren, M.D., Ph.D., Department of Immunology, Genetics, and Pathology, Uppsala University, SE-751 85 Uppsala, Sweden [email protected] Copyright 2012 American Society for Investigative Pathology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. This document may be redistributed and reused, subject to certain conditions . This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. The cause of type 1 diabetes (T1D) remains unknown; however, a decisive role for environmental factors is recognized. The increased incidence of T1D during the last decades, as well as regional differences, is paralleled by differences in the intestinal bacterial flora. A new animal model was established to test the hypothesis that bacteria entering the pancreatic ductal system could trigger -cell destruction and to provide new insights to the immunopathology of the disease. Obtained findings were compared with those present in two patients dying at onset of T1D. Different bacterial species, present in the human duodenum, instilled into the ductal system of the pancreas in healthy rats rapidly induced cellular infiltration, consisting of mainly neutrophil polymorphonuclear cells and monocytes/macrophages, centered around the pancreatic ducts. Also, the islets of Langerhans attract Continue reading >>

Type 1 Diabetes

Type 1 Diabetes

happens when your immune system destroys cells in your pancreas called beta cells. They’re the ones that make insulin. Some people get a condition called secondary diabetes. It’s similar to type 1, except the immune system doesn’t destroy your beta cells. They’re wiped out by something else, like a disease or an injury to your pancreas. Insulin is a hormone that helps move sugar, or glucose, into your body's tissues. Cells use it as fuel. Damage to beta cells from type 1 diabetes throws the process off. Glucose doesn’t move into your cells because insulin isn’t there to do it. Instead it builds up in your blood and your cells starve. This causes high blood sugar, which can lead to: Dehydration. When there’s extra sugar in your blood, you pee more. That’s your body’s way of getting rid of it. A large amount of water goes out with that urine, causing your body to dry out. Weight loss. The glucose that goes out when you pee takes calories with it. That’s why many people with high blood sugar lose weight. Dehydration also plays a part. Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA). If your body can't get enough glucose for fuel, it breaks down fat cells instead. This creates chemicals called ketones. Your liver releases the sugar it stores to help out. But your body can’t use it without insulin, so it builds up in your blood, along with the acidic ketones. This combination of extra glucose, dehydration, and acid buildup is known as "ketoacidosis" and can be life-threatening if not treated right away. Damage to your body. Over time, high glucose levels in your blood can harm the nerves and small blood vessels in your eyes, kidneys, and heart. They can also make you more likely to get hardening of the arteries, or atherosclerosis, which can lead to heart attacks and strok Continue reading >>

Symptoms & Causes Of Diabetes

Symptoms & Causes Of Diabetes

What are the symptoms of diabetes? Symptoms of diabetes include increased thirst and urination increased hunger fatigue blurred vision numbness or tingling in the feet or hands sores that do not heal unexplained weight loss Symptoms of type 1 diabetes can start quickly, in a matter of weeks. Symptoms of type 2 diabetes often develop slowly—over the course of several years—and can be so mild that you might not even notice them. Many people with type 2 diabetes have no symptoms. Some people do not find out they have the disease until they have diabetes-related health problems, such as blurred vision or heart trouble. What causes type 1 diabetes? Type 1 diabetes occurs when your immune system, the body’s system for fighting infection, attacks and destroys the insulin-producing beta cells of the pancreas. Scientists think type 1 diabetes is caused by genes and environmental factors, such as viruses, that might trigger the disease. Studies such as TrialNet are working to pinpoint causes of type 1 diabetes and possible ways to prevent or slow the disease. What causes type 2 diabetes? Type 2 diabetes—the most common form of diabetes—is caused by several factors, including lifestyle factors and genes. Overweight, obesity, and physical inactivity You are more likely to develop type 2 diabetes if you are not physically active and are overweight or obese. Extra weight sometimes causes insulin resistance and is common in people with type 2 diabetes. The location of body fat also makes a difference. Extra belly fat is linked to insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes, and heart and blood vessel disease. To see if your weight puts you at risk for type 2 diabetes, check out these Body Mass Index (BMI) charts. Insulin resistance Type 2 diabetes usually begins with insulin resista Continue reading >>

New Theory About The Cause Of Type 1 Diabetes

New Theory About The Cause Of Type 1 Diabetes

The immune system mistakenly identifying insulin-secreting beta cells as a potential danger and, in turn, destroying them has long been considered the root cause of type 1 diabetes. Now, an international team of researchers led by City of Hope’s Bart Roep, Ph.D., the Chan Soon-Shiong Shapiro Distinguished Chair in Diabetes and professor/founding chair of the Department of Diabetes Immunology, has been able to justify a new theory about the cause of type 1 diabetes through experimental work. The study results were published online yesterday in the journal Nature Medicine. Type 1 diabetes affects an estimated 1.5 million Americans and is the result of the loss of insulin-producing beta cells in the pancreas. Now Roep, along with researchers from the Leiden University Medical Center in the Netherlands, have found a mechanism in which stressed beta cells are actually causing the immune response that leads to type 1 diabetes. “Our findings show that type 1 diabetes results from a mistake of the beta cell, not a mistake of the immune system,” said Roep, who is director of The Wanek Family Project for Type 1 Diabetes, which was recently created with gifts from the Wanek family and anonymous donors to support the institution’s goal of curing type 1 diabetes in six years. “The immune system does what it is supposed to do, which is respond to distressed or ‘unhappy’ tissue, as it would in infection or cancer.” In order to gain a better understanding of why the immune system attacks the body’s own source of insulin — the pancreatic beta cells in the islets of Langerhans — the team took some clues from cancer molecules that are targeted by the immune system after successful treatment of the cancer with immunotherapy. One of these cancer targets is a so-called Continue reading >>

The Root Cause Of Type 1 Diabetes Could Be A Common Childhood Viral Infection

The Root Cause Of Type 1 Diabetes Could Be A Common Childhood Viral Infection

A young child becomes very thirsty very often and seems tired all the time. A visit to the pediatrician determines she has type 1 diabetes. The onset of type 1 diabetes may seem sudden, and it can be, but the disease may actually have been triggered by common childhood viruses years earlier. Type 1 diabetes—also called diabetes mellitus—was previously called juvenile-onset diabetes because most people affected with this disease are diagnosed as children and young adults. It isn't the most common form of diabetes and only 5% of people with diabetes have type 1. That doesn't make it any less serious—in fact, it can be a life-threatening disease. When we eat something, our body converts carbohydrates and starches in the food into sugar (glucose), which is then processed by our bodies to either be used or stored for later. People with type 1 diabetes have trouble keeping their blood sugar level even: It spikes when they eat something and goes very low if they don't. That's because their pancreas doesn't make insulin, the hormone that in a healthy human moves glucose from the blood into cells where it can be used for energy, keeping it from spiking after eating. Type 1 diabetics must constantly monitor their blood sugar and take insulin to keep their levels within a normal range to keep this process running. Type 1 diabetes is an autoimmune disease, a disease where the body forms antibodies to itself and attacks parts of its own body. In this case, antibodies are formed to the insulin-producing beta cells in the pancreas and destroys them. Experts believe type 1 diabetes may be caused by a genetic risk factors and environmental factors, including viruses. A viral link to type 1 diabetes is one of the findings in a new study led by Hanna Honkanen and Heikki Hyöty in th Continue reading >>

Type 1 Diabetes

Type 1 Diabetes

Print Overview Type 1 diabetes, once known as juvenile diabetes or insulin-dependent diabetes, is a chronic condition in which the pancreas produces little or no insulin. Insulin is a hormone needed to allow sugar (glucose) to enter cells to produce energy. Different factors, including genetics and some viruses, may contribute to type 1 diabetes. Although type 1 diabetes usually appears during childhood or adolescence, it can develop in adults. Despite active research, type 1 diabetes has no cure. Treatment focuses on managing blood sugar levels with insulin, diet and lifestyle to prevent complications. Symptoms Type 1 diabetes signs and symptoms can appear relatively suddenly and may include: Increased thirst Frequent urination Bed-wetting in children who previously didn't wet the bed during the night Extreme hunger Unintended weight loss Irritability and other mood changes Fatigue and weakness Blurred vision When to see a doctor Consult your doctor if you notice any of the above signs and symptoms in you or your child. Causes The exact cause of type 1 diabetes is unknown. Usually, the body's own immune system — which normally fights harmful bacteria and viruses — mistakenly destroys the insulin-producing (islet, or islets of Langerhans) cells in the pancreas. Other possible causes include: Genetics Exposure to viruses and other environmental factors The role of insulin Once a significant number of islet cells are destroyed, you'll produce little or no insulin. Insulin is a hormone that comes from a gland situated behind and below the stomach (pancreas). The pancreas secretes insulin into the bloodstream. Insulin circulates, allowing sugar to enter your cells. Insulin lowers the amount of sugar in your bloodstream. As your blood sugar level drops, so does the secre Continue reading >>

What Causes Type 1 Diabetes?

What Causes Type 1 Diabetes?

T1D has genetic, environmental and immune components Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is an autoimmune disease in which a person’s pancreas stops producing insulin, a hormone that controls blood-sugar levels. T1D develops when the body’s immune system mistakenly attacks the cells in the pancreas that produce insulin, called beta cells. Research is underway to find out what causes T1D—and how to stop it—but we already know that there are multiple components in play. Genes and family history Certain genes increase a person’s risk of developing T1D, as does family history. If you have a relative with T1D, your risk of developing it is 1 in 20, which is 15 times greater than the general population. The genetic coding that puts you at higher risk for T1D is in a large part related to your body’s immune response. Environmental triggers Although genes are important in determining risk, they aren’t the whole story. Environmental factors, such as viruses, may trigger T1D in people who are genetically at risk. Scientists believe that certain viruses may target beta cells, and as the immune response ramps up to fight those viruses, it goes awry and attacks uninfected beta cells by mistake. Immune response Once T1D is triggered, biochemical signs of the immune attack on beta cells can be detected. These signs, called autoantibodies, appear well before T1D symptoms do. As the immune attack continues and more beta cells are destroyed, insulin production decreases and blood-sugar levels become abnormal. Eventually, so many beta cells are destroyed, and insulin production drops so low, that symptoms of T1D appear. What doesn’t cause T1D? Onset of T1D has nothing to do with diet or lifestyle. Today, there is nothing you can do to prevent it or get rid of it. But JDRF is working to Continue reading >>

What Is Type 1 Diabetes?

What Is Type 1 Diabetes?

Type 1 diabetes is a chronic disease. In type 1 diabetes cells in the pancreas that make insulin are destroyed, and the body is unable to make insulin. Insulin is a hormone that helps your body’s cells use a natural sugar called glucose for energy. Your body obtains glucose from the food you eat. Insulin allows the glucose to pass from your blood into your body’s cells. Your liver and muscle tissues store extra glucose, also called blood sugar. It’s released when you need extra energy, such as between meals, when you exercise, or when you sleep. In diabetes mellitus type 1 the body is unable to process glucose due to a lack of insulin. This causes elevated blood sugar levels and can cause both short-term and long-term problems. Learn more: Defining 3 early stages of type 1 diabetes » The exact cause of type 1 diabetes is unknown. However, it is thought to be an autoimmune disease. The body’s immune system mistakenly attacks beta cells in the pancreas. These are the cells that make insulin. It’s also unknown why the immune system attacks beta cells. Risk factors for type 1 diabetes are poorly understood. However, some factors have been tentatively identified. Family history Family history may be important in some cases of type 1 diabetes. If you have a family member with type 1 diabetes, your risk of developing increases. Several genes have been tentatively linked to this condition. However, not everyone who is at risk for type 1 diabetes develops the condition. Many believe there must be some type of trigger that causes type 1 diabetes to develop. These could include: Race Race may be a risk factor for type 1 diabetes. It is more common in white individuals than in people of other races. The following are symptoms of type 1 diabetes: excessive hunger excessiv Continue reading >>

Type 1 Diabetes

Type 1 Diabetes

Type 1 diabetes can occur at any age. It is most often diagnosed in children, adolescents, or young adults. Insulin is a hormone produced in the pancreas by special cells, called beta cells. The pancreas is below and behind the stomach. Insulin is needed to move blood sugar (glucose) into cells. Inside the cells, glucose is stored and later used for energy. With type 1 diabetes, beta cells produce little or no insulin. Without enough insulin, glucose builds up in the bloodstream instead of going into the cells. This buildup of glucose in the blood is called hyperglycemia. The body is unable to use the glucose for energy. This leads to the symptoms of type 1 diabetes. The exact cause of type 1 diabetes is unknown. Most likely, it is an autoimmune disorder. This is a condition that occurs when the immune system mistakenly attacks and destroys healthy body tissue. With type 1 diabetes, an infection or another trigger causes the body to mistakenly attack the cells in the pancreas that make insulin. The tendency to develop autoimmune diseases, including type 1 diabetes, can be passed down through families. Continue reading >>

Type 1 Diabetes May Be Triggered By Bacteria

Type 1 Diabetes May Be Triggered By Bacteria

The development of type 1 diabetes may be driven by some forms of bacteria, suggests a new study by researchers from Cardiff University in the United Kingdom. Study co-author Dr. David Cole, of the School of Medicine at Cardiff, and colleagues reveal how bacteria activate "killer T cells" - white blood cells that attack healthy cells instead of protecting them - to destroy insulin-producing cells, causing type 1 diabetes. The researchers recently published their findings in The Journal of Clinical Investigation. Type 1 diabetes accounts for around 5 percent of all diabetes cases. Previously known as "juvenile diabetes," the condition is most commonly diagnosed in children and young adults. Type 1 diabetes arises when the body is unable to produce insulin - the hormone responsible for regulating blood glucose levels. Killer T cells have high 'cross-reactivity' While the precise cause of type 1 diabetes is unclear, past research has shown that the condition occurs when killer T cells destroy beta cells - the cells in the pancreas that produce insulin. In a previous study, Prof. Sewell and colleagues found high "cross-reactivity" among killer T cells, meaning that they can react to numerous triggers, including pathogens. "Killer T cells sense their environment using cell surface receptors that act like highly sensitive fingertips, scanning for germs," explains Dr. Cole. "However, sometimes these sensors recognize the wrong target, and the killer T cells attack our own tissue. We, and others, have shown this is what happens during type 1 diabetes when killer T cells target and destroy beta cells." Once these beta cells are destroyed, insulin is no longer produced, meaning patients will require lifelong insulin therapy in order to control blood glucose levels. Study sheds li Continue reading >>

Type 1 Diabetes

Type 1 Diabetes

By the dLife Editors Type 1 diabetes is an autoimmune disease that occurs when insulin-producing beta cells within the pancreas are gradually destroyed and eventually fail to produce insulin. Insulin is a hormone that helps the body’s cells use glucose for energy. Blood glucose (or blood sugar) is manufactured from the food we eat (primarily carbohydrates) and by the liver. If glucose can’t be absorbed by the cells, it builds up in the bloodstream instead. Untreated, the high blood sugar levels that result can be toxic to every system of the body, causing serious complications. Type 1 accounts for 5 to 10 percent of all diagnosed diabetes in the United States. Although type 1 diabetes develops most often in children and young adults, the disease can be diagnosed at any age. Of the 1.25 million Americans living with type 1 diabetes, about 200,000 are younger than twenty years old. Unlike type 2 diabetes, type 1 diabetes is more common in Caucasians than in those of Latino, African American, or other non-Caucasian backgrounds. The rate of type 1 diabetes has been increasing by roughly 2 to 5 percent each year, globally. Type 1 Diabetes Causes Researchers have identified several genes associated with the development of type 1 diabetes. While the causes are complex and not completely understood, the prevailing belief about the etiology, or cause, of type 1 diabetes is that while someone may have a genetic predisposition for developing the disease, it takes an environmental trigger or series of triggers (e.g., virus, toxin, drug) to set off the autoimmune process that destroys insulin-producing beta cells of the pancreas. Risk factors for developing type 1 diabetes may include: Family history A child with an immediate relative with type 1 diabetes has a risk of developin Continue reading >>

Environmental Triggers And Determinants Of Type 1 Diabetes

Environmental Triggers And Determinants Of Type 1 Diabetes

Type 1 diabetes is perceived as a chronic immune-mediated disease with a subclinical prodromal period characterized by selective loss of insulin-producing β-cells in the pancreatic islets in genetically susceptible subjects. A series of evidence supports a critical role of exogenous factors in the development of type 1 diabetes, such as 1) the fact that <10% of individuals with HLA-conferred diabetes susceptibility do progress to clinical disease, 2) a pairwise concordance of type 1 diabetes of <40% among monozygotic twins, 3) a more than 10-fold difference in the disease incidence among Caucasians living in Europe, 4) a several-fold increase in the incidence over the last 50 years, and 5) migration studies indicating that the disease incidence has increased in population groups who have moved from a low-incidence to a high-incidence region. This article discusses the trigger-booster hypothesis claiming that the diabetic disease process is triggered by an exogenous factor with definite seasonal variation and driven by one or several other environmental determinants. In addition, there are a series of modifying factors affecting the fate and pace of the process. Accordingly, progression to clinical type 1 diabetes typically requires the unfortunate combination of genetic disease susceptibility, a diabetogenic trigger, and a high exposure to a driving antigen. Clinical type 1 diabetes represents end-stage insulitis, and it has been estimated that at the time of diagnosis, only 10–20% of the insulin-producing β-cells are still functioning. Environmental factors have been implicated in the pathogenesis of type 1 diabetes both as triggers and potentiators of β-cell destruction (1–3), although the contribution of any individual exogenous factor has not yet been definit Continue reading >>

Type 1 Diabetes Causes

Type 1 Diabetes Causes

It isn’t entirely clear what triggers the development of type 1 diabetes. Researchers do know that genes play a role; there is an inherited susceptibility. However, something must set off the immune system, causing it to turn against itself and leading to the development of type 1 diabetes. Genes Play a Role in Type 1 Diabetes Some people cannot develop type 1 diabetes; that’s because they don’t have the genetic coding that researchers have linked to type 1 diabetes. Scientists have figured out that type 1 diabetes can develop in people who have a particular HLA complex. HLA stands for human leukocyte antigen, and antigens function is to trigger an immune response in the body. There are several HLA complexes that are associated with type 1 diabetes, and all of them are on chromosome 6. Different HLA complexes can lead to the development of other autoimmune disorders, such as rheumatoid arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, or juvenile rheumatoid arthritis. Like those conditions, type 1 diabetes has to be triggered by something—usually a viral infection. What Can Trigger Type 1 Diabetes Here’s the whole process of what happens with a viral infection: When a virus invades the body, the immune system starts to produce antibodies that fight the infection. T cells are in charge of making the antibodies, and then they also help in fighting the virus. However, if the virus has some of the same antigens as the beta cells—the cells that make insulin in the pancreas—then the T cells can actually turn against the beta cells. The T cell products (antibodies) can destroy the beta cells, and once all the beta cells in your body have been destroyed, you can’t produce enough insulin. It takes a long time (usually several years) for the T cells to destroy the majority of th Continue reading >>

Causes Of Type 1 Diabetes

Causes Of Type 1 Diabetes

Tweet Type 1 diabetes belongs to a group of conditions known as autoimmune diseases. Autoimmune diseases are when the body incorrectly identifies its own useful cells as an attacking organism. In type 1 diabetes, it is the beta cells in the pancreas which produce insulin that are wrongfully targeted and killed off by specific antibodies created by the body’s immune system. Researchers have been investigating what may cause the immune system to act in this way but to date researchers have theories but no concrete proof. Genetic predisposition Researchers have uncovered a number of genetic regions that are linked closely with type 1 diabetes. Each of these is denoted with a name such as IDDM1. At least 18 different regions have been discovered and some of the genetic areas include an increased susceptibility for other autoimmune diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis and coeliac disease. Whilst genetics offers clues as to why some people are more susceptible to type 1 diabetes, it doesn’t explain why some people with these genes develop type 1 diabetes and why others with these genes don’t. For example, having an identical twin with type 1 diabetes gives you a statistically higher risk but it doesn’t necessarily mean you will develop the condition. Genetics does not explain either why people will develop type 1 diabetes at different ages. Type 1 diabetes is most commonly diagnosed in 10 to 14 year olds but can be diagnosed at any age. Read more on diabetes and genetics Type 1 diabetes triggers Researchers have hypothesised that whilst some people are have a genetic predisposition to type 1 diabetes, there is likely to be an environmental factor that triggers the initial development of type 1 diabetes. Some of the possible triggers that have been suggested include: Continue reading >>

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